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Transactional analysis

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Transactional analysis

  1. 1. Presented by : Balbir Swami Roll No. 14103002 M.Com(F) Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 1
  2. 2.  It was introduced by Eric Berne.  Transactional analysis is a technique used to help people better understand their own and other’s behavior, especially in interpersonal relationships.  It is a good method for understanding interpersonal behavior.  It offers a model of personality and the dynamics of self and its relationship to others that makes possible a clear and meaningful discussion of behavior. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 2
  3. 3.  It refers to the method of examine which ego state gives rise to the transactional stimulus and transactional response in any transaction so that the behaviour of people can be forecasted. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 3
  4. 4. ‘’Transactional analysis is the technique to understand the human behaviour and study of feeling”. Paul Hersey ‘’Transactional analysis is a technique used to help people better understand their own and other’s behaviour , especially in interpersonal relationship’’. Stephen P. Robbins Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 4
  5. 5. 1. Knowledge Of Ego States 2. Based On Interpersonal Relations 3. Mental Exercise 4. Group Therapy 5. Development Of The Blueprint Of Mind 6. Guide For Managers 7. Concept Of Human Behaviour 8. Control Over Employee Behaviour Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 5
  6. 6. 1. Ego States 2. Transactions 3. Life Position 4. Strokes 5. Games 6. Script Analysis Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 6
  7. 7.  It refers to a pattern of behaviour that a person develops on the basis of experiences as he or she grows up. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 7
  8. 8.  Ego states present in all the person.  It influence the human behaviour.  Ego states are the recording in the mind of a person of all the experience of the past.  Ego states are the reflection of the past.  It can be positive or negative. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 8
  9. 9. 9 BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES (PERSONALITY STATES) THREE BASIC EGO STATES FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES P (PARENT) A (ADULT) C (CHILD) CRITICAL PARENT NURTURING PARENT ADULT ADAPTED CHILD NATURAL CHILD LECTURING, CRITICIZING, MANY “OUGHTS”, “SHOULD” &”DON’TS” CONSOLING, “TAKING CARE” OF OTHERS, SYMPATHY OBJECTIVE, RATIONAL, ORIENTED TOWARD PROBLEM SOLVING, DE- EMPHASIZE EMOTION MODIFIED BEHAVIOUR TO CONFORM TO ADULT EXPECTATIONS, MANUPULATIVE, SUMBISSIVE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE, NATULRALLY CURIOUS &CREATIVE, FUN LOVING, REBELLIOUS Transactional Analysis & Johari Window
  10. 10.  When two people meet, their exchange of thought is called transaction.  It has two parts I. Stimulus II. Response • Both the stimulus and response are linked with ego states. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 10
  11. 11. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 11
  12. 12.  1.Parents- Child Transactions P P A CC A 2.Adult-Adult Transactions P P A CC A 3.Child-Child Transactions P P A CC A 1. Parents- child vs. Adult –Adult Transactions P P A CC A ii) Child- Parents vs. Child Parents Transactions P P A CC A Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 12
  13. 13. 3. Ulterior Transactions 1) At social level 2) At psychological level Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 13 P P A CC A
  14. 14.  It refers to dominant way of relating to people for a lifetime. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 14
  15. 15. I am OK You are not OK I am OK You are OK I am not OK You are not OK I am OK You are OK AttitudetowardsSelf +ve -ve +ve-ve Attitude towards othersTransactional Analysis & Johari Window 15
  16. 16. 1.I Am Ok You Are Ok 2.I am ok You are not ok  Cooperative attitude  Problem solving  Resilient  Normative  Innovative  Word obsessive  Aggressiveness  Prescriptive  Patronising  complaining Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 16
  17. 17. 3.I am not Ok you are Ok 4.I am not ok you are not Ok  Dependent attitude  Ingratiating  Overwhelmed  Indifferent  intropunitive  Cynical  Sulky  Overindulgent  Traditional  Humorous Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 17
  18. 18.  Nobody wants to live in a vacuum or emptiness .  Everybody wants to live among the people in society and work according to his abilities.  It refers to any act of recognition for another’s presence. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 18
  19. 19. 1.Positive Strokes 2.Negative Strokes 3. Mixed Strokes Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 19
  20. 20.  Everybody behaves with other people in two ways.  1st the behaviour that is free from deceit, and 2nd the behaviour that deceitful.  The behaviour characterised by deceit is called Game.  It refers to office politics. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 20
  21. 21.  It refers to the techniques of uncovering the early decisions, made unconsciously, as to how life shall be lived. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 21
  22. 22. 1) Developing Suitable Managerial Styles 2) Developing Positive Attitude 3) Developing Harmonious Relations 4) Ensuring Organisational Development 5) Motivating Employees 6) Implementing Changes Easily Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 22
  23. 23.  The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group.  The Johari Window model can also be used to assess and improve a group's relationship with other groups. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 23
  24. 24.  The Johari Window model was devised by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955, while researching group dynamics at the University of California Los Angeles.  The model was first published in the Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development by UCLA Extension Office in 1955, and was later expanded by Joseph Luft. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 24
  25. 25.  Luft and Ingham called their Johari Window model 'Johari' after combining their first names, Joe and Harry. In early publications the word appears as 'JoHari'. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 25
  26. 26. Today the Johari Window model is especially relevant due to modern emphasis on, and influence of  soft skills  behavior  empathy  cooperation  inter-group development  interpersonal development. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 26
  27. 27.  The Johari Window soon became a widely used model for understanding and training self-awareness, personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, team development and inter-group relationships. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 27
  28. 28.  The Johari Window model is also referred to as a 'disclosure/feedback model of self awareness', and by some people an 'information processing tool'.  The Johari Window actually represents information - feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc. - within or about a person - in relation to their group, from four perspectives. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 28
  29. 29.  The four Johari Window perspectives are called 'regions' or 'areas' or 'quadrants'.  Each of these regions contains and represents the information - feelings, motivation, etc. – known about the person,  in terms of whether the information is known or unknown by the person, and whether the information is known or unknown by others in the group. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 29
  30. 30. 1. what is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others - open area, open self, free area, free self, or 'the arena‘. 2. what is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know - blind area, blind self, or 'blind spot‘. 3. what the person knows about him/herself that others do not know - hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or 'facade‘. 4. what is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others - unknown area or unknown self. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 30
  31. 31. OPEN (known to others and also self) BLIND (unknown to self but known to others) HIDDEN (known to self but unknown to others) UNKNOWN (unknown to self and unknown to others) Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 31
  32. 32.  Johari region 1 is also known as the 'area of free activity'. This is the information about the person –  behavior,  attitude,  feelings,  emotion,  knowledge,  experience,  skills,  views, etc.  known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others'). Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 32
  33. 33.  Johari region 2 is what is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 33
  34. 34.  what is known to ourselves but kept hidden from, and therefore unknown to others. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 34
  35. 35.  It contains information, feelings, talent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc., that are unknown to the person him/herself and unknown to others in the group. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 35
  36. 36. • an ability that is under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity, encouragement, confidence or training. • a natural ability or aptitude that a person doesn't realize they possess • a fear or aversion that a person does not know they have • an unknown illness • repressed or subconscious feelings • conditioned behavior or attitudes from childhood Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 36
  37. 37.  Some thing are perhaps better not to Communicated (like mental or health problem)  Some people may pass on the information they received further then we desire.  Some people may react negatively.  Using johari window is useless exercise if it is not linked to the activities that reinforce positive behavior or that correct negative behavior.  Some cultures have a very open and accepting approach to feedback and others do not.  Some people take personal feedback offensively. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 37
  38. 38. Transactional Analysis & Johari Window 38

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • The aim in any group should always be to develop the 'open area' for every person, because when we work in this area with others we are at our most effective and productive, and the group is at its most productive too. The open free area, or 'the arena', can be seen as the space where good communications and cooperation occur, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion, conflict and misunderstanding.
  • This blind area is not an effective or productive space for individuals or groups. This blind area could also be referred to as ignorance about oneself, or issues in which one is deluded. A blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately with holding from a person. We all know how difficult it is to work well when kept in the dark. No-one works well when subject to 'mushroom management'. People who are 'thick-skinned' tend to have a large 'blind area'.
  • This hidden or avoided self represents information, feelings, etc., anything that a person knows about him/self, but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others. The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason. It's natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden, indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, and so can and should remain hidden. However, typically, a lot of hidden information is not very personal, it is work- or performance-related, and so is better positioned in the open area
  • These unknown issues take a variety of forms: they can be feelings, behaviours, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive and useful, or they can be deeper aspects of a person's personality, influencing his/her behavior to various degrees. Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people, and people who lack experience or self-belief.

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