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11 16 Apples

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11 16 Apples

  1. 1. Pomology Plant: Apple Tree Term: Pomes
  2. 2. Apple tree: Malus domestica <ul><li>Deciduous Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Requires full light </li></ul><ul><li>Mature size is 10 – 40 ft, but many dwarf and columnar varieties are available </li></ul><ul><li>Grows in any slightly acidic, well-drained soil </li></ul><ul><li>USDA zones: 4 – 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Blooms in Mid-spring, fruit production mid-summer to mid fall depending on variety </li></ul><ul><li>Primary usage: fruit production </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pome: <ul><li>A fleshy fruit, such as an apple, pear, or quince, having several seed chambers and an outer fleshy part largely derived from the hypanthium </li></ul>
  4. 4. Varieties (Cultivars) <ul><li>How many can you think of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red delicious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden delicious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuji </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Most common Virginia Apples <ul><li>McIntosh, Empire, Rome, </li></ul><ul><li>Red Delicious, Cortland, Gala, </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Delicious, Paula Red, Crispin, </li></ul><ul><li>Jonagold Jonamac, Jonathan </li></ul><ul><li>Winesap, Lodi, Fuji, </li></ul><ul><li>Arkansas Black York, Redfree, </li></ul><ul><li>Ginger Gold Early Crisp </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forms <ul><li>Dwarf </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-dwarf </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Full Size </li></ul><ul><li>Espalier </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rootstock 2-3 Good 4 – 8 35% Mark or M9 2-4 Poor 8-12 50 M26 3-4 Fair 10-14 70 M7a 3-4 Excellent 12-16 80 MM.106 4-6 Excellent 14-18 85 MM.111 6 - 10 Excellent 15-18 100 Seedling Years to production Anchorage Spacing Tree size % Rootstock
  8. 8. Central Leader Form
  9. 9. Open form <ul><li>Pruned to </li></ul>
  10. 10. Growing Apples <ul><li>Apple blossoms form in Spring </li></ul><ul><li>Cross pollinated by bees. </li></ul><ul><li>The bee drops pollen from the stamens of one blossom onto the pistils of another blossom. </li></ul><ul><li>The pollen travels from the sticky tips of the pistils - called the stigma - down a long tube known as the style and enters the ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>Ovules within the ovary become apple seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>The petals from the blossoms fall off & the ovary starts growing. </li></ul><ul><li>The ovary is surrounded by a thin protective layer. This layer eventually becomes the apple core. </li></ul><ul><li>The outer layer surrounding the ovary becomes the exocarp, or the eating part of the apple. </li></ul><ul><li>The calyx, stamens, and pistils become the dry, hairy part at the bottom of the apple. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Botany
  12. 12. Flower Parts
  13. 13. Apple Growers Calendar <ul><li>January </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order trees from nurseries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin pruning apple trees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>February </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue pruning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply fertilizer 4 to 6 weeks before bloom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish pruning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant new trees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply dormant oil spray, green tip, prepink, and pink sprays for insects and diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures to control weeds should begin early in the season. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install rodent guards around trunk of newly planted trees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin fruit with chemicals or by hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply petal fall and first cover spray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove fireblight strikes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage deer from eating young shoots by using commercially available repellents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply second and third cover sprays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue weed control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigate if soil is dry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest early summer varieties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply forth & fifth cover sprays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigate when soil is dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest summer varieties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue weed control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply sixth & seventh cover spray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigate when soil is dry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest early fall varieties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take soil samples to determine next year's fertilizer needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>October </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest late varieties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove fruit as they fall to ground. Remove and dispose of decaying, hanging fruit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check the ground around trees for mouse activity and take control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>November </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply lime if soil tests indicate a need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover trunks and lower branches of young trees with white latex paint to reduce winter injury. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Update your record book for application dates for fertilizer and pesticides. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pruning <ul><li>Apple trees are normally pruned as central leader trees </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of pruning cuts <ul><li>Heading: </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heading cuts <ul><li>Cut just above a bud </li></ul><ul><li>Get new growth at the tips </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thinning cuts <ul><li>Cut whole branches to the stem or trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Get more vigorous growth on the remaining branches </li></ul>
  18. 18. Where to cut
  19. 19. How to cut large branches