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Instruments for tooth
a. hand cutting
-special form of
Used as a handle , is straight without
variations in size.
It may be serrated to increase friction for
It connects the handle to the blade.
It is here where any angulation in the
instrument can be given.
It is the functional end of the
instrument.It is connected to the handle
by the shank.
The blade ends in cutting edge.
CUTTING EDGE .
It is the working part of the
instrument . It is usually in
the form of a bevel with
It is defined as the angle
between the long axis of
the blade and long axis of
It is defined as angle
between the margin of the
cutting edge and the long
axis of the shaft.
G. V Black described dental instruments as
The order denotes the purpose of the
instrument ,eg excavator , scaler .
The suborder denotes the position or manner of
use of the instrument ,e.g. push or pull.
The class describes the form of the blade ,e.g.
The subclass denotes the angle or shape of the
shank.e.g straight- no angle
The width of the blade in
tenths of millimeters.
The primary cutting edge
angle formed between cutting
edge and central axis of shaft.
The length of the blade in
The blade angle in centigrade.
TYPES OF MIRROR SURFACES
1 a. front surface reflecting mirror
b. rear surface reflecting mirror
2. a. plane or flat surface
b. concave surface
3. a. one sided
b. two sided
Diagnostic aid in evaluating condition of teeth especially
in pits and fissures
Shephered’s crrok or curved explorer
They have angled tip and available in different sizes.
They are used to place and remove cotton rolls and
other small materials.
They are used for measuring pocket depth.
1. Direct cutting and lateral
3. Right and left
4. Single bevelled
5. Bibevelled instrument.
6. Triple bevelled
8. Single ended and
A direct cutting instrument :
The force applied in the same plane as that of
the blade and handle ; it is called single planed
Have 2 or more curves or angles in their shanks
,and in the same plane as the handle.
Used in direct or lateral cutting.
1.DIRECT CUTTING AND LATERAL
Lateral cutting instruments:
The force applied at a right angle to the
plane of blade and handle.
Are called double planed instruments
Have an angle or curve in a plane at a right
angle to that of handle.
Used in lateral cutting.
Have one or more angles
in shank placing the
working point within 3mm
from the axis of handle.
This principle of design is
A short blade and small
blade angle requires only
bi angle- contrangling .
While longer blade and greater
blade angles requires triple angle
Direct instruments are made either right or
left by placing a bevel on one side of the
If the the cutting edge down and pointing
away from the operator and the bevel is
on the right side ,it will be’ right’
If the bevel is on the left ,it will be a left
These are all single planed instruments.
3 .RIGHT AND LEFT INSTRUMENTS.
SINGLE ENDED AND DOUBLE ENDED
Double ended instruments incorporating the right and
left or the mesial and distal form of the instrument in
the same handle.
Single ended instrument have only one specific
THESE ARE DESIGNED FOR EXCAVATION REMOVAL OF CARIOUS DENTIN AND FOR THE
SHAPING OF THE INTERNAL PARTS OF CAVITIES.
B.Triple angle spoon
Used for cutting mesial and distal walls of
premolars and molars.
These are disc like .
Have a blade which is circular in shape.
Cutting edge extending around the periphery except where it is
joined to the shank.
It is used for the same purpose and in the same manner as a spoon
It is double –planed instrument right or left cutting movements.
It resembles a claw
,hence the name
It is essentially a spoon
excavator except the
blade comes to a point.
It is double –planed
instrument with lateral
Used in carving
THESE ARE INTENDED FOR CUTTING ENAMEL. IT USUALLY BEVELLED ON ONE SIDE .
MONO ANGLE CHISELS.
BI ANGLE CHISELS.
TRIPLE ANGLE CHISELS.
Have a straight blade in line
with the handle and shank.
The cutting edge is on one side
only, with the bevel of the hand
running at a right angle to the
They are single planed
with 5 possible cutting
The shank has one or more angles
The blade is in same plane ,parallel
with the shaft.
Cutting edge is in the form of a
bevel parallel to the shaft; either
paired or may be bibevelled.
These are single planed
instruments with vertical, push,
pull, and either right or left lateral
Smaller size for anterior teeth,
and larger size for posterior teeth
SPECIAL FORMS OF CHISELS
These designed to perform specific functions.
GINGIVAL MARGIN TRIMMERS.
HATCHETS OR OFFSET HATCHETS.
GINGIVAL MARGINAL TRIMMERS.
Similar to spoon excavators and
the cutting edge similar to single
2 types are;
1. Distal gingival margin
2. Mesial gingival margin
They are used for creating the
proper bevel of the gingival
floors and also for forming
sharp angles in internal parts
of cavity preparations.
They are also used in pull and
Several types of spatulas are available in the market
differing in shape and size.
On the basis of size, cement spatula can be classified
PLASTIC FILLING INSTRUMENT
These instruments have a small metal ball at the working
end. They are used to mix, carry and place cements.
It is used to deliver the restoration to the tooth
preparation and for proper condensation
To pack amalgam material in to the tooth preparation,
amalgam carriers are used.
They carry the freshly prepared restorative material in to
They are used to contour the restoration.
Sharp cutting edges present in carvers are used to
sharpen and form tooth anatomy from a restoration.
For final condensation of amalgam
Initial shaping of occlusal anatomy of amalgam
COMPOSITE RESIN INSTRUMENT
A wide range of double ended instruments are used
to transport and place resins
They are made up of plastic or titanium coating
ROTARY CUTTING INSTRUMENTS Those instruments which rotate on an axis to do the work
of abrading and cutting on tooth structure.
The first rotary instruments were drill or bur heads that
were twisted with the fingers for crude cutting of the tooth
TYPES OF HAND PIECE
Contra-angle hand piece
Head of handpiece is first angled away from
and then back towards the long axis of the
a.Airoter contraangle handpiece-it gets power from
the compressed air supplied by the compressor. It
has high speed and low torque.
In straight handpiece long axis of the bur lies in
same plane as long axis of handpiece.
It is a rotary cutting instrument which has bladed
They are used to remove tooth structure either by
chipping or grinding.
CLASSIFICATION OF BURS
According to mode of
According to their
According to their
According to the length
of their head
According to their use
According to their
inverted cone bur
end cutting bur
It is the projection on the bur head which forms a
cutting edge.it has two surfaces
rake face-surface of bur lade on the leading edge
clearance face-surface of bur blade on the trailing
RAKE ANGLE -angle between rake face and radial
Positive rake angle-when rake face trails the
Negative rake angle-when rake face is ahead of
Zero rake angle-when rake face and radial line
coincide each other.
It is the line connecting center of the bur and the
It is the plane surface immediately following the
This is the angle between the clearance face and the
it is the angle between the rake face and the
it is a direct measurement of symmetry of the bur
it measures the accuracy with which all the tip of
blades pass through a single point when bur is moving.
1. Sturdevants art and science of operative
3. Nisha Garg