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DEMOCRATIC: ENTIRE GROUP SHARES IN DECISION MAKING. The Democrat. group focused; got group members involved in making suggestions, discussing plans; leader behaved as ordinary club member. The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.The democratic leader can be seen in two lights:A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership. He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing from a pool of his team members' strong points in order to obtain the best performance from his team. He motivates his team by empowering them to direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign.However, the democrat can also be seen as being so unsure of himself and his relationship with his sub-ordinates that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision. Clearly, this type of "leader" is not really leading at all.
LAISSEZ-FAIRE: LEADER EXERTS LITTLE INFLUENCE OR CONTROL. The Laissez-Faire ManagerThe Laissez-Faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little direction or motivation.Again, there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the past. Once a leader has established that his team is confident, capable and motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By handing over ownership, a leader can empower his group to achieve their goals. more concerned about having a good time than task at hand; left the group to its own devices and intervened only minimally.To ensure that any effects were not due to the particular confederate (i.e., the person/ personality factors), each ‘leader’ participated in each leadership style while being swapped from group to group While each group only experienced one leadership style, they had different leaders administer this style – controlled for personality diff.
To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic.
This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities.Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.As a teacher, you can help your students when they are in the “storming” stage, by focusing their attention on the questions above. The students may want to answer the first question both in general terms and more specifically, in conjunction with their project goals. See The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict .Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict withSmooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked)Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide
During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examplesDon’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it.Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issueDon’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child.Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselvesTalk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used.Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts.Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver. Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples.Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said.Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback.
During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment.To summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance.Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals. A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or researchClearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
Leadership & Team Building
Leadership And Team Building • By Sherwin Rodrigues
Contents• What is Leadership? – Factors – Types of Styles – Skills• Team Building – Stages – Characteristics• Conclusion
What is Leadership?“The action of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this.” (Oxford dictionary)“The process of influencing the activities of anorganized group in its efforts toward goal settingand goal achievement” (Stogdill, 1950, p. 3)
Before We Begin….• Which famous leaders can you think of?
The Worlds Most Admired Leaders (2005)1. Bill Gates (Microsoft)2. Steve Jobs (Apple)3. Warren Buffett (Berkshire Hathaway)4. Michael Dell (Dell)5. Richard Branson (Virgin Group)6. John Browne (BP)7. Carlos Ghosn (Nissan)8. N.R.Narayana Murthy (Infosys)9. Jeffrey Immelt (GE)10. Rupert Murdoch (News Corporation) ( According to Burson-Marsteller & Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) study)
Factors In Leadership1. Follower – Must know his followers2. Leader – Know yourself3. Communication – Two-way4. Situation – Adapt to the situation
Types of Leadership “Style”• Autocratic: – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else
Types of Leadership “Style”• Democratic: – Encourages decision making from different perspectives
Types of Leadership “Style”• Laissez-Faire: – The leadership responsibilities are shared by all
What skills do Leaders need? Drive Emotional Intelligence Motivation Leadership Skills Knowledge Self-Confidence Intelligence
The Five P’s of Leadership Pay attention to what’s important Praise what you want to continue Punish what you want to stop Pay for the results you want Promote those people who deliver those results
Team BuildingUnited we stand, Divided we fall...
TEAM BUILDING A "team" is defined as a group of people whocollaborate or work together toward a common goal. T - Together E - Empowering each other to A - Achieve M - More
Why Teams?several people’s skills and knowledge together, in-turn gives better resultSustain the enthusiasm and lend support needed to complete the task.
Stages in Team Building Forming Storming Norming Performing
Stage 1: FORMING– Define team– Determine individual roles– Develop trust and communication– Develop norms– Define problem and strategy– Identify information needed
Stage 2: STORMING—Separate problem issues from people issues—Be soft on people, hard on problem—Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions—Clarify the core issues—Listen carefully to each person’s point of view
Stage 3: NORMING—Competitive relationships become more cooperative.—Willingness to confront issues and solve problems.—Sense of team spirit.—Constructive Feedback
Stage 4: PERFORMING—Gained insight into personal and team processes—Better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses—The ability to resolve differences
Characteristics of Good Team Leader —Build Trust —Develops Common Commitment —Train members for empowerment —Provide full information to team —Know all team members —Develop team spirit —Encourage members to excel —Create an enthusiastic environment —Shares success with members
A fully functioning team can… — Work together successfully — Solve problems and reach decisions in a way that incorporates individual input — Reach decisions through consensus — Can adapt to change — Achieve or exceed desired results
Conclusion• Leadership development is vital because organizations take on the personality of their leaders.Leadership development maximizes productivity.• Teamwork is essential for the proper functioning and successful development of any company or organization