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Indoor Tracking System

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Indoor Tracking System. Detailed information and comparision between two efficient systems, RFID based and WIFI based. Made it referring two institutional research papers. ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES! Never implemented! :P

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Indoor Tracking System

  1. 1.  Title  Content  Introduction  Paper I  Paper II  Comparison  Conclusion  References
  2. 2. •The increasing demand for location based services inside buildings has made indoor positioning a significant research topic. •The applications of indoor positioning are many, for instance, indoor navigation for people or robots, inventory tracking, locating patients in a hospital, guiding blind people, tracking small children or elderly individuals, location based advertising, ambient intelligence etc. •There are many different kinds of positioning technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular phone tracking system, Wi‐Fi positioning system and RFID Positioning System . •Although the Global Positioning System is the most popular outdoor positioning system, its signals are easily blocked by most construction materials making it useless for indoor positioning. •The most appropriate indoor technology for positioning and tracking is either RFID or WIFI based system.
  3. 3. • Radio frequency identification (RFID) is the technology that put an RFID tag on objects or people, so that they can be identified, tracked, and managed automatically. With its wide application in the automobile assembly industry, warehouse management and the supply chain network, RFID has been recognized as the next promising technology in serving the positioning purpose. Existing positioning technologies such as GPS are not available indoors as the terminal cannot get the signal from satellites. Results of experiment show that readability of the passive RFID positioning system is satisfactory, and it is a more cost effective solution when compared with other positioning technologies.
  4. 4.  Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) is an automatic identification method using radio waves.  It is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio- frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object or person.
  5. 5.  Tags or transponders  Readers or transceivers  Back-end databases
  6. 6. RFID tags can be classified in two different ways.  Passive • No on-board power source • Uses the power emitted from the reader to energize itself • Range: 10-12 feet  Active  Has on-board power source  No need for reader's emitted power for data transmission.  Range: 100 feet
  7. 7. • A radio device called a tag is attached to the object that needs to be identified. • When this tagged object is presented in front of a suitable RFID reader, the tag transmits this data to the reader (via the reader antenna). • The reader then reads the data and has the capability to forward it over suitable communication channels. • This application can then use this unique data to identify the object presented to the reader. Reader 01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C Tag Database Network Data Processing
  8. 8. •The RFID signals (i.e. RSSI) of an object attached with a passive tag is automatically detected and recorded in the database for location detection. •. The selected area for carrying out the experiments would be divided equally into cells formed by a grid. •. Four RFID readers will be installed at each corner of the selected area Look Up Table (LUT)
  9. 9. • When an object is placed inside one of the cells within the selected experimental area, the RFID Positioning System will notify the RFID readers and then record the RSSI of the object picked up by the four readers. • From the LUT, each cell has a fixed set of four average values of RSSI. The system will then calculate the Euclidean distance of that object to the readers. • The cell that has the smallest Euclidean distance would mean that it is nearest to the current position of the detected object. Tag readability performance
  10. 10. • Tracking of goods. • Tracking of persons and animals. • Toll collection and contactless payment. • Tracking Books in Libraries. • Machine readable travel documents. • Passport & Airport baggage tracking logistics. • Car keys, wireless entry and ignition • Contactless. An RFID tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the reader. • Writable data. The data of a read-write (RW) RFID tag can be rewritten a large number of times. • Absence of line of sight. A line of sight is generally not required for an RFID reader to read an RFID tag. • Variety of read ranges. • Wide data-capacity range. • Support for multiple tag reads. • Perform smart tasks.
  11. 11. • The increasing demand for location based services inside buildings has made indoor positioning a significant research topic. • This study deals with indoor positioning using the Wireless Ethernet IEEE 802.11 (Wireless Fidelity, Wi-Fi) standard that has a distinct advantage of low cost over other indoor wireless technologies. • The aim of this study is to examine several aspects of location fingerprinting based indoor positioning that affect positioning accuracy. Overall, the positioning accuracy achieved in the performed experiments is 2.0 to 2.5 meters.
  12. 12. • “Wireless Fidelity” • Wi-Fi is a technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data or connect to the internet wirelessly using microwaves in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. • The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards"
  13. 13. Three Main Components: 1. Tags, or transponders, affixed to objects and carry identifying data. 2. Readers, or transceivers(Access Points), read/recieves and interface with user-end databases(Usually WIFI routers) 3. User-end databases, correlate data stored on tags with physical objects i.e. a host and system software.
  14. 14. Location based positioning systems usually work in two phases: 1) Calibration Phase (Offline Phase) 2) Positioning Phase (Online Phase)
  15. 15. • In the calibration phase, a mobile device is used to measure RSS values (in dBm) from several APs at the chosen calibration points in the area of interest. An average of several samples recorded per location is stored. • In the positioning phase, a mobile device measures the RSS values in an unknown location and applies a location estimation algorithm to estimate its current location using the previously created radio map • Uses Weighted k-Nearest Neighbours (WKNN) algorithm.
  16. 16. • Tracking of goods. • Tracking of persons and animals. • Access the Internet. • Wireless data transfer . • Large area connectivity. • Remote access to devices • Contactless: An Wi-Fi tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the AP/reader. • Cost Effective: Wi-Fi allows cost effective LAN deployment indoor as well as outdoor. • Absence of line of sight. A line of sight is generally not required • Better Security: Wi-Fi Protected Access encryption (WPA2) • Variable range: 2.4 GHz - 5 GHz bandwidth • Support for multiple tag reads. • Easy availability: Easily available for most new electronic devices such as laptops, mobile phones etc
  17. 17. •Data transfer rate is 1000bytes/s •Data transfer rate is 317,300 bytes/second
  18. 18. •The RFID Technology and WI-FI Technology both are highly efficient and they are still progressive developments •Both RFID and WIFI are accurate and feasible but RFID has better features and benefits over WIFI and thus RFID based indoor tracking system is preferred
  19. 19. • M. Brunato and R. Battiti, Statistical learning theory for location fingerprinting in wireless LANs. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 47(6), Elsevier, 2005 • Chang N., Rashidzadeh, R., Ahmadi, M., (2010). Robust indoor positioning using differential wi‐fi access points, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics,56(3), 1860‐1867, 2010 Daito, M. and Tanida, N., (2008). • Bekkali, H. Sanson, M. Matsumoto, (2007).RFID indoor positioning based on probabilistic RFID map and kalman filtering, In: Proceedings of the WiMOB, 2007. • O. M. Badawy and M. Hasan, Decision tree approach to estimate user location in WLAN based on location fingerprinting. In: Proceedings of 24th National Radio Science Conference, Ain Shams Univ., Egypt, 2007, pp. 1-10.