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  2. 2. Chlorophyceae
  3. 3. General Characteristics  Plant body may be unicellular, colonial or filamentous, or multicellular  They are usually green due to the dominance of chlorophyll A and B.  The chloroplast may be discoid, cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in different species.  Makes up the composition of many seaweeds.
  4. 4.  Most of the members have one or more storage bodies called pyrenoids that are localised around the chloroplast and is composed of starch.  Cell wall is made of cellulose  Asexual reproduction is by zoospores. They are flagellates produced from the parent cells by mitosis.  Sexual is by isogamus, anisogamus or oogamus.
  5. 5. ™Ecological Uses™  Acts as the producer in underwater and certain remote island ecosystems  Most congregations of seaweed also serve as a habitat for various animals especially those with adaptations like mimicry and camouflage.
  6. 6. Commercial Uses  Seaweed is a popular ingredient eastern cuisine and as fodder for livestock.  Seaweed is capable of releasing its stored nutrients into the soil as fertilizer  Certain species contain antioxidant properties and are used to create medicine for skin treatment and other cosmetics
  7. 7. Cryptophyceae LEGASPINA
  8. 8. General Characteristics  Also known as cryptomonads or cryptomonas.  They are found equally in marine and fresh water sometimes in brackish water.  They appear either blue- green or red depending upon which phycobiliprotein their thylakoid contains; phycocyanin (blue green) or phycoerythrin (red).  Most species are highly toxic.
  9. 9. General Characteristics (cont.)  Single cells characterized by an asymmetric cell shape and two flagella.  There are usually one or two plastids.  They have a highly reduced second nucleus, or nucleomorph, in the periplastidal space between the two outer and the two inner plastid membranes.  Presence of pyrenoids composed of starch as reserve food materials.  The cell contains the pigments chlorophyll A, chlorophyll C and phycobiliprotein are located within the lumen of thylakoids.
  10. 10. Commercial Uses In Lake Mälaren, just west of Stockholm, Sweden, members cryptomonads are being used to treat wastewater and they exhibit a high tolerance for ammonium and thus is capable of storing large amounts of nitrogen from the biogas produced from decaying organic matter that falls into the lake.
  11. 11. Commercial Uses (cont.) The same algae in Lake Mälaren is then cultivated and harvested to be processed into biomass rich in nitrogen.
  12. 12. Phaeophyceae
  13. 13. General Characteristics  Commonly known as giant kelp.  There are about 265 genera, and 1500-2000 species  Mostly marine, with unicellular or multicellular body.  Generally found in a costal, temperate, marine environment. It lives well in environments where the water is less than 72 degrees F and the water is less than 40m.  Cells are eukaryotic, with special type of excretory granules in vesicles.  Chief pigments are chlorophyll a and c, beta carotene, lutein, fucoxanthin, dioanthin and violaxanthin.
  14. 14. General Characteristics (cont.)  Reserve food includes laminarin, mannitol and oils.  Sexual reproduction is isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.  Zoospore formation is common.  Male gametes are flagellate.  Flagella are heterokont.  Life cycle is haplobiotic or diplobiotic, with alternation of generations.
  15. 15. Commercial Uses  It is used for vitamins, acetone, iodine, paints, toothpaste, dental impression compound, ice cream, canned food, cosmetics, shampoo, and many processed foods.  Is a source of food for both humans and animals alike (marine and terrestrial).
  16. 16. Ecological Uses  Ecologically, acts as a producer in marine ecosystems and most underwater ecosystems.  Serves as a viable habitat for numerous species of marine invertebrates and fish.
  17. 17. Rhodophyceae
  18. 18. General Characteristics  Commonly known as red algae.  One of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.  Contains over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing.  Fresh water and marine, with multicellular and filmentous to parenchymatous body.  Generally found in marine environments ranging from deep depths to sandy shores. Only about 5% of them are freshwater species.  Cells are eukaryotic.
  19. 19. General Characteristics (cont.)  Main pigments are chlorophyll a and d, beta carotene, lutein, fucoxanthin, myxoxanthin and  violaxanthin.  Reserve food includes floridean starch and polymers of galactansulphate  Sexual reproduction is absent. and advanced type of oogamy.  Zoospore formation is absent.
  20. 20. Commercial Uses  Used for medicinal purposes due to their high content in fiber, proteins, and other essential nutrients.  Part of the human diet especially in the Asian regions. Fed on by marine and terrestrial animals as well.  Can serve as crop fertilizer.
  21. 21. Ecological Uses  Is a primary producer in most marine and freshwater ecosystems.  Acts as a habitat for aquatic organisms.
  22. 22. Xanthophyceae
  23. 23. General Characteristics • Mostly fresh water with unicellular to siphonous body. • Cells are eukaryotic with silica and pectin in the cell wall • Chief pigments includes chlorophyll a and e, beta carotene, neoxanthin and violaxanthin. • Sexual reproduction is isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous • Zoosphore formation is common • Male gametes are flagellate • Flagella are heterokront (unequal) • Life cycle is mostly haplontic
  24. 24. 4 orders of Xanthophyceae: • Heterochloridales • Heterococcidales • Heterotrichales • Heterosiphonales
  25. 25. Dinophyceae
  26. 26. General Characteristics • Dinozoa or Pyrrophytes • 90% are marine plankton • ½ photosynthetic • Unicellular or in aggregations • Symbiotic partners to sponges, corals, jellyfish and flatworms • Primarily asexual, and reproduced by mitosis, only a few species have been found to reproduce sexually
  27. 27. General Characteristics (cont.)• Cell covering called Amphiesma that often forms plates • Made up mainly of cellulose • Grouped into two: • Armored/ thecate • Unarmored/ athecate • Biflagellate • Longitudinal and transverse flagellum • Severe thecal plates
  28. 28. General Characteristics (cont.)• Some species of dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax, Pyrodinium, Pyrocystis, Noctiluca) are luminescent • They emit flashes of light in response to mechanical disturbance of the water. The light is produced by an enzymatic reaction
  29. 29. Uses/Significa nce • Dinoflagellates are perhaps best known as cause of harmful algal blooms • About 75-80% of toxic phytoplankton species are dinoflagellates and they cause “red tides” that often kill fish and/or shellfish either directly, because of toxin production, or because of effects caused by large numbers of cells that clog animal gills, deplete oxygen, etc. • Dinoflagellate toxins are among the most potent biotoxins known. • They are second only to diatoms as marine primary producers • As phagotrophic organisms they are also important components of the microbial loop in the oceans and help channel significant amounts of energy into planktonic food webs
  30. 30. Bacillariophyce ae (diatoms)
  31. 31. General Characteristics  a type of mainly aquatic, photosynthetic algae  they can live as unicellular organisms, colonial, or filamentous  they have a solid shells made of silica  they are found in marine and freshwater ecosystems as well as brackish water  they can also be found in terrestrial environments in the soil where moisture is at least periodic  in water, diatoms live attached to rocks, plants, or be free floating but they are best known for being part of the drifting planktonic mass
  32. 32. General Characteristics (cont.) they contain chloroplasts that have been found to have numerous photosynthetic pigments giving the chloroplasts a typically golden brown color  photosynthetic pigments include chlorophylls a and c (green), as well as B-carotene (yellow), fucoxanthin (brown), and small amounts of diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and other carotenoids  Reproduction of diatoms can be either sexual or asexual (cellular division)  All diatom skeletons are made of silica and consist of two parts or frustules that fit inside each other like a petri dish: the epitheca and the hypotheca
  33. 33. General Characteristics (cont.) The shape of the frustule is the defining feature that is used to break the diatoms into two distinct classes: the centric or Centrobacillariophyceae and the pennate or Pennatibacillariophyceae
  34. 34. Uses/Significa nce  Diatoms are estimated to be responsible for 20% to 25% of all the organic carbon fixation, are major sources of atmospheric oxygen, and are a major food source for aquatic microorganisms and insect larva  Been called "grass of the sea" because they are major contributors to primary productivity in the oceans and create a beginning to the food chain  they can be used for present water quality but also used to determine former water quality and trends over the years
  35. 35. Uses/Significa nce  Billions of years of diatom frustules being naturally fossilized has created huge deposits of these shells or diatomaceous earth  these deposits are mined to be used as filtering aids, abrasives, cleansers, and paints; other deposits hold pockets of oil
  36. 36. Raphidophycea e
  37. 37. General Characteristics  unicellular flagellate inhabiting widely in freshwater and marine  the cells are naked with numerous chloroplasts, and two subequal heterodynamic flagella emerge from the anterior part of the cell  the anterior flagellum is directed forward, has a tubular mastigoneme, and is responsible for the movement of the cell, whereas the trailing flagellum is smooth
  38. 38. General Characteristics (cont.) the freshwater species contain diadinoxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucheriaxanthin, and the majority of marine species contain fucoxanthin and violaxanthin, with light-green and yellowish-brown chloroplast colors, respectively  this algae usually possess ejectile organelles (e.g. mucocysts, "trichocysts")  most species are planktonic
  39. 39. Significance  Raphidophyte species can form massive blooms and are sometimes ichthyotoxic, causing large economic impacts worldwide
  40. 40. Eugleniae
  41. 41. General Characteristics • A single-celled freshwater organism, which is characterized by the presence of a chlorophyll, a reddish eyespot , a single long anterior flagellum and a second rudimentary flagellum • Euglena are usually found to live in fresh water, streams, and in some fresh water ponds. • They are usually found in places where there is a high level of chlorophyll. • Euglena have adapted to become mixotrophs , this means that they are both heterotrophic and autotrophic.
  42. 42. General Characteristics (cont.) They are able to get food two different ways, by eating other organisms and making their own nutrients.  The Euglena is a oval like shaped protist that consists of many organelles.
  43. 43. Uses/Significa nce • The main function of this protist is to be a part of the food chain in aquatic environments. • Euglena is a very effective organism when it comes to reducing carbon dioxide levels and it does so more effectively than many plants. • Another benefit of Euglena is that it can tell us if the water is polluted. It does this because it thrives where green algae is prominent. Green algae is present when there is a lot of nitrogen in the water which comes from waste.
  44. 44. Chrysophyceae
  45. 45. General Characteristics Small flagellates that are a yellowish brown color. They have two flagella that are a different size and shape that originate in the anterior side. The larger one has two rows of stiff mastigonemes and the shorter only has a few hairy extensions. Chrysophyceae is found as a unicellular organism and as a multicellular organism though the unicellular is more common. It can also be found singly or in a colony. Like diatoms it can form silica, but it is stored in a cyst within the cell instead of the cell wall.
  46. 46. General Characteristics (cont.) There are several different kinds of cells walls within Chrysophyceae. They vary from the Ochromonas that is capable of amoeboid movement, the cells may be naked and imbeded in mucilage, such as Chrysosaccus, or coccoid and surrounded by a cell wall, as in Chrysosphaera. They can even filamentous like Phaeoplaca.  Chrysophyceae are somewhat photosythetic, but it can also digest it's own food. The pigmentation is cause by fucoxanthin and the chlorophylls. This is in the certain kinds that are amoeboid in nature. There is a certain species of Chrysophyceae in the polar water that is one of the most photosynthetic eukaryotes in the cold ocean regions.
  47. 47. General Characteristics (cont.) Chyrsophyceae is both sexual and asexual. Sexually it reproduces through zygotic meiosis, which may be isogamous, oogametic or anisogmaous. The zygote produces forms a silica cyst before it develops. When it reproduces asexually, which is the most common form of reproduction, it goes through binary fission and creates a cyst or statospore.
  48. 48. Uses/Significa nce Chryosphyceae are generally a freshwater protists, but can also be found in moist soil and mosses. They are generally found in colder waters, but will grow well at higher temperatures. They also prefer the water to have a slightly acidic pH. Some are found in the ocean and are significant members of the nanoplankton. They can survive inactive periods by creating a endocysts that has a single cell. They can also switch to heterotrophic mode from autotrophic mode if there is a food scarcity. To do this they will develope pseudopods to catch small protists.
  49. 49. Myxophyceae
  50. 50. General Characteristics  Myxophyceae also known as cyanophyceae; the algae of this family commonly known as blue green algae.  The cell wall is made up cellulose and pectic compound surrounded by gelatinous sheath.  The blue green colour is due to the presence of blue green pigment called phycocyanin.  Other pigments are phycoerythrin, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, xanthophyll and carotenoids.  Reserve food materials are oil drops and proteineous body called cyanophycean granules.
  51. 51. General Characteristics (cont.) Presence of incipient nucleus present at the central region.  Some of the members show a phenomenon called as complementary chromatic adaptation or Gaidukov phenomenon.  Vegetative reproduction occurs by cell division and hormogonium formation.  Sexual reproduction is completely absent.  Some of the members grow in symbiotic association.
  52. 52. General Characteristics (cont.) STRUCTURE
  53. 53. Uses/Significa nce  Important providers of nitrogen fertilizer in the cultivation of rice and beans.  Contribution of the cyanobacteria is the origin of plants. The chloroplast with which plants make food for themselves is actually a cyanobacterium living within the plant's cells.  Inhibits cancer cell growth