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Understanding FOSS
Free & Open Source Software
What is FOSS?
Free Software
Free - as in ‘freedom’, not ‘free beer’
Freedom to run the program, for any purpose
Freedom to study how the...
Three pillars of foss
Open Source Software

Open Standards

GCC, Linux Kernel

WWW

Python, Java, PHP

PCI

Drupal, Wordpr...
Father of Free Software Foundation
Richard Matthew Stallman
popularly known as RMS

He launched the GNU project in
1983.
T...
Popular FOSS
Online Encyclopedia

Wikipedia

Word Processing

LibreOffice, Open Office

Network Protocol Analyzer

WireSha...
Advantages of FOSS
No use restrictions
Free to modify or change the software without paying fees or getting explicit permi...
Famous FOSS Implementations
Business Model of FOSS
Dual Licensing
Applications
for free distribution & free use
for proprietary use
Copyright and control of the core product...
Dual Licensing
Real Life Case: MySQL

SQL Database

Free License

GPL

Users

Approx. 4 mill (2003)

Customers

Around 0.5...
Distribution & Service Model
Sell support/customization and other professional services
Training
Consulting
Custom Develop...
Distribution & Service Model
Real Life Case: Red Hat Linux
Provide the product on CD instead of an online
download
One sur...
Distribution & Service Model
Real Life Case: Red Hat Linux
Support for installation, answering technical
questions, and tr...
The Ecosystem Strategy
Company creates a network of partners or preferred independent software
vendors (ISVs)
Software fra...
Dual Product Model

Penetrate the market by releasing an open source product and sell a
different product.

For example: E...
Web Based Advertising Model

Software generate revenue through advertisements.
For e.g. Firefox has a Google search bar bu...
Hybrid Model
Change the availability of the source code
Right to view (i.e., to see the code in the first place and posses...
Hybrid Model
Change the treatment of different users
License with different terms for Commercial & Non-commercial users
Ch...
Software Licenses
Why is it important to understand the licenses?
UNDERSTANDING COPYLEFT
CopyLeft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free,
and requiring all modified ...
UNDERSTANDING COPYLEFT

Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users'
freedom; we use copyright to...
Strong & Weak Copyleft

-- Not all derived works inherit the copyleft
license
-- Generally used for the creation of softwa...
Copyright V/s Copyleft
Copyrights exist in order to protect authors of
documentation or software from unauthorized
copying...
How is FOSS Good for Business?
Security
Quality
Customizability
Freedom
Flexibility
Cost
Try before you buy
Thank You!
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Understanding FOSS - Free & Open Source Software

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This presentation is targeted at absolute amateurs who have never even heard of the term Open Source before. It educates them about what is Open Source Software, what are the various licenses that govern them, real like organisations who have taken up FOSS and also the various business models used to earn money out of Open Source software.

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Understanding FOSS - Free & Open Source Software

  1. 1. Understanding FOSS Free & Open Source Software
  2. 2. What is FOSS?
  3. 3. Free Software Free - as in ‘freedom’, not ‘free beer’ Freedom to run the program, for any purpose Freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs. Access to the source code is a pre-condition for this purpose Freedom to re-distribute copies so you can help your neighbor Freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits
  4. 4. Three pillars of foss Open Source Software Open Standards GCC, Linux Kernel WWW Python, Java, PHP PCI Drupal, Wordpress HTML & XHTML Firefox, VLC Ogg & Theora Open Content ODF Wikipedia
  5. 5. Father of Free Software Foundation Richard Matthew Stallman popularly known as RMS He launched the GNU project in 1983. That marked the initiation of the Free Software movement.
  6. 6. Popular FOSS Online Encyclopedia Wikipedia Word Processing LibreOffice, Open Office Network Protocol Analyzer WireShark Vector Drawing Tool Draw IM Client Pidgin Photoshop Alternative GIMP Text Editor Notepad Plus Programming Languages Python, Ruby, PHP Platforms JBoss, TomCat, Jetty, RoR, Django Full blown compilers GCC Media Player IDE VLC, mPlayer Netbeans, Eclipse P2P Client BitTorrent Mobile OS Android Project Management Redmine Firefox Content Management Wordpress, Drupal, MediaWiki, TWiki Web browser
  7. 7. Advantages of FOSS No use restrictions Free to modify or change the software without paying fees or getting explicit permission Can be customized to meet job specification as exactly as possible Stability and security issues can be addressed and resolved in a direct manner by the user or all users using a community approach Very often free and open-source software if also free of cost, leaving maximum financial leverage to be put into the tailoring of the entire hard- and software solution Low rate or complete absence of malware Respect for the user's privacy
  8. 8. Famous FOSS Implementations
  9. 9. Business Model of FOSS
  10. 10. Dual Licensing Applications for free distribution & free use for proprietary use Copyright and control of the core product development is held in one hand, the original developer Works best when you’re a market leader Clients adopt when they like FOSS and intend to use it for commercial use
  11. 11. Dual Licensing Real Life Case: MySQL SQL Database Free License GPL Users Approx. 4 mill (2003) Customers Around 0.5% users Main Income License (>50%), services Development “Our software is 100% GPL, and if yours too is 100% GPL (or OSI compliant), then you never have to pay us for the licenses. In all other instances, you are better served by our commercial license.” (MySQL, 2003) Product In-house Marketing Direct Technology Standardized (SQL)
  12. 12. Distribution & Service Model Sell support/customization and other professional services Training Consulting Custom Development Post Sales Support Strategy requires a large base of clients that want to use the product Controlled by value driven pricing and competition
  13. 13. Distribution & Service Model Real Life Case: Red Hat Linux Provide the product on CD instead of an online download One survey of 113,794 Linux users indicated that 37% of respondents preferred to obtain Linux on a CD/DVD Providing support services to enterprise customers - Enterprises are willing to pay for accountability
  14. 14. Distribution & Service Model Real Life Case: Red Hat Linux Support for installation, answering technical questions, and training employees to use the product Upgrade Services - Enterprises can now enter into long term agreements with distributors to ensure that they get the latest upgrade Provide on-site assistance
  15. 15. The Ecosystem Strategy Company creates a network of partners or preferred independent software vendors (ISVs) Software franchising brand licensing support sellers Red Hat and Oracle are their major partners
  16. 16. Dual Product Model Penetrate the market by releasing an open source product and sell a different product. For example: Eclipse and its paid proprietary plugins
  17. 17. Web Based Advertising Model Software generate revenue through advertisements. For e.g. Firefox has a Google search bar built into the web browser. Mozilla Foundation raked in a whopping $257 million in revenues in 2012 and 80% of it is from Google.
  18. 18. Hybrid Model Change the availability of the source code Right to view (i.e., to see the code in the first place and possess a copy of it) Right to use (i.e., to compile the source into an executable form and run the resulting application) Right to modify (i.e., to make changes to the source code) Right to redistribute (i.e., to give the source code to the third party, potentially in either modified or unmodified form)
  19. 19. Hybrid Model Change the treatment of different users License with different terms for Commercial & Non-commercial users Change the treatment of different types of uses Source license could allow personal use or internal use within an organization at low cost, or no cost Prohibit or require higher license fees for use of the software to provide a service to other users
  20. 20. Software Licenses Why is it important to understand the licenses?
  21. 21. UNDERSTANDING COPYLEFT CopyLeft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it. Copyleft guarantees that every user has freedom. The code and the freedoms become legally inseparable
  22. 22. UNDERSTANDING COPYLEFT Proprietary software developers use copyright to take away the users' freedom; we use copyright to guarantee their freedom. That's why we reverse the name, changing “copyright” into “copyleft.”
  23. 23. Strong & Weak Copyleft -- Not all derived works inherit the copyleft license -- Generally used for the creation of software libraries. -- Free software licenses that use "weak" copyleft include the GNU Lesser General Public License and the Mozilla Public License. The most well known free software license that uses strong copyleft is the GNU General Public License.
  24. 24. Copyright V/s Copyleft Copyrights exist in order to protect authors of documentation or software from unauthorized copying or selling of their work. A copyright infers that only with the author's permission may such activities take place. A Copyleft, on the other hand, provides a method for software or documentation to be modified, and distributed back to the community, provided it remains Libre.
  25. 25. How is FOSS Good for Business? Security Quality Customizability Freedom Flexibility Cost Try before you buy
  26. 26. Thank You!

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