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“No taxation without representation”<br />It means, 'We will only pay taxes that our representatives in a House or Assembly [or similar body] have approved and passed into a law. <br />The slogan was used by the American revolutionaries and meant they they weren't willing to pay taxes imposed by the British House of Commons - as they were not represented there. <br />
Common Sense<br />A pamphlet written in America by Englishman Thomas Paine, published on January 10, 1776.<br />It called for <br />American independence <br />and<br />a union of the American colonies <br />It was propaganda and influenced colonists to pursue both in the Revolutionary War.<br />
The Articles: powers to Congress<br />make war and peace (sending/receiving ambassadors and making treaties), <br />raise an army and navy (build a navy and raising an army by asking the states for troops),<br />print money (set up a money system, fix uniform standards of weights and measures), and<br />set up a postal system.<br />
Major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation:<br />No chief executive to enforce the laws<br /><ul><li>No national court system
No National Currency</li></li></ul><li>Successes of AoC<br />Treaty of Paris (1783)ended the Revolutionary War, recognized 13 colonies as free and sovereignstates, and recognized the Mississippi River as the country’s new western border<br />
Successes of the AoC<br />Land Ordinance (1785) provided a way to divide western land into separate territories and created a procedure for the new territories to apply for statehood and join the United States.<br />
The Land Ordinance of 1785<br />Congress, eager for revenue from the sale of land in the Old Northwest, adopted the Ordinance of 1785. That law required the government to survey the Old Northwest before selling the land to the public. The territory was divided into townships of 6 miles (9.7 kilometers) square. These townships were further divided into 36 sections, each 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) square, an area that equals 640 acres (259 hectares). The 640-acre units were then auctioned off to the public for a price of at least $1 an acre.<br />Few farmers could afford to buy as much as 640 acres. Land speculators, such as the Ohio Company and the Scioto Company, grabbed up most of the land. These companies then divided the land into smaller sections and sold them at a profit.<br />
Successes of the AoC<br />Northwest Ordinance (1787) established a plan for governing the new land between the Appalachian mountains and the Mississippi River. This plan set up government for the territory and also abolished slavery in the new western states.<br />
Northwest Ordinance of 1787<br />The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established a government for the Old Northwest, which then became known as the Northwest Territory. The ordinance also provided for the eventual division of the region into three to five states. Congress appointed the first officials of the territory—a governor, a secretary, and three judges. When the territory reached a population of 5,000 adult males, it could elect an assembly and send a nonvoting delegate to Congress. When any division of the territory reached a population of 60,000, it could apply for statehood. <br />
Impact of the ordinances <br />The ordinances of 1785 and 1787 paved the way for full-scale migration to the west. <br />The laws also established guidelines for the administration of all U.S. territories.<br />
Failure of the AoC<br />Shay’s Rebellion (1787)a group of Massachusetts farmers, lead by Daniel Shay, protested the rising taxes on land. They attacked a federal court house. <br />The revolt convinced many people that the U.S. needed a stronger central government to prevent violence and disorder.<br />
Solutions<br />To fix some of the problems with the AoC a Constitutional Convention was called. At the convention the delegates threw out the AoC and created a new document called the Constitution.<br />Constitution: a written plan of government<br />A document that outlines the powers and limitations of government<br />Bicameral: a legislature with two houses<br />
The Articles of Confederation Vs. The Constitution<br />
Constitution:<br />Provides a written framework for government.<br />A plan or instruction manual of powers and restrictions for government<br />Limits or restricts certain powers<br />
Discuss:<br />Why is a constitution essential to a government? <br />
Articles of Confederation<br />The national government had no chief executive to carry out laws made by congress<br />The President heads the executive branch of the government<br />President enforces the laws.<br />Constitution<br />
Constitution<br />Articles of Confederation<br /><ul><li>Both national and state courts exist.
Depending on the case, some cases fall under state jurisdiction and others under federal.
Each state coined its own money </li></li></ul><li>Discuss:<br />Defend my claim: The need for a strong executive leader is essential to the functioning of government.<br />
Great or Connecticut CompromiseTopic: Representation in Congress<br />Large States: <br />Virginia Plan<br />Large states wanted representation by population <br />Small States:<br />New Jersey Plan<br />Small states wanted equal representation<br />
The Great Compromise<br />Bicameral legislature <br />equal representation = <br />Senate (2 per state)<br />proportional representation =<br />House (population)<br />
(3/5 Compromise) Three/Fifths Compromise: Population<br />South<br />Southern states wanted slaves to count in population counts<br />They were more dependent on slavery.<br />North<br />Northern states did not want slaves to count<br />They were less dependent on slavery<br />
3/5ths Compromise<br />For the purposes of representation, five slaves would be counted as 3 free people<br />