Total quality management and employees empowerment
What is TQM?
Meeting quality expectations as defined by
Integrated organizational effort designed to
improve quality of processes at every business
TQM is a dynamic process in an organization to
promote never ending improvement in the
effectiveness and efficiency of all elements of a
In TQM, the most important target to achieve is
Quality; Quality policy must be set toward customer.
Meeting customer's needs mean satisfying every
customer requirement but not trying to reach some
quality standards set before.
To ensure the quality of service and product, TQM
system requires the extending of production process to
suppliers and sub-contractors.
In stead of controlling the quality of the finished
product (after production), TQM sets up plans and
programs to supervise and prevent problems right
before the production process
4. Basis of TQM system:
The basis of TQM practice in the company is Human.
Talking about quality, people usually think about the
product quality. But it is the quality of employees that
is the main concern of TQM. Of the three factors of
TQM system is cross organized and functioned in
order to manage, integratedly corporate with different
activities of the system and facilitate group working.
6. Management skills and tools:
Methods to implement must be based on the principle
"do correctly at the very beginning", in researching and
designing to minimize economic cost. Strictly apply
DEMMING circle (PDCA) to make foundation for the
continuous quality improvement.
Different Element Of total Quantity
Japanese Management usually use these six elements of
TQM in their organization :
Total Quality in business thinking and each and every
Development of New Quality products on continuous
Quality must be Customer-oriented not Product-oriented.
In TQM every next step should be customer satisfaction
TQM should ensure continuous plan i.e. PDCA –(Plan-Do-
Key activity areas of a TQM system
Joseph m juran
Juran, like Deming, was invited to Japan in 1954 by the
Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE).
Juran defines quality as fitness for use in terms of
design, conformance, availability, safety, and field use.
Thus, his concept more closely incorporates the
viewpoint of customer Unlike Deming, he focuses on
top-down management and technical methods rather
than worker pride and satisfaction.
Juran’s 10 steps to quality improvement are:
Build awareness of opportunity to improve.
Set-goals for improvement.
Organize to reach goals.
Carryout projects to solve problems.
Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part
of the regular systems and processes of the company.
This quality guru developed industrial optimsation
and online and offline quality control; techniques. He
suggested use of statistical techniques for TQM. he
served as director of the Japanese academy of quality
Taguchi’s approach for TQM
Identify the main function, side effects and future modes
Identify noise factors and the testing conditions for
evaluating quality loss
The quality characteristics to be observed should be
identified and the objectives function to be optimized
The control factors and alternate levels be identified
Design the matrix experiment and define the data analysis
Conduct the matrix experiment
Analyze the data determine optimum levels for the control
factors and predict performance under these levels
Conduct the verification experiment and plan future
Philip b crosby
The 14 Steps to Quality Improvement are quality guru
Philip Crosby’s recipe for long-term process
improvement. His opinion was that these steps were
the responsibility of management but involved the
people who did the work. These steps provided
guidelines as well as a method for communicating his
The 14 Steps to Quality Improvement:
Step 1: Management Commitment
Step 2: Quality Improvement Team
Step 3: Quality Measurement
Step 4: Cost of Quality Evaluation
Step 5: Quality Awareness
Step 6: Corrective Action
Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for the Zero
Step 8: Supervisor Training
Step 9: Zero Defects Day
Step 10: Goal Setting
Step 11: Error Cause Removal
Step 12: Recognition
Step 13: Quality Councils
Step 14: Do It Over Again
What id quality circles ?
A quality circle or quality control circle is a group
of workers who do the same or similar work, who meet
regularly to identify, analyze and solve work-related
problems. Normally small in size, the group is
usually led by a supervisor or manager and presents its
solutions to management ; where possible, workers
implement the solutions themselves in order to
improve the performance of the organization and
Objectives of quality circles
1. Improvement in quality of product manufactured by
2. Improvement in methods of production.
3. Development of employees participating in QC.
4. Promoting morale of employees.
What is employee empowerment ?
Employee empowerment is giving employees a
certain degree of autonomy and responsibility for
decision-making regarding their specific
organizational tasks. It allows decisions to be made at
the lower levels of an organization where employees
have a unique view of the issues and problems facing
the organization at a certain level.
Top management is committed to supporting an
employee empowered culture.
Employee empowerment is centered on the needs of
Management hands over a level of the decision making
power to front line employees
Employees are trained to take on these new customer
Empowered employees are given access to information
and data that can be used in their decision making