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Principles of design

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Design is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas to become practical and attractive propositions for users, clients or customers. Design may be described as creativity deployed to a specific end

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system. It may be an architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams or sewing patterns. Design has different connotations in different fields

N.B: The presentation is compiled from articles and presentations of experts, researchers, professors working in the same field for educational purpose.

Veröffentlicht in: Design

Principles of design

  1. 1. + Principles of Design Presentation by Professor Ar Shakti Nanda @ SRISRI RAVISHANKAR UNIVERSITY, ODISHA For Students of Architecture, 1st Year, Semester - I shaktinanda@gmail.com
  2. 2. What is Design Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system. It may be an architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams or sewing patterns. Design has different connotations in different fields Design is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas to become practical and attractive propositions for users, clients or customers. Design may be described as creativity deployed to a specific end
  3. 3. Principles of Design The principles of design describe the ways an artist use different elements of design in a composition.These ways or principles are • Balance • Rhythm • Emphasis • Contrast • Movement • Harmony • Proportion and scale
  4. 4. Principles of Design A sense of equilibrium. When establishing balance consider visual weight created by size, color, texture and number of objects. Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium, and relates to our physical sense of balance. It is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. Most successful compositions achieve balance in one of two ways: symmetrically or asymmetrically. BALANCE
  5. 5. Principles of Design Symmetrical balance can be described as having equal "weight" on equal sides of a centrally placed fulcrum. It may also be referred to as formal balance.When the elements are arranged equally on either side of a central axis, the result is Bilateral symmetry. This axis may be horizontal or vertical. It is also possible to build formal balance by arranging elements equally around a central point , resulting in radial symmetry. This is called Radial Balance BALANCE
  6. 6. Principles of Design Symmetrical balance BALANCE
  7. 7. Principles of Design Radial Balance / Biaxial Symmetry BALANCE
  8. 8. Principles of Design Near Symmetry & Inverted Symmetry BALANCE
  9. 9. Principles of Design BALANCE Asymmetrical balance, also called informal balance, is more complex and difficult to achieve. It involves placement of objects in a way that will allow objects of varying visual weight to balance one another around a central point. It just means that there are no mirror images in a composition.The term, however, is usually used to describe a kind of balance that does not rely on symmetry:
  10. 10. Principles of Design BALANCE Asymmetrical balance
  11. 11. Principles of Design BALANCE Asymmetrical balance
  12. 12. Principles of Design BALANCE Balance Using Texture
  13. 13. Principles of Design BALANCE Balance Using Colours
  14. 14. Principles of Design BALANCE Balance Using Shapes
  15. 15. Principles of Design BALANCE Balance Using Space
  16. 16. Principles of Design RHYTHM A visual tempo or beat.The principle of design that refers to a regular repetition of elements of art to produce the look and feel of movement. It is often achieved through the careful placement of repeated components which invite the viewer's eye to jump rapidly or glide smoothly from one to the next. Rhythm in architecture is the repetitive use of a group of visual elements, at least three times, to establish a recognizable “pattern.” Simple examples of rhythm are the alternating window and column arrangement of most high rise office buildings. More complex rhythms make use of what in jazz music is called "counterpoint", that is, two or more intersecting or overlaid rhythms. This is seen frequently in classical architecture, where a series of columns and openings are overlaid on top of a series of smaller openings.  
  17. 17. Principles of Design TYPE OF RHYTHEM Rhythm by Repetition Rhythm by Gradation Rhythm by Radiation Rhythm by Opposition Rhythm by Transition
  18. 18. Principles of Design Rhythm By Repetition n  Rhythm created by duplicating (repeating) shapes, colors, pattern, line, texture. n  Repeated Window panes, repeat. Stripes on wall and design and colour of glass.
  19. 19. Principles of Design Rhythm By Repetition
  20. 20. Principles of Design Rhythm By Gradation n  Rhythm created by a gradual change in size or color. n  Carpet on the floor changes gradually in value. n  Gradation in lights. bellow
  21. 21. Principles of Design Rhythm By Gradation
  22. 22. Principles of Design Rhythm By Radiation n  Rhythm created by identical objects coming from a central axis. n  The glass frames“radiate” from the center of the path. n  The floor design, the windows, furnitures etc in redial rhythm
  23. 23. Principles of Design Rhythm By Radiation
  24. 24. Principles of Design Rhythm By Opposition n  Rhythm created direct placement of lines, shapes or colour to create opposition through abrupt visual change. n  Contrasting black and white tiles and the lines intersecting at right angles.
  25. 25. Principles of Design Rhythm By Opposition
  26. 26. Principles of Design Rhythm By Transition n  Rhythm created by curved lines that carry your eye across a straight surface. n  Window treatments that gently swag down, create a soft rhythm by transition.
  27. 27. Principles of Design Rhythm By Transition
  28. 28. Principles of Design EMPHASIS Emphasis creates a focal point in a design composition; it is how we bring attention to what is important in it. It is the the focus of attention and interest within a composition In Architecture it is the feature that commands attention and makes a design visually interesting
  29. 29. Principles of Design EMPHASIS The main reason in using emphasis is to help you communicate the message that needs to be communicated. Emphasis helps readers determine the important information on your display and allows them to interpret the message faster.This process of arranging the visual elements on a composition according to their order of importance and emphasis is called Visual Hierarchy. Visual Hierarchy is used to guide readers attention to the main places on your composition.
  30. 30. Principles of Design How to Create Emphasis EMPHASIS Make it bolder Make it brighter Change Style Add special visual effects. Add a border or frame Add more negative of positive space Add shadow or lights Change the color Change the position Create Focal Points
  31. 31. Principles of Design Guidelines for Creating Emphasis The point of emphasis should command attention, but not dominate the overall design. Other features within the composition should not compete for the emphasis or contrast.
  32. 32. Principles of Design EMPHASIS In Architecture ZahaHadid Architects
  33. 33. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) Contrast is simply defined as difference. Difference between elements or subjects within a work of art or composition.  Contrast can be created through variety within the elements of art. (i.e. value, color, texture)  Contrast can be used to create a focal point or area of interest in an artwork Contrast is closely related with variety which is usually considered as principle of design.  Although some art purist, stick with variety and argue that contrast simply creates variety.
  34. 34. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) it is easy to understand how colour can create contrast.  For example, complementary colours provide a high level of contrast.  Complementary colours are colours that are located directly across from each other on the colour wheel.  Red and green, blue and orange, and purple and yellow are all examples of this.  But when using complementary colours, we also have to consider value.  Value is the darkness or lightness of colour.  Without contrast in value, the contrast created by complementary colours is counter- productive. Notice how the red and green vibrate off of each other. The result is aesthetically horrid.  The problem lies in the use of value.  There needs to be contrast in value along with the contrast in colour.  If we change the values, not the colours, the result is more successful
  35. 35. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) in Colour
  36. 36. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) in Texture
  37. 37. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) in Size & Shape
  38. 38. Principles of Design Contrast (variety) in Space
  39. 39. Principles of Design Movement Movement is the visual flow of your Design. It's the path that you intend your viewer's eye to follow.You can create this by purposefully placing art elements in a way that creates a path for the eye to follow
  40. 40. Principles of Design Movement Is a visual flow through the composition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way of placement and position.  Directional movement can be created with a value pattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that you can move your attention through the format An art work may incorporate actual motion; that is, the artwork itself moves in some way. Or it may incorporate the illusion of, or implied movement. Art that moves through the effect of natural properties, either its own inherent properties or their effect, is unpredictable. Spatial relationships within the work change continuously, with endless possibilities. One of the delights of experiencing such artwork is the element of change and surprise. It's as if every time we look at it we are seeing a new artwork.
  41. 41. Principles of Design Movement The Alhambra is a massive complex in southern Spain built by Moors during the 14th century. Its function was two fold: as a fortress for protection and defense, and as a palace for relaxation and luxurious refreshment. Southern Spain is dry and hot, and one of the delightful and remarkable aspects of the Alhambra is that water flows throughout the whole complex in surprising and ingenious ways. All of this was engineered using forces of nature and the qualities of how water moves. Around every corner, in gardens and courts and staircases the water flows. It bestows a profound sense of renewal and rest.
  42. 42. Principles of Design Movement Patterns
  43. 43. Principles of Design Movement in Architecture
  44. 44. Principles of Design Harmony n  There are 2 types of harmony. n  Unity n  Variety Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other. Harmony pulls the pieces of a visual image together. Harmony can be achieved through repetition and rhythm
  45. 45. Principles of Design Harmony By Unity n Unity occurs when all the parts of a design or composition are related by one idea. n A unified design has consistency of style
  46. 46. Principles of Design Harmony By Unity
  47. 47. Principles of Design Harmony By Unity
  48. 48. Principles of Design Harmony By Variety n  When multiple elements of design are used to add interest to a design. n  Variety can be created using different elements and materials, as long as they are compatible to each other. Unity Vs Variety
  49. 49. Principles of Design Harmony By Variety Harmony Is achieved when unity and variety are effectively combined. n  Carrying variety too far creates confusion. n  A lack of unity may make a space smaller.
  50. 50. Principles of Design Harmony By Variety
  51. 51. Principles of Design Harmony By Variety
  52. 52. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Scale refers to the size of an object (a whole) in relationship to another object (another whole). In art the size relationship between an object and the human body is significant. In experiencing the scale of an artwork we tend to compare its size to the size of our own bodies. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.
  53. 53. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Scale relates to the size of a design in relation to the height and width of the area in which it is placed
  54. 54. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Placement of objects determine the size when compared to each other or in other words we evaluate the size from the objects surrounded by objects.
  55. 55. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales
  56. 56. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales n  Relates to the actual and relative size and visual weight of the design and its components. n  Furniture and accessories must be in scale to the room BADSCALE GOODSCALE
  57. 57. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales n  This chairs massive scale diminishes everything around it. n  The chairs light palate accentuates its skinny scale. n  This club chair matches the scale of the sofa.
  58. 58. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales n  Center table is over- scaled for the sofa. n  Table not only looks out of scale, it functions poorly as well. n  The table is substantial enough to anchor the furniture grouping, yet it leaves room for traffic flow around both ends.
  59. 59. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Scale is very much associated with ergonomics when used in the field of architecture.The space designed for human being is closely related size of body parts and its function.
  60. 60. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Origins of Measurements In ancient times, the body ruled when it came to measuring.The length of a foot, the width of a finger, and the distance of a step were all accepted measurements. Inch: At first an inch was the width of a man's thumb. In the 14th century, King Edward II of England ruled that 1 inch equalled 3 grains of barley placed end to end lengthwise. Hand: A hand was approximately 5 inches or 5 digits (fingers) across.Today, a hand is 4 inches and is used to measure horses (from the ground to the horse's withers, or shoulder). Span: A span was the length of the hand stretched out, about 9 inches. Foot: In ancient times, the foot was 111/42 inches.Today it is 12 inches, the length of the average man's foot. Yard: A yard was originally the length of a man's belt or girdle, as it was called. In the 12th century, King Henry I of England fixed the yard as the distance from his nose to the thumb of his out-stretched arm.Today it is 36 inches. Cubit: In ancient Egypt, a cubit was the distance from the elbow to the fingertips. Today a cubit is about 18 inches.
  61. 61. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Origins of Measurements (Metric) The French originated the meter in the 1790s as one/ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the north pole along a meridian through Paris. It is realistically represented by the distance between two marks on an iron bar kept in Paris.The word “metric” comes from the Latin word “metricus” or from the Greek word “metron,” both meaning measure.The metric system is based on the meter. This shows the close association between measurement system and nature’s creation. In both Metric and Amstrong measurement system are derived from Proportions of nature and human body.
  62. 62. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Le Corbusier developed the Modular man in the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, the work of Leon Battista Alberti, and other attempts to discover mathematical proportions in the human body and then to use that knowledge to improve both the appearance and function of architecture.The system is based on human measurements, the double unit, the Fibonacci numbers, and the golden ratio. Le Corbusier described it as a "range of harmonious measurements to suit the human scale, universally applicable to architecture and to mechanical things" David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by Michelangelo
  63. 63. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales The Modulor Man was meant as a universal system of proportions.The ambition was vast: it was devised to reconcile maths, the human form, architecture and beauty into a single system.This system could then be used to provide the measurements for all aspects of design from door handles to cities, and Corbusier believed that it could be further applied to industry and mechanics. The fundamental "module" of the Modulor is a six-foot man, allegedly based on the usual height of the detectives in the English crime novels Corbusier enjoyed
  64. 64. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales The Modulor was, however, as arbitrary as any human measurement: its six-foot basis was plucked out of the air, there was no reason the Modulor Man couldn't be five foot ten or six foot two. As is often said, a six-foot rule is hardly fair to women and children. Also, Corbusier's own application of it was somewhat haphazard but his work certainly enlightened us about relationship between mathematics, nature, human ergonomics and architecture.
  65. 65. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci numbers and Modular Man Mathematics The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ...The next number is found by adding up the two numbers before it.The 2 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+1) Mark the proportions of Modular man measured by mm 6, 9, 15, 24, 39, 63……..1130, 1829 11, 18, 30, 48, 76 ………1397, 2260
  66. 66. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation Johannes Kepler (1571– 1630) is observed that a fibonacci number when divided with the previous number in sequence have a constant ratio of progression after initial few numbers. 144 / 89 = 1.618 233 /144 = 1.618 377 /233 = 1.618
  67. 67. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation
  68. 68. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation Pi or p (3.14…) is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, Phi or Φ (1.618 …) is the Golden Ratio that results when a line is divided in one very special and unique way.To illustrate, suppose you were asked to take a string and cut it. There’s any number of places that you could cut it, and each place would result in different ratios for the length of the small piece to the large piece, and of the large piece to the entire string.There is one unique point, however, at which the ratio of the large piece to the smaller piece is exactly the same as the ratio of the whole string to the larger piece, and at this point this Golden Ratio of both is 1.618 to 1, or Phi.
  69. 69. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation What makes this so much more than an interesting exercise in mathematics is that this proportion appears throughout creation and extensively in the human face and body. It’s found in the proportions of many other animals, in plants, in the solar system and even in the price and timing movements of stock markets and  foreign currency exchange. Its appeal thus ranges from mathematicians to doctors to naturalists to artists to investors to mystics. This is known as golden ratio, divine proportion, golden mean, or golden section(Φ)
  70. 70. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation
  71. 71. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Fibonacci Sequence Graphical representation Leonardo Bonacci also known as Fibonacci, and also known as Leonardo of Pisa found Fibonacci Sequence 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, … Phidias a Greek sculptor and mathematician found golden ratio. Keplar derived many Geometrical constructions to get Golden Ratio.
  72. 72. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Construction of Golden Rectangle
  73. 73. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Construction of Golden Rectangle Fibonacci Sequence 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8
  74. 74. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Construction of Golden Rectangle If you sum the squares of any series of Fibonacci numbers, they will equal the last Fibonacci number used in the series times the next Fibonacci number.  This property results in the Fibonacci spiral, based on the following progression and properties of the Fibonacci series:
  75. 75. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Construction of Golden Rectangle
  76. 76. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Error In Modular System Le Corbusier thought that by using a simple geometrical extension you could derive a rectangle with sides 1:2 from a rectangle with sides of the ratio 1:φ. After all, adjacent squares make plans and facades that fit the modernist aesthetic of symmetry and simplicity. In a book on architectural proportion Richard Padovan records that when this error in constructive geometry was pointed out, Le Corbusier consulted a mathematician friend.The mathematician confirmed that Le Corbusier’s constructive method was out by 0.006 from what he expected (Padovan 1999)
  77. 77. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Error In Modular System When Le Corbusier discovered the error in his attempt to derive two squares from the Golden Rectangle, he thought this revealed something about the difference between architecture and philosophy he concludes ‘the thing is not open and shut; it is not sealed; there is a chink to let in the air; life is there, awakened by the occurrence of a fateful equality which is not exactly, not strictly equal … And that is what creates movement.
  78. 78. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Golden Ratio in Architecture
  79. 79. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Some common Day today things in Golden Ratio
  80. 80. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Some common Day today things in Golden Ratio
  81. 81. Principles of Design Proportions & Scales Analysis Some common Day today things in Golden Ratio

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