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Alternative energy sources presentation

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Alternative energy sources presentation

  2. 2. WHAT IS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE?  Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.  Everyday, the world produces carbon dioxide that is released to the earth’s atmosphere and which will still be there in one hundred years time.  This increased content of Carbon Dioxide increases the warmth of our planet and is the main cause of the so called “Global Warming Effect”. One answer to global warming is to replace and retrofit current technologies with alternatives that have comparable or better performance, but do not emit carbon dioxide.
  3. 3. In a general sense, alternative energy as it is currently conceived, is that which is produced or recovered without the undesirable consequences inherented in fossil fuel use, particularly high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming.
  5. 5. RESEARCH SHOWS: British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell, two of the world's largest oil companies say that by 2050, one- third of the world's energy will need to come from solar, wind, and other renewable resources. Climate change, population growth, and fossil fuel depletion mean that renewables will need to play a bigger role in the future than they do today.
  6. 6. SOLAR POWER Solar energy is used commonly for heating, cooking, the production of electricity, and even in the desalination of seawater. Solar heat has long been employed in passively and actively heated buildings, as well as district heating systems. The obstacles preventing the large scale implementation of solar powered energy generation is the inefficiency of current solar technology, and the cost. Currently, photovoltaic (PV) panels only have the ability to convert around 16% of the sunlight that hits them into electricity.
  9. 9. Other methods: include using sunlight that hits parabolic mirrors to heat water (producing steam), or simply opening a rooms blinds or window shades to allow entering sunlight to passively heat a room.
  10. 10. SOLAR POWER: PROS  Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth.  Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is no chemical reaction from the combustion of fuels.  Solar energy can be used very efficiently for practical uses such as heating and lighting.  The benefits of solar power are seen frequently to heat pools, spas, and water tanks all over.  Saves house hold or commercial overhead expenses.  The excess power could be transferred to the grid  If the battery system is used, then electricity is stored for later use.
  11. 11. SOLAR POWER: CONS  Solar power does not produce energy if the sun is not shining. Nighttime and cloudy days seriously limit the amount of energy produced.  Solar power stations can be very expensive to build.  Solar energy is renewable for sure, but isn’t constant. It can only be reaped during daytime.  The other concern is only fifty percent of energy received by a solar panel can be converted into electricity
  12. 12. SOLAR PANELS  A solar panel is typically made up of silicon.  Silicon is the substance which absorbs sunlight and then changes it into electrical energy.  And the energy you get costs nothing and is renewable Mechanical data: Dimensions :1637 x 987 mm Thickness: 40 mm Weight Approx.: 21.8 kg •Only high-performance cells which have •been thoroughly tested are used •Use of 4 mm special-purpose glass •Load capacity: 5400 Pa •Can withstand extreme weather conditions •(hail, snow, ice, sharply fluctuating •temperatures, etc.) •Outstanding design thanks to silver •powder-coated solar panel frame •Flash data for every panel •Low chance of mismatching due to •extremely low power tolerance of +/–3 % Access Solar (Pvt) Ltd:
  13. 13. Solar Panels have 2 types:  The Grid System: This doesn’t have a storage system for the energy that’s generated from the sun and during the night will have to use the grid.  The Battery System: In this case, the battery will save some energy to use when the weather is gloomy or at night. This system comes with a higher cost.
  15. 15. SOLAR POWER IN SRI LANKA?  The only operational commercial-scale solar- powered facility is the Buruthakanda Solar Par? which is a Hambantota Solar Power Station operated by the Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority.
  16. 16. ACCESS Solar (Pvt) Ltd: Price estimates of Panels SYSTEM NUMBER OF PANNELS PRICE BEFORE VAT MONTHLY GENERATION Single phase systems 68KW 3KW 705,929.13 185KWh/units per month 2.16KW 3KW 793,200.64 238KWh/units per month 3.60KW 4KW 1,173,069.78 396KWh/units per month 4.08KW 4KW 1,262,960.14 449KWh/units per month 5.04KW 5KW 1,431,143.18 554KWh/units per month Three phase systems 5.04KW 5KW 1,561,992.41 554KWh/units per month 5.52KW 6KW 1,707,326.02 607KWh/units per month 6.48KW 8KW 1,968,588.07 713KWh/units per month 7.68KW 8KW 2,183,429.76 844KWh/units per month 16.08KW 17KW 4,090,718.52 1769KWh/units per month
  17. 17. COMPANIES AND COSTING :TO IMPLEMENT SUCH ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF POWER Company Name Location Alpha Thermal Systems (Pvt) Ltd. Alpha thermal system (pvt) Ltd. Colombo 8 Epigro (Pvt) Ltd 125, Jawatte Road, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Walltone internationals Hansagiri Rd, Gampaha Nikini Automation Systems Pvt. Ltd., Solar Div 249, High Level Road, Colombo 5 00500 011 2 826894 J Lanka Technologies (Private) Limited No. 936/2A,, Pannipitiya Road, Thalangama Finco Green Energy Solutions (Pvt) Ltd 49/16. Galle Road. Colombo 03 E.B. cooray Integrated Technologies (Pvt) Ltd Pagoda Road, Nugegoda, Colombo Sri Lanka Access Solar (Pvt) Ltd No 278, Access Towers, Dr Colvin R de Silva Mawatha, Colombo ACSTRA Solutions (Pvt) Ltd 12A Kinross Ave, Colombo Power Management Technologies (Pvt) Ltd No. 120/11 , Vidya Mawatha, Colombo 7 Power Mart Services Vinseth Solar Pvt Ltd 68 1/1, Jethawana Road Colombo 14 Alpha Thermal Systems (Pvt) Ltd. / Solar Therm 121 Castle Street Colombo 08, Sri Lanka MAS Enterprises 10/1, Gangadara Mawatha, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka
  19. 19. THERMAL POWER  Solar thermal (heat) energy is a carbon-free, renewable alternative to the power we generate with fossil fuels like coal and gas.  Solar water heating (known as solar thermal) systems captures the free heat from the sun and uses it up to heat the water.  It can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use, sunshine, is free.
  20. 20. THERMAL POWER: PROCESS Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors.  Storage Tank: well-insulated storage tank is required,  Solar Collector: They consist of (1) a dark flat-plate absorber, (2) a transparent cover that reduces heat losses, (3) a heat- transport fluid (air, antifreeze or water) to remove heat from the absorber, and (4) a heat insulating backing. There are two types of solar water heating systems:  Active  Passive
  21. 21. 1. Active Solar Water Heating System •Direct circulation systems: Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes. •Indirect circulation systems: Pumps circulate a non-freezing, heat-transfer fluid through the collectors and a heat exchanger. This heats the water that then flows into the home. They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures.
  22. 22. 2. Passive Solar Water Heating System Passive solar water heating systems are typically less expensive than active systems, but they're usually not as efficient. However, passive systems can be more reliable and may last longer.
  23. 23. THERMAL POWER: PROS  Use the free energy of the sun to heat your water  Lower monthly electric (or gas) utility bills  Great for climates that receive a lot of sunshine  Solar systems can easily store thermal energy by use of storage tanks and use it when it is required without interference from immediate environmental conditions
  24. 24. THERMAL POWER: CONS  Tank takes up more space than tankless units.  Higher up front cost for equipment & installation.  May not have as great of performance in climates that do not receive a lot of sunshine.  Tank can produce a significant amount of heat, so its location will need to be planned accordingly.  More equipment = more maintenance
  25. 25. THERMAL POWER IN SRI LANKA? Upper Kotmale Power Plant Kerawalapitiya power plant
  26. 26. COMPANIES :TO IMPLEMENT SUCH ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF POWER Company name Location SUNBIRD super solar hotwater systems Jude Fernandopulle Associates (Pvt) Ltd. 165, Colombo Road., Negombo, Solar Prince Thermal System Green park - 03, No19, Yatiyana Agalawatta. Hemas Holdings PLC 75, Braybrooke Place,Colombo 02,Sri Lanka S&S Engineering Services Company (Pvt) Ltd., No. 100/1, Sri Dharmarama Road Ratmalana W P Sri Lanka Access Solar (Pvt) Ltd No 278, Access Towers, Dr Colvin R de Silva Mawatha, Colombo Vinseth Solar Pvt Ltd 68 1/1, Jethawana Road Colombo 14 Alpha Thermal Systems (Pvt) Ltd. / Solar Therm 121, Castle Street, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
  27. 27. WIND POWER Rural communities often do not have access to the national grid. Wind powered micro-grids are suited to the low-density rural areas and can be effective in meeting local social and economic needs. Wind energy is the generation of electricity from the wind. Wind power plants have been set up in locations where the wind velocity is high. These areas receive less rainfall compared to other parts of the country. Rainfall accompanied by wind in these areas will not affect electricity generation. In the event these areas experience heavy rain, power generation will decline if heavy rains continue. there will be a steady drop in electricity generation.
  28. 28. WIND POWER: RESEARCH Wind energy research dates back several decades to the 1970s when NASA developed an analytical model to predict wind turbine power generation during high winds. Today, many countries have implemented them. horizontal-axis variety vertical-axis design
  29. 29. WIND POWER: PROCESS  A wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.  Wind energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines.  The rotation of turbine blades is converted into electrical current by means of an electrical generator.
  30. 30. A WIND TURBINE MAY INCLUDE:  rotor blades - capture wind's energy and convert it to rotational energy of shaft  shaft - transfers rotational energy into generator  nacelle - casing that holds the gear box  the gearbox includes the generator which uses rotational energy of shaft to generate electricity.  brakes- stop rotation of shaft in case of power overload or system failure.  tower - supports rotor and nacelle and lifts entire setup to higher elevation where blades can safely clear the ground  electrical equipment - carries electricity from generator down through tower and controls many safety elements of turbine.
  31. 31. WIND POWER: PROS  Wind power produces no pollution that can contaminate the environment, Since no chemical processes take place, as in the burning of fossil fuels, there are no harmful by-products left over.  Since wind generation is a renewable source of energy, we will never run out of it.  No interference with nature: Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines which can help in the production of biofuels.  Doesn’t take uo much land space.  Excellent for large scale power production
  32. 32. WIND POWER: CONS  Wind power is intermittent. Consistent wind is needed for continuous power generation.If wind speed decreases, the turbine lingers and less electricity is generated.  Large wind farms can have a negative effect on the scenery.  The fact that it is a "very diffuse source" means that "large numbers of wind generators (and thus large land areas) are required to produce useful amounts of heat or electricity.“  Wind turbines cannot be erected everywhere simply because many places are not windy enough for suitable power generation.  When an appropriate place is found, building and maintaining a wind farm can be costly. It "is a highly capital-intensive technology.
  33. 33. SIZES OF WIND TURBINES  Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. Now, electrical currents are harnessed by large scale wind farms that are used by national electrical grids as well as small individual turbines used for providing electricity to isolated locations or individual homes.  Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger wind turbines are more cost effective and are grouped together into wind farms, which provide bulk power to the electrical grid.  Single small turbines, below 100 kilowatts, are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping.
  34. 34. WIND POWER IN SRI LANKA?  The first pilot wind power plant of 3MW was set up in 1999 by the CEB in Hambantota but wasn’t successful.  Wind power is available mostly in coastal areas and some hill country regions (central, uva, southern, north western, northern, eastern areas).  Community based wind power projects have yet to take off on a large scale in Sri Lanka.  The Puttalam district is an appropriate location for wind power generation. The wind power plants in the Puttalam district adds 50 MW of electricity to the national grid alone.
  36. 36. Puttalam Wind Power Plant Ambewela Farm Power Plant Lakvijaya Power Station, Puttalam
  37. 37. Table : Existing and Expected capacities of the national Grid
  38. 38. Sri Lanka’s wind climate is primarily determined by the two Asian Monsoons the South West (SW) and North East (NE) Monsoons. The SW Monsoon lasts from May till early October while the NE Monsoon last from December to February. While winds over mountainous regions are highly site specific, turbulent and confined to the SW monsoon, winds over flat landscapes in the south-eastern and north-western coastal belt are more consistent and occur during both monsoons.
  39. 39. COMPANIES AND COSTING TO IMPLEMENT SUCH ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF POWER Company name Location BAM Holdings LTD No 52, Sir Marcus Fernando Mawatha, Colombo 07 Akbar brothers 334 T B Jayah Mawatha Colombo 10 Sri Lanka Integrated Technologies (Pvt) Ltd Pagoda Road, Nugegoda, Colombo Sri Lanka ACSTRA Solutions (Pvt) Ltd. 12A Kinross Ave, Colombo Power Management Technologies (Pvt) Ltd 120/11,Vidya Mawatha Colombo 7 , Sri Lanka Power Mart Services 176 B, Station Road, Kelaniya. MAS Enterprises 10/1, Gangadara Mawatha, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka 3 way technologies 74, Wijayarajadahana, Mirigama
  40. 40. HYDRO POWER Hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. Another variation is to make use of water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as tidal power.
  41. 41. RESEARCH SHOWS In the wake of averting a power crisis, Sri Lanka has also undertaken alternative power generation in addition to hydro power generation. The Norochcholai Lakvijaya coal power plant, the Puttalam wind power plant and the Kerawalapitiya Yugadanavi Thermal power plant assists national power generation considerably. - Sunday observer-
  42. 42. HYDRO POWER: PROCESS  An intake: to diverts of the flow from the water course.  penstock pipe to convey the water to the turbine.  Powerhouse: in which the turbine and generator convert the water's energy into electricity.  Outflow: through which the water is released back to the river or stream.  Underground cables or overhead lines: to transmit the electricity to it's point of use. These must be short enough to minimize ‘voltage drop.’
  43. 43. HYDRO POWER: PROS  Water can be accumulated above the dam and released to coincide with peaks in demand. So, unlike other types of power stations, hydroelectric power stations can promptly increase to full capacity.  Electricity can be generated constantly, because there are no outside forces, unlike other forms of alternative energy, which affect the availability of water.  Hydroelectric power produces no waste or pollution since there is no chemical reaction to produce power.  Water used for hydro power can be reused.
  44. 44. HYDRO POWER: CONS  Dams can be very expensive to build.  Maintenance can be costly.  There needs to be a sufficient and powerful enough supply of water in the area to produce energy.
  45. 45. HYDRO POWER IN SRI LANKA? The Government has implemented several major and small hydro power projects at suitable locations. The Upper Kotmale project takes significance. - Sunday observer-
  47. 47. The Victoria Dam The Randenigala Dam The Upper Kotmale Hydro Power Plant
  48. 48. COMPANIES AND COSTING TO IMPLEMENT SUCH ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF POWER Company name Location Hydro power international (Pvt)Ltd • 34/3, 1st lane, Egodawatta Road, Boralesgamuwa. • 92/a, Gh perera mawatha Rathanpitiya Boralesgamuwa Hydro power services Ltd Prince Alfred tower, level 3 Alfred house garden colombo TEC International (Pvt.) Ltd No.05, 5th Lane, Nawala Road, Nawala MAS Enterprises 10/1, Gangadara Mawatha, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka Free lanka (Pvt) Ltd 10 alfred house garden colombo 3
  50. 50. TIDAL POWER  Tidal energy is produced through the use of tidal energy generators.  These large underwater turbines are placed in areas with high tidal movements, and are designed to capture the kinetic motion of the surging of ocean tides in order to produce electricity.  Tidal power has great potential for future power and electricity generation because of the massive size of the oceans.  Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.  Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges
  51. 51. WAVE POWER  Wave energy is produced when electricity generators are placed on the surface of the ocean.  Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work.  For example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs).
  52. 52. GEOTHERMAL  Geothermal energy is the use of the earth's internal heat to boil water for heating buildings or generating electricity.  Geothermal energy is produced by tapping into the thermal energy created and stored within the earth.  It is considered sustainable because that thermal energy is constantly replenished. PROCESS: Geothermal literally means "earth heat." Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Hot rocks under the ground heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. Company name Location TEC International (Pvt.) Ltd No.05, 5th Lane, Nawala Road, Nawala
  53. 53. BIOFUEL  Biofuel and Ethanol are plant-derived gasoline substitutes for powering vehicles.  The farming industry, among other industries, are using corn and other plants as a biomass alternative energy source that can be put into the gas tanks of cars and trucks that can replace earth-damaging fossil fuels.  The oldest type of biofuel is called biodiesel, which was first made out of plants and vegetables. Today, biodiesel is made out of old cooking oil and other types of plant materials that are not needed for other things. When it’s burning biodiesel made out of old cooking oil, the exhaust from a car’s tail pipe smells like french fries.  Ethanol, a second biofuel, is made by distilling plant materials (eg. corn) into grain alcohol, which is then mixed with small amounts of fossil fuel. When finished, this form of alternative energy can be used in cars, trucks and vans. Company name Location TEC International (Pvt.) Ltd No.05, 5th Lane, Nawala Road, Nawala
  55. 55. GENERATORS  An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.  Electric generators for homes or for commercial use are normally driven by small engines that produce the rotational energy from burning fuel.
  56. 56. GENERATOR: PROCESS (5) Cooling and Exhaust Systems (6) Lubrication System: it requires lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of time. (7) Battery Charger: The start function of a generator is battery- operated. (8) Control Panel: This is the user interface of the generator (9) Main Assembly / Frame (1) Engine: source of the input mechanical energy to the generator (2) Alternator: produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. (3) Fuel System: variety of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, propane (in liquefied or gaseous form), or natural gas. Usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on an average. (4) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of AC Voltage to DC Current