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Muhammad SohaibBS(HONS) 5th semesterRoll No:10Department of library and informationscienceThe Islamia University Of Bahawalpur14 June 2013
Definition of centralizationThe act or process of centralizing,or the state of being centralized;the act or process of combining orreducing several parts into a whole.
Definition of decentralization The spread of power away from the center to localbranches or governments. According to Henry Fayol, "Everything that goesto increase the importance of the subordinate’srole is decentralisation; everything that goes toreduce it is centralisation.“ According to Louis Allen, "decentralisationrefers to the systematic effort to delegate to thelowest levels all authority except that which canonly be exercised at central point."
Advantages / Importance ofDecentralization Decentralisation helps to improve the quality ofdecisions/decision-making at the top levelmanagement. Decentralisation facilitates diversification of activities Decentralisation encourages development ofmanagerial personnel Decentralisation improves motivation withinorganization Decentralisation makes decision-making quicker andbetter Decentralisation provides opportunity to learn bydoing
Limitations of Decentralization Decentralisation may lead to the problem of co-ordination at the level of an enterprise as the decision-making authority is not concentrated Decentralisation may lead to inconsistencies (i.e.absence of uniformity) at the Organisation level Decentralisation is costly as it raises administrativeexpenses on account of requirement of trainedpersonnel to accept authority at lower levels
Limitations of Decentralization Decentralisation creates special problems particularlywhen the enterprise is facing number of uncertaintiesor emergency situations. The decision-making processgets delayed and even correct decisions as per thechanging situations may not be possible
Advantages of centralization Unbiased allocation of work: Being fair and just inassigning a particular amount of work Area of specialization: There is an immediateadvantage if a leader who handles a particular area isan expert in the same field Flexibility: In a crisis or an emergency, standardizationof work takes just one step to revise all the activities atonce
Centralization versusdecentralization in universitylibraries Either university libraries should be centralized or notis become a debatable topic. This issue has four aspects, namely, physical location,administrative control, processing and services
Arguments for centralization Processing should be centralized because it will bebeneficial for the library, If there is uniformity incataloguing and classifying the library readingmaterial, a user would not face any difficulty in usingthe collection of the library. Requires less number of personnel. Requires less equipment. Easier to maintain complete central records forperiodicals and central catalogue.
Arguments for centralization In centralization we can avoid from the duplication oftools required for reference services, catalogue, andclassification. Possible to have uniform lending policy andborrowing privileges
Arguments against centralization Decentralization leads to placing of books in locationsuseful to those who are likely to make the greatest use. By dividing the library collection into units based onsubjects, it becomes possible to bring all forms ofmaterial on a subject together. It would be economicalfor providing subject base services . In decentralization it is possible to employ personswith necessary background and experience to providebetter services Teachers completely favor the decentralization
Arguments against centralization But librarians are opposed to completedecentralization If the resources are limited, then the staff should avoidthe decentralization as possible From the control point of view the university librariesshould have a setup belong to university librarysystem. The chief librarian should have a completecontrol in each university library
Criteria for decentralization In 1952, Ernest Dale developed criteria for determiningthe degree of decentralization within an organization.These criteria were developed in order to conduct amanagement study for the American ManagementAssociation, and they remain valid today.1. The greater the number of decisions made lowerdown in the management hierarchy the greater thedegree of decentralization2. The more important the decisions made lower downthe management hierarchy, the greater the degree ofdecentralization
Criteria for decentralization3. The more functions affected by decisions made at thelower levels4. The less checking required on the decision.Decentralization is greatest when no check at all ismade, less when the supervisors have to consultbefore the decision is made