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Chapter 6 Test and Measurement in sports

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Chapter 6 Test and Measurement in sports

  2. 2. CONTENTS  Motor Fitness Test- 50M Standing Start, 600M Run /Walk, Sit & Reach, Partial Curl Up, Push Ups(Boys) , Modified Push Ups (Girls), Standing Board Jump, Agility 4x10M Shuttle Run.  General Motor Fitness-Barrow Three Items.  Measurement of Cardio Vascular Fitness- Harvard S tep Test/Rockport Test.  Computation of Fitness Index: Duration of the Exer cise in secondsx100/5.5x Pulse Count of 1-1.5 Min. after Exercise,  Duration of the Exercise in seconds x100/2 X Sum of Heart beats in Pulse1,2,3  Rikli & Jones – Senior Citizen Fitness Test 2 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF TEST AND MEASUREMENT  TEST. A test is a tool which is used t o evaluate the skills, performance, an d reliability of the task completed by a sports person.  MEASUREMENT- Measurement is a bout the collection of data about per formance or task completed by a spo rts person by using a test. 3 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  4. 4. Importance of Test and Measurement in Sports  Selection of Athlete  Individual Game Classification of athletes  To study the Development of Athlete  Individually Focused Training Programme  Motivation of an Athlete  To predict in advance the performance potentials  To prepare Norms & Standards  To measure current Fitness Status  To conduct research  To Achieve Objective & Goals 4 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  5. 5. MOTOR FITNESS TEST  Motor fitness refers to the capability of an athlete to take part effectively in his/her particular sport. it can also be said that a person’s ability to do physi cal activities. The following test items are:  MODIFIED PUSH UPS (GIRLS).  PUSH UP (BOYS).  SIT AND REACH.  STANDING BROAD JUMP.  PARTIAL CURL UP.  4 × 10 M SHUTTLE RUN.  50 M STANDING START.  600 M RUN/WALK. 5 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  6. 6. MODIFIED PUSH- UPS (GIRLS)  Purpose: To measure the upper body strength and endura nce.  Equipment required: A mat and paper to record the basic information like age, gender and push-ups performed.  Procedure: The subject is asked to take starting positions, f or modified push-ups hands and knees should touch the m at/floor. Both hands should be shoulder width apart and elb ows fully extended. The body from the knees, to the hips a nd to the shoulders should be in a straight line. While keepi ng this position, the subject should lower her upper body, s o that elbows may bend to 90 degree. Then the subject ret urns back to the starting position.  Scoring: Count the total number of modified push-ups for record. 6 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  7. 7. PUSH UPS (BOYS)  Purpose: To test or measure the upper body strength and endurance .  Equipment Required: A floor mat and a paper to record basic inf ormation such as age, gender and total number of push-ups perf ormed.  Procedure: After proper warming up, ask the subject to take p osition. In a push up position hands and toes should touch th e mat/floor. Hands should be shoulder width apart. The upper body and legs should be in a straight line. Elbows should be f ully extended keeping the back and keens straight, the subjec t lowers the upper body so that elbows may bend to 90 degr ees or chest may touch the mat /floor, then returns back to th e starting position with the arms extended  Scoring: Count the total number of push-ups for record. 7 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  8. 8. SIT AND REACH  The sit-and-reach test was first propounded by Wells and Dillon in 1952.T his test is widely used as a normal test to assess flexibility.  Purpose: The sit-and reach test is a significant test to measure the flexibilit y of hip region including the lower back and hamstring muscles. Generally, it is noted that owing to the lack of flexibility in this region, there is a grea ter risk of injury. It is also entangled with lumber lordosis and lower back p ain.  Equipment Requirement: sit and reach box or a makeshift ruler and a box may be used in which the zero mark can be adjusted for each individual ac cording to their sitting reach level because there is a variation of lengths of individual’s arms and legs.  Procedure:- first of all, Shoes should be removed. Then sit down on the fl oor with legs stretched out straight ahead. The soles of the feet should be kept flat against the box. Both the knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor. An assistant may hold the knees down. Palm should be facing downwards. Hand should be on top of the each other or side by side. The individual, whose flexibility is to be measured tries to extend his/her both hands forward along the measuring line on the box as far as he/she can ex tend.  Scoring: the score is recorded to the nearest centimeter or half inches bas ed on the distance reached by the fingertips of both hands. 8 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  9. 9. STANDING BROAD JUMP  Purpose: To measure explosive strength/ power of legs.  Equipment required: A sandy long jump pit and a measuring steel tape.  Procedure: A take-off line is marked on the ground. Subject stands just behind the take-off line with the feet several inches apart. The subject swings the arms and bends the knees to take a jump in the long jump pit.  Scoring : The measurement is noted in feet and inches. 9 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  10. 10. PARTIAL CURL UP  Purpose: To test the strength and endurance of abdominal muscles.  Equipment’s required: A flat clean and cushioned surfaced, recording sheet and pen.  Procedure: First of all, the complete test procedure is expl ained to the subject. After that the subject lies in supine on cushioned surface the knees should be flexed and feet should be 12 inches from the buttocks .Both the feet’s sho uld be slightly apart. Arms are extended and rested on thi ghs. Head should be in neutral position. This is the startin g position. Then, the subject curls up with a slow controlle d movement, until his/her shouldered come off the cushio ned surface or mat two inches then back down again.  Scoring: Record the total no of partial curl ups. It should n ot be counted if the shoulders are not raised up by two in ches. 10 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  11. 11. 4 × 10 M SHUTTLE RUN  Purpose: To measure agility  Equipment required: Two wooden blocks, marker cones, measuring tape, stopwatch and a flat surface with two lines 10 m apart.  Procedure: Mark two parallel lines 3 meters in length, 10 meters apart using marking tape or cones, considering one line as starting line. On the signal ‘go’ the subject runs to the wooden blocks, lifts one block, returns to the starting line and places the block behind the line. Then the subject returns to the second block, lifts it and then runs across the starting line on the way back.  Scoring: Record the best time to complete the test in sec onds. 11 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  12. 12. 50 M STANDING START  Purpose: To Determine Speed  Equipment Required: Measuring Tape to Marked Track, 2 Stop Watches.  Procedure: An area of 50 m is marked on a track. Two parallel lines are drawn 50 m apart considering one as the starting line. The subject takes the starting position behind the starting line. The starter commands ‘Ready’ and ‘Go’. The word Go is accompa nied by a downward sweep of the starters arm as a signal to the timer. Two subjects can run at the same time if there are two stopwatches.  Scoring: The score is recorded in seconds. 12 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  13. 13. 600 M RUN/WALK  Purpose : To Measure Endurance.  Equipment Required: 600 M Track And Stop Watches..  Procedure: The subject takes the position of standing right behind the starting line at the signal of ready and go the subject starts running. During the course of running he/she may walk also. Many students can run at a same time.  Scoring: Time is recorded in minutes and seconds. 13 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  14. 14. Barrow General Motor Ability Test Standing Broad Jump  Purpose of the Test: To measure Power mai nly but also agility, speed and strength.  Facilities and Equipment required: One 5x 12 feet mat marked with take offline and pa rallel lines 2 inches apart.  Instructions: The subject must crouch befor e jump. Before the jump is taken the arms are swung. Three trials are given.  Scoring: The final score is the distance in inches from the best jump. 14 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  15. 15. Zig-Zag Run  Purpose of the Test: To measure agility mainly but also speeds.  Facilities and Equipment required: One stop watch & 5 flags or cones.  Instructions: The subject can take start from standing position. After the start ru nning is done in a manner of figure of ei ght. Like this three circuits are completed  Scoring: The final score is the time in se conds for three laps. 15 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  16. 16. Six Pound Medicine Ball Put  Purpose of the Test: To measure mainly strength of ar m and shoulder girdle but also to measure power of ar m and shoulder girdle coordination speed and balance.  Facilities and Equipment required: A space in the gym nasium hall with 90x25 feet. A 15 feet restraining line marked. One medicine ball weighing six pounds and o ne measuring tape.  Instructions: The subject must take the position before the restraining line. No overstepping is allowed after re straining line. The medicine ball is put not thrown.  Scoring: The final score is the distance of the best put in nearest foot. 16 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  17. 17. The Harvard Step Test  The Harvard step test is a test of aerobic fi tness, developed by Brouha et al (1943).The features of this test is that it is simple to conduct and requires minimal equipment.  Objective: The objective of this test is to m onitor the development of the athlete’s cardiovascular system.  Required Resources: To undertake this test you will require: Gym bench (45 cm high), Stopwatch. 17 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  18. 18. How to conduct the Test (HST)  The athlete warms up for 10 minutes  The assistant gives the command “Go” and starts the stopwatch  The athlete steps up and down onto a standard gym bench(45cm) for five minutes at a rate 30 steps/min ute (150 steps)  The assistant stops the test after 5 minutes.  The assistant measures the athlete’s heart (bpm) one minute after finishing the test pulse1  The assistant measures the athlete’s rate (bpm) two minutes after finishing the test - Pulse-2  The assistant measures the athlete’s heart rate (bpm) three minutes after finishing the test pulse-3 18 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  19. 19. Computation of Fitness Index (HST)  Short formula = Fitness Index= (100 × test duration in seconds)/ (5.5 × pulse count between 1 and 1.5 mm)  Long Formula (100 × test duration in seconds) /(2 × su m of heart beats in the recovery periods).  The fitness index score is determined by the following equations.  For example. If the total test time was 300 seconds (if completed the whole 5 minutes) and the number of heart beats between 1-1.5 minutes was 90. between 2- 2.5 it was 80 and between 3-3.5 it was 70, then the lo ng form fitness index score would be : (100x300) / (2 40x2) = 62.5.  Note: you are using the total number of heart beats in the 30 second period. Not the rate (beats per minute) during that time. 19 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  20. 20. Fitness Index Score Card 20 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  21. 21. ROCKPORT ONE MILE WALK TEST (ROMWT)  Purpose : The purpose of this Rockport fitness walking tes t (Kilne 1987) is to monitor the development of the athlet e’s VO2 max.  Equipment Requires : 400 mts track , Stopwatch, Weighing scales, One Assistant.  Procedure : This test requires the athlete to walk one mile (1609 mts) as fast as possible.  The assistant weighs and records the athlete’s weight  The athlete warms up for 10 minutes.  The assistant gives the command “GO”. starts the stopwatc h and the athlete commences the test.  The assistant records the time taken for the athlete to com plete the test and the athlete’s heart rate immediately on finishing. 21 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  22. 22. SCORING (ROMWT) A VO2max Score can be calculated u sing the following equation : Females : VO2 =- 139.168 - (0.388 x age) - (0.077 x weight in lb.) - (3.265 x walk time in minutes) - (0.156 x he art rate). Males : add 6.318 to the equation for females above. 22 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  23. 23. Rockport One Mile Test Score Card 23 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  24. 24. RIKLI AND JONES SENIOR CITIZEN FITNESS TEST • The senior fitness test was developed as part of the li fespan, wellness program at Fullerton university. By Dr. Roberta Rikli and Dr. Jessie Jones. As such, the test is sometimes known as the Fullerton functional t est. It is a simple easy to use battery. This test consists of six test items: • Chair Stand Test • Arm Curl Test • Chair Sit and Reach Test • Back Scratch Test • 8 Foot Up and Go Test • Six Minute Walk Test 24 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  25. 25. Chair Stand Test (RJSCT)  Purpose : This test assesses leg strength and endurance.  Equipment required : a straight back or folding chair without arm rest (seat 17 inches / 44 cm high), stopwatch.  Procedure :  Demonstrate the movement, first slowly then quickly.  Have the patient / client practice one or two repetitions to ensure proper form, and adequate balance.  ‘On the signal go’ the patient/ client rises to a full stand, then returns to a fully seated position, as many times as possible in 30 seconds.  If a person is more than half way up at the end of the 30 seconds, count it as a full stand.  One trial.  Take post exercise vital signs.  Document any modifications (chair height, assistance needed).  Scoring : The score is the number of completed chair stands in 30 seconds. 25 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  26. 26. Chair Stand Test Scoring 26 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  27. 27. Arm Curl Test (RJSCT)  Purpose :- Testing upper body strength  Equipment : 5 lb Weight & an 8 lb weight, stopwatch & a straight-back chair with no arms. Women will curl a 5 lb. weight in this test and men will curl an 8 lb. weigh t for their test.  Procedure : Test assistant will tell to begin and will time for 30 seconds, using the stopwatch. Do as many curls as can in the allotted 30-second time period, moving in a controlled manner. Do a full curl, squeezing lower arm against upper arm at the top of each curl and returning to a straight arm each time. Keep upper arm still. Do not swing the Weight. If started raising the weight again and are over halfway up when time is over, count that curl!  Scoring : The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 seconds. 27 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  28. 28. Arm Curl Test Scoring 28 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  29. 29. Chair Sit and Reach Test (RJSCT)  Purpose : This test measures lower body flexibility.  Equipment required :- Ruler, straight back or folding chair, (about 17 inches / 44 cm high).  Procedure : The subject sit on the edge a chair (placed against a wall for safety) One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel on the floor, and ankle bent at 90^0. Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even. Instruct the subject to In hale, and then as they exhale, reach forward toward the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up. Avoid bouncing or quick movements, and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight, and hold the reach for 2 seconds. Perform two trials.  Scoring : The score is recorded to the nearest 1/2 inch or 1 cm as the distance reached, either a negative or positive score. The distance is measured between t he tip of the fingertips and the toes. If the fingertips touch the toes then the sc ore is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score). If they overlap. measure by how much (a positive score). 29 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  30. 30. Chair Sit & Reach Test Scoring 30 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  31. 31. Back Scratch Test (RJSCT)  Purpose : This test measures general shoulder range of motion.  Equipment required : Ruler or a yardstick.  Procedure : This test is done in the standing position. Place one hand behind the head and back over the shoulder, and reach as far as possible down the middle of back, palm touching body and the fingers directed downwards. Place the other arm behind back, palm facing outward and fingers upward and reach up as far as possible attempting to touch or overlap the middle finger s of both hands..An assistant is required to direct the subject so that the fingers are aligned, and to measure the distance between the tips of the middle fingers. Stop the test if the subject experiences pain.  Scoring : If the fingertips touch then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers tips (a negative score), if they overlap measure by how much (a positive score). Practice two times, and then test two times. 31 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  32. 32. Back Stretch Test Scoring 32 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  33. 33. 8 Foot Up and Go Test (RJSCT)  Purpose : To measures power, speed, agility and dynamic balance.  Equipment required : Stopwatch, straight back or folding chair (about 17 inches / 44 cm high), cone marker, measuring tape, area clear of obstacles.  Procedure : Place the chair next to a wall (for safety) and the marker 8 feet in front in of the chair. Clear the path between the chair the marker. The subject starts fully seate d, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground. On the command, “Go,” timing is started and the subject stands and walks (no running) as quickly as possible (and safety) to and around the cone; returning to the chair to sit down. Timing stops as they sit down. Perform two trials  Scoring : Take the best time of the two trials to the nearest 1/ 10th second. 33 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  34. 34. Eight Foot Up and Go Test Scoring 34 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  35. 35. Six Minute Walk Test (RJSCT)  Purpose : This test measures aerobic fitness.  Equipment required : Measuring tap to mark out the track distance, stopwatch, chairs positioned for resting.  Procedure : The walking course is laid out in a 50 ya rd (45.72m) rectangular area (dimensions 45 x 5 yard s), with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are set their own pace (a preliminary trial is useful to practice pacing), and are able to stop for a rest if they desire.  Scoring : measure the distance walked in 6 minutes to the nearest meters. 35 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358
  36. 36. Six Minute Run/Walk Test Scoring 36 ROCKWOOD HIGH SCHOOL,UDAIPUR 9829037221,7014734358