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Modern Architecture - Lecture 1

Modern Architecture

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Modern Architecture - Lecture 1

  1. 1. Jordan University of Science and Technology College of Architecture and Design / Department of Architecture Arch. 331 Modern Architecture Instructor: Dr. Raed Al Tal Summer 2012 The Triumph of the Iron Masters: the Search for a Style
  2. 2. The Drama of Shapes and Space Baroque and Rococo
  3. 3. Signs of Authority Chateau de Versailles It took some 30,000 workers and soldiers to complete the structure according to the King’s (Louis XIV) extravagant tastes that symbolized wealth and power, and this ultimately was financially devastating for the kingdom. An excellent example of picturesque landscape
  4. 4. Two Revolutions that have shaped the Modern architecture were : French Revolution 1789 ( Social struggle, human rights) Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 ( Technology, urban growth ) Technology + Ideology/ Philosophy Modern Architecture Revolutionary movements Communalism versus Industrialism ( Imperial Capitalism)
  5. 5. The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789
  6. 6. Behind The Rose of Versailles Marie Antoinette on the Gullotine, October 16, 1793 ( wife of Louis XVI)
  7. 7. The French Revolution (1789–1799) had such a huge impact on France and West Europe for a long time that the intellectual , philosophical and political life of France was changed Led to the birth of modern France. The ideals put forward at the time are those of France today: Liberty, equality and union Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, August 26, 1789 The rise of the Middle Class / Bourgeoisie
  8. 8. - The invention of Fire is one of the main factors in the emergence of architecture. - cooking - heating …. Gathering and socializing - keeping beasts away from them
  9. 9. Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 Began in England in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777 and quickly spread across Europe and North America. New technology and invention transformed an agricultural and commercial way of life into a modern industrial society - Cast Iron. -Iron and glass industry ( 1840s) , machinery (industrial technology – mechanized) , and light and fire
  10. 10. Iron Bridge Gorge in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 1777 by Abraham Darby It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures.
  11. 11. -Changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution revolutionized families and lifestyles as the factory system drew workers away from the rural family economy to urban areas a dirty and a poor home because they didn't have hygiene. They were many in their home ; we can see five children. We think they were very sad and sorry. It was one room for seven persons.
  12. 12. Children at work
  13. 13. The impact of the Industrial Revolution in Europe was : The growth of urban population- problems of housing , transportation, hygienic problems
  14. 14. -The growth of urban population
  15. 15. This situation give the rise to new phenomena such as : - the revolution of transport - the concentration of workers - the migration of rural people to cities The upheaval was so rapid that the urban centers could no longer cope with the several problems faced them
  16. 16. Paris Napoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris
  17. 17. Napoleon III and Haussmannian Planning in Paris With the fall of monarchy , a new conservative authoritarian regime , at its head came to power - the coronation of Napoleon III - the notion of superiority ; France as the center of Europe Colonial Expansion / Architecture (e.x Egypt) Grandeur “ Hated to seek the beautiful in anything other than that which was large,” his architect Pierre- Francoise Fontaine wrote Natural to the man to admire size, which always related to his mind with the ideas of power and strength -
  18. 18. power and strength Versailles (Louis XIV) Occupied and organized a largely inbuilt area Napoleon demolished the old fabric of cities in order to make room for the public theater of the regime “ Men as great as the monuments they leave behind,” Napoleon declared
  19. 19. Napoleonic period -The academic method of design thoughts in the French professional schools which were recognized under Napoleon Ecole des Beaux –Arts (School of Fine Arts) Ecole Polytechnique ( Polytechnique School) -Special attitude toward urbanism Town planning became one of the most efficient instruments of power -Cities such as Paris were re-planed due to the influx of the rural immigrants . -Napoleon embarked the rebuilding of Paris in 1852 -Georges Eugene Hussmann (1809-1891) ,
  20. 20. -the scheme falls into four categories : 1 - Communication network - to connect the railway stations scattered around the periphery of the city - To cut new, wide roads through the heart of the old city - straight avenues were strategically important for troop parades - the boulevard became more important than the square
  21. 21. 2- Gardens and Parks - several small parks were built throughout of the city, and two large parks were created on the west and the east of the city edges, these Hussmann called “the lungs of the city,” - new aqueducts were built to bring the clean water -3- Building typology -4- Modification of the administrative organization - the number of the city district was increased due to the expansion of the city (between 1815 and 1850 , the population of Paris grew from 500,000 to 1 million inhabitants )
  22. 22. the radial roads to the suburbs, the strategic nodal points, and the circular boulevards. Georges Eugene Hussmann
  23. 23. Paris before Hussmann Paris after Hussmann
  24. 24. The creation of new industrial cities on open land, including all necessary civil amenities and housing for the workers Examples: Saltaire, textile industrial city , England, 1852 Port Sunlight, 1888, England ( landscaped village, garden village ), community Pullman, south of Chicago (not most progressively socially) , but will planned
  25. 25. -The need for new structures, new building types , such as railway stations, bridges, exhibitions Saint Pancras Station train shed , London, 1863-65 the clear span 71.3 meters
  26. 26. -factories, warehouses Example – warship industry in England 13 years for execution firstly was to be sheltered by wooden berths – example Portmouth 1814, steel/cast Iron was then introduced
  27. 27. -Increased number of hotels, banks, offices, government buildings. -In artistic and architectural context the replacement of the craft by mechanized industrial products . - the replacement of the handicraft ship by the specialized expertise contractors on a large scale
  28. 28. the transformation of building technology came from new: -man-made building materials -New structural techniques -new technical services parts and elements were produced on an industrial method (identical elements) -All together they produced a universal structural system
  29. 29. Construction of new building types such as Exhibition Halls required : -Time value -Vast Area -High durability -Low cost -Easy to assemble and dismantle (Mercantile Capitalism )
  30. 30. Joseph Paxton the designer of Crystal Palace Hyde Park in London, 1851 He was not an architect but a green house builder “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations “ Great Exhibition short time for execution almost 9 months Grid principle 24 by 24 foot module Columns were set 48 foot apart Vast area : 563* 124 meter Rational fabrication, extensive use of prefabricated parts Easy assembly : was assembled at the building site
  31. 31. Serially manufactured - similar parts had the same color (Joints: blue, roof trusses: red) The central cross aisle was given a wooden parallel vault in order to accommodate a number of large objects Numerous modifications were introduced during the reconstruction in Sydenham 1854, the nave was also given a parallel vault .
  32. 32. Paris Exhibition , 1889 Gustave Eiffel , Engineer, 1887-89, was signpost of the Exhibition
  33. 33. Viewing Monuments and Machines
  34. 34. Central Market Halls Central Market Halls in Paris (1854- 1857, extended in 1860- 1866) Designers: Victor Baltard and Felix Callet
  35. 35. First scheme was to be a combination of stone and iron, this scheme was abandoned in the med of construction probably on the instructions of Napoleon III. Georges-Eugene Haussmann the New Paris Prefect, announced that he wanted Parisian covered markets to be made of glass and Iron, therefore a new design for the market was subsequently executed .
  36. 36. Voices with and against industrialization The manifestation of modern life
  37. 37. Arts and Craft Movement by the end of the 19th century, in England This movement was shaped by the ideas of art critic and writer John Ruskin and William Morris they shared the distrust of machines and industrial capitalism which they believed alienated workers from their own nature. a reaction against the historical revivalism and soulless of the machine
  38. 38. They considered themselves as socialists and participated in social movement They dedicated themselves to producing functional objects with high esthetic value for a wide public Their style was on natural, rather than artificial forms and often considered a repeated designs
  39. 39. There was debate in the Movement as to whether the machine should be rejected or not. Those who sought a compromise between the efficiency of the machine and the skill of the craftsman tried to find a way in which the craftsman might master the machine rather than becoming its slave.
  40. 40. Red House , designed for William Morris by architect Philip Webb in 1859.
  41. 41. exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its : well-proportioned solid forms, deep porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings. Webb rejected the grand classical style, found inspiration in British vernacular architecture and attempted to express the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with an asymmetrical and quaint building composition
  42. 42. -with wall paintings and stained glass He also desired to have - a "Palace of Art" in which he and his friends could enjoy producing works of art.
  43. 43. importance in the history of garden design
  44. 44. because they were positioned according to the internal arrangement of the rooms and the need for light, rather than for external appearance, and are of a variety of types —
  45. 45. Window detail of The Red House in Bexleyheath, Kent
  46. 46. Art Nouveau (New Art) was an architectural and design movement that developed out of the ideas promoted by the Art and Craft Movement. Based on Japonisme What is Japonisme? It is an artistic interest in Japanese art aesthetic, which began in the mid 19th C after Japan opened its borders to international trade after centuries of isolation. Isometric perspective, linear style, attention to patterns and flattening of the picture plane were stylistic conventions of Japanese art that late Impressionists and Post-Impressionists deliberately used in their own work
  47. 47. It took its name from and art shop in Paris ( Sigfried Bing) ; in Germany and Austria it had other name Jugedstil It emerged at the end of the 19th century and adapted the twining plant form to the needs of architecture. They wanted to create a domestic world that was suffused with natural imagery, the oragnic architecture depended on motifs rather than structures
  48. 48. -They employed decorative traditions -They used curvilinear graphic ornament to suggest growth , even to evoke dream like vision -To combine uniformity of urban modernity with the inspiration of nature -They designed house objects , such as glass and furniture , posters and prints
  49. 49. Best architectural examples of this style was first seen in buildings designed by Victor Horta (1861- 1947)
  50. 50. Examples : Van Eetvelde House in Brussels (1895) Every detail is function as part of a living whole Victor Horta
  51. 51. Hotel Tassel in Brussels 1892- 1893 Victor Horta - Smooth masonry - Still symmetrical - Concluding cornice - The façade blend smoothly into the neighborhood - Only in the development of the oriel window is there a delicate hint of Harta’s exploration of new relationships of ornament and construction
  52. 52. Hotel Tassel in Brussels 1892- 1893
  53. 53. Horta made a break with the past here by using stone and the modern material, metal, in domestic architecture. The modernity of Horta's town house is also signaled by the extensive use of glass, where the window sizes may indicate the function of the interior. Architecture that both contemporary and human, both practical and ornamental
  54. 54. The narrow, symmetrical front facade
  55. 55. The facade includes classical elements like moldings and columns but here some of the columns are iron, not stone, and the entablature is metal, complete with exposed rivets.
  56. 56. Sculpting a Building Art Nouveau achieved its most personal expression in the work of the Spanish architect Antonio Gaudi (1852- 1926), before becoming an architect, Gaudi had trained as an ironworker. Was inspired by Moorish-Spanish architecture He developed a personal aesthetic. He conceived a building as a whole and modeled it almost as a sculptor might shape a figure from clay
  57. 57. Example: Casa Mila, Barcelona 1907, apartment building Known as the House of the Bones A wondrously free form mass wrapped around a street corner The rough surface of the stone walls suggest naturally worn rock The entrance portals look like eroded sea caves Guadi sees Casa Mila a true expressionist of early 20th century painting and sculpture
  58. 58. The exterior seems like waves Casa Mila, Barcelona 1907
  59. 59. The exterior has no right angles
  60. 60. The entrance portals look like eroded sea caves
  61. 61. Sagrada Familia Barcelona, 1884
  62. 62. Strange twisted shape of columns
  63. 63. What was about architecture in the United States in the 19th century?
  64. 64. In 1785 American Congress decided the division of the United States into uniform grid squares for urban planning - more efficiency ( simplicity of its layout, the subdivision of equal plots, - economy ( ease of construction, convenience for vehicle traffic
  65. 65. What about the problems of the grid urban planning? In 1811 New York laid out its streets in a stereotypical grid form Chicago in 1811 was uninhabited In 1900 the population of were 1.7 million people
  66. 66. Population: 15,000 1820 Population: 55,000 1854 Population: 1,698,575 1898
  67. 67. 1891 - FARWELL - CHICAGO CITY PLAN ...
  68. 68. Mid 19th Century New York Early plan of New York, showing the city’s rapid development in the first half of the 19th century. The map, first published in 1833, was frequently updated during its lifetime.
  69. 69. Building proceeding: simple and quickly Imported materials : cast iron and steel from Britain and reinforced concrete from France 1855 cast iron façade parts were delivered from New York to Chicago but majority of houses were still made of wood Great fire of 1871 1874 another destructive fire Fire proof building
  70. 70. Balloon-frame method of construction (1832); wooden frames
  71. 71. City Skyline New York: single tower like buildings to create the a typical urban skyline Chicago: houses grew uniformly and in blocks 9 floor buildings were consider as skyscrapers The passenger elevator by Elisha Otis 1st appeared in New York in 1857 - More higher buildings - Cheaper upper floors now became the more valuable
  72. 72. Chicago School: there was a kind of architectural revolution 1880s- 1890s Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-1886); he developed a personal heavy style Example: Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885 This building became a model for the new generation of Chicago architects
  73. 73. Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885 The building was commissioned in 1885 by legendary merchant Marshall Field. H.H. Richardson, known for his New York State Asylum in Buffalo, designed the exterior masonry piers and arches with interior framing of wood and iron. Intended for the wholesale business of Field's eponymous named department store, it opened in 1887
  74. 74. Marshal Field Warehouse in Chicago, 1885
  75. 75. “ Form Follows Function,” • Louis Henry Suilvan 1856- 1924, has been considered the first truly modern architect. 1.He arrived at a synthesis of industrial structures and ornamentation 2.He employed ornament to serve as connector between commerce and culture 3.Artistic form for commercial buildings projects 4.He summarized his ideas on office building design as :” The tall office building artistically considered”
  76. 76. Examples: Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store Location: Chicago, Illinois (1899-1904) Rich, artfully- crafted ornament on the ground floor Well illuminated, open display area
  77. 77. Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store
  78. 78. Guaranty Building Location; Buffalo, New York (1894-1896) The structure is steel, sheathed with terra cotta The imposing scale of the building and the regularity of the window placements served as an expression of the large scale refined and orderly office work that took place within it. Light decorations and ornamentation observed the severity of the structure
  79. 79. Guaranty Building Location; Buffalo, New York (1894-1896)
  80. 80. Guaranty (Prudential) Building: decoration over entrance (1895-1896, Louis H. Sullivan)
  81. 81. Lobby ceiling light detail. Guaranty Building.
  82. 82. Louis Tiffany, Lotus Table Lamp, 1905

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