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Sql server 2016: System Databases, data types, DML, json, and built-in functions

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Sql server 2016: System Databases, data types, DML, json, and built-in functions

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SQL Server 2016 Slides for the Newbies. Prepared for a session. Covers SQL 2016 JSON support, Built-in Functions, Data Types & Pre-built system databases

SQL Server 2016 Slides for the Newbies. Prepared for a session. Covers SQL 2016 JSON support, Built-in Functions, Data Types & Pre-built system databases

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Sql server 2016: System Databases, data types, DML, json, and built-in functions

  1. 1. SQL Server 2016 System DBs, Data Types, DML, JSON, and Built-in Functions Seyed Ibrahim
  2. 2. System DBs • master • All logins, or roles, to which the user IDs belong • Every system configuration setting (e.g.: data sorting information, security implementation, default language) • The names of and information about the databases within the server • The location of databases • How SQL Server is initialized • Several System tables - System error and warning messages, etc. • tempdb • lifetime is the duration of a SQL Server session • Temp tables
  3. 3. System DBs • model • the basis for creating the tempdb database & any other database created • if you want all your databases to have a specific initial size or to have a specific set of information • msdb • provides the necessary information to run jobs to SQL Server Agent • SQL Server Agent: Windows service that runs any scheduled jobs
  4. 4. Data Definition Language - CREATE • CREATE DATABASE • CREATE DEFAULT When bound to a column, specifies a value to be inserted • CREATE TABLE • CREATE VIEW • CREATE PROCEDURE Creates a T-SQL or common language runtime (CLR) SP • CREATE FUNCTION Creates a user-defined function in SQL Server • CREATE TRIGGER Creates a DML, DDL, or logon trigger • CREATE SEQUENCE Creates a sequence object and specifies its properties • CREATE LOGIN Creates a Database Engine login for SQL Server • CREATE ROLE Creates a new database role in the current database • CREATE USER Adds a user to the current database
  5. 5. Login Vs User • With a login, you can connect to SQL Server • It cannot connect to any of the user databases • user is an account that is database-specific • a login cannot perform database actions without a valid user account • The two may have exactly the same name
  6. 6. Data Types • Exact Numerics • Bigint (Trillions), int, smallint (-32k to +32k), tinyint • numeric, decimal – With precision and scale. Almost the same • bit • money, smallmoney – Not really used • Approximate Numerics • Float (application state depends on the implementation of the floating point numbers) • Real (same as Float(24))
  7. 7. Data Types • Date and Time • Date 0001-01-01 through 9999-12-31 • Time 00:00:00.0000000 through 23:59:59.9999999 • Datetime January 1, 1753, through December 31, 9999 with Time • Smalldatetime 1900-01-01 through 2079-06-06 with 00:00:00 • Character Strings • Char Fixed-length, non-Unicode string data • Varchar Variable-length, non-Unicode string data • text Variable-length non-Unicode data (2^31 - 1)
  8. 8. Data Types • Unicode Character Strings • Nchar Fixed-length Unicode string data • Nvarchar Variable-length Unicode string data • Ntext Variable-length Unicode data • Binary Strings • Binary Fixed-length binary data • Varbinary • Image Variable-length binary data (2,147,483,647 bytes)
  9. 9. Data Manipulation Language • INSERT Syntax INSERT [INTO] {table_name|view_name} [{(column_name,column_name,…)}] {VALUES (expression, expression, …)} • BULK INSERT Example BULK INSERT Sales.SalesOrderDetail FROM 'computer2salesforcedailyordersneworders.txt';
  10. 10. Data Manipulation Language • DELETE Syntax DELETE tablename WHERE where_condition • TRUNCATE TABLE Example • will delete data from a table with millions of records in only a few seconds • cannot issue it against tables that have foreign keys referencing them TRUNCATE TABLE CustomerDetails.Customers
  11. 11. Data Manipulation Language • UPDATE UPDATE dbo.Customers SET FirstName = ‘Talha' WHERE CustomerId = 7 • MERGE • separate insert, update, and delete statements all within the same statement • A level above UPSERT: inserts rows that don't exist and updates the rows that do exist
  12. 12. Types of Built-in Functions Rowset Functions Return an object that can be used like table references in an SQL statement OPENXML, OPENROWSET, OPENQUERY ( linked_server ,'query' ) , etc. Aggregate Functions Operate on a collection of values but return a single, summarizing value. AVG, MIN, MAX, COUNT, SUM, STDDEV, etc. Ranking Functions Return a ranking value for each row in a partition. RANK, DENSE_RANK, ROW_NUMBER Scalar Functions (Described Next) Operate on a single value and then return a single value. Scalar functions can be used wherever an expression is valid.
  13. 13. Scalar Functions Function category Description & Examples Conversion Functions CAST and CONVERT - one data type to another Date and Time Data Types and Functions Perform operations on a date and time input values and return string, numeric, or date and time values. JSON Functions Validate, query, or change JSON data. Logical Functions CHOOSE ( index, val_1, val_2,..) , IIF ( boolean_expression, true_value, false_value ) Mathematical Functions Perform calculations based on input values provided as parameters to the functions, and return numeric values. Metadata Functions Return information about the database and database objects. String Functions LEFT, RIGHT, SUBSTRING, UPPER, LOWER, CONCAT, RTRIM, LTRIM, ETC. System Functions Perform operations and return information about values, objects, and settings. HOST_NAME, ISNULL, ISNUMERIC, @@ROWCOUNT, ERROR_NUMBER, etc
  14. 14. JSON in SQL 2016
  15. 15. JSON Functions Function Description ISJSON Tests whether a string contains valid JSON. JSON_VALUE Extracts a scalar value from a JSON string. JSON_QUERY Extracts an object or an array from a JSON string. JSON_MODIFY Updates the value of a property in a JSON string and returns the updated JSON string
  16. 16. Date and Time Functions Syntax Return value SYSDATETIME () & GETDATE ( ) date and time of the computer on which the instance of SQL Server is running SYSUTCDATETIME ( ) & GETUTCDATE ( ) The date and time is returned as UTC time (Coordinated Universal Time). DATENAME ( datepart ,date ) Returns a string that represents the specified datepart DATEPART ( datepart ,date ) Returns an integer that represents the specified datepart DAY ( date ) Returns an integer that represents the day part MONTH ( date ) Returns an integer that represents the month part YEAR ( date ) Returns an integer that represents the year part DATEDIFF ( datepart ,startdate , enddate ) Returns the number of date or time datepart boundaries that are crossed between two dates. DATEADD (datepart , number, date ) Returns a new datetime value by adding an interval to the specified datepart of the specified date.
  17. 17. End -- Seyed Ibrahim --

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