I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to
Mrs. Manveen Kaur, my Economics professor
who always gave me her valuable time and
suggestions during the completion of this
She has been a source of inspiration for me
and she helped me in understanding and
remembering important and necessary details
of the project.
I would also like to thanks my parents and
friends who helped me a lot in this project and
motivated me a lot.
I would also like to thank god for giving me such
wonderful guides who keep on guiding me at
every moment whenever I need them.
This is to certify that Gurpreet Kaur of class XII-
Humanities of Guru Nanak International Senior
Secondary Public School, Model Town,
Ludhiana has completed her project under the
guidance of Mrs. Manveen, her economics
teacher. She has taken proper care and has
shown utmost sincerity in the completion of this
project. I certify that this project is up to my
expectations and as per the guidelines issued
Mrs. Manveen Kaur
(MA, MBA, B.Ed., MPhil)
• My aims and objectives
• Meaning and definition
• History of GST
• Reasons for implementation
• Types of GST
• Features of GST
• Problems in implementation
• Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN)
• Why does India need GST?
• GST advantages
• GST disadvantages
• How is GST applied?
• GST rates
• Things to get cheaper
• Things to get costlier
• Opposition to GST
• One India One Tax is a Myth
To study and understand the
concept of GST.
To learn about the positive and
negative aspects of GST.
To learn about the effect of GST
on different sectors of the
To gain knowledge about the
effects on the prices of different
commodities after the
introduction of GST.
To know the advantages and
disadvantages of GST.
My aims and
To gain knowledge about which products
fall under GST and what are the different
To learn about the long-term and short-
term impact on the economy.
To learn about the different taxes that the
different countries had adopted.
Earlier the constitution empowered the central
government to levy excise duty on
manufacturing and service taxes on the supply
of services. Similarly, it empowers the state
government to levy the state tax on Value
Added Tax (VAT) on sales of goods. This
exclusive division of fiscal powers has led to a
manipulation of indirect tax in the country.
Further, a central tax was levied on intrastate
of goods. In addition, many states also levy
entry tax on the entry of goods in their locality.
So, as to overcome this problem, the
government at this stage has introduced a
single taxation system which includes in itself
all taxes to avoid the various problems related
to taxation system and thus giving this control
in only one hand. GST stands for Goods and
Dynamics of GST
Services Tax. It is an indirect tax throughout
India to replace taxes levied by the central and
state government. It was introduced as the 122
Amendment Act, 2016, following passage of
Constitution 122 Bill Amendment. The GST is
governed by GST Council and its chairman is
UNION FINANCE MINISTER OF INDIA →
ARUN JAITLEY. Its introduction is a step in the
reform of indirect taxation in India.
Amalgamating of several central and state
taxes into a single tax. This would mitigate
crusading or double taxation, defoliation a
common national market. This simplicity of the
tax is leading to easier terms of a reduction in
the overall tax burden on goods, which is
currently estimated at 28-30% free movement
of goods from one state to another without
stopping at borders for hours for checking or
state tax or entry tax and reduction of work to a
large extent. GST was applicable from 1st July
2017. The reform in indirect taxes was
introduced by VISHWANATH PRATAP
SINGH. By introduction of Modified Value
Added Tax (MODVAT), GST will be levied
concurrently by the central government
(CGST) and state government (SGST). The
features would be common for an individual or
interstate suppliers within India. It would attract
an Integrated GST (IGST) which is an
aggregate of CGST and SGST. The
transactions made within a single state will be
levied within GST and SGST by the
GST is set to become one of the biggest
financial reform that our country has witnessed.
GST is a comprehensive tax levied on the
manufacture, sale, and consumption of goods
and services at the national level under which
no distinction is made on goods and services
by central and state government in India. GST
is a tax on goods and services under which
every person is liable to pay tax on his output
and is entitled to get Input Tax Credit (ITC) on
its input (a tax on value addition only) and
ultimately the final consumer shall bear the tax.
GST is a Canadian value-added tax levied on
the sale of domestic consumption. It has
streamlined all the different types of indirect
taxes and implements a single taxation system.
This single taxation system is GST. The main
purpose accomplished by the implementation
of GST is the abolition of all other indirect taxes
prevailed earlier, we can also say that all those
taxes trap had finally come to an end with only
one indirect tax in the country called GST. It is
the collaboration of all taxes within a new name
which replace all indirect tax rate with a new
and single rate taxation system.
The president of India approved the
Constitutional Amendment Bill for Goods and
Services Tax (GST) on 8th September 2016
following the bill's passage in the parliament
and its ratification by more than 160 countries
who have adopted some forms of GST. The
following taxes are bounded by GST: -
• Central excise duty
• Service tax and commercial tax
• Value added tax and food tax
• Central state tax and entertainment tax
• Purchase tax and luxury tax
• Octroi, advertisement tax and lottery tax
GST levied on all transactions which means
taxation system is administered by both state
and union government. Transactions are made
within a single state will be levied with CGST
and SGST. The Government of that state for
History of GST
intrastate transactions and imported goods and
services are integrated GST (IGST) be levied.
It complicated the tax collection by the state
due to the rebate. IT sector infrastructure also
rebate. This was proposed by SHRI SANTOSH
KUMAR, minister of state in the Ministry of
Finance in a written reply to a question in Rajya
Sabha. At the end of the day, GST comes out
with a better result as it will reduce the cost of
production and inflation in the economy both
domestically and internationally and contribute
to significant growth of Indian economy. This
was all about the history of GST...
• There was no uniformity of tax rates and
structure across states.
• There is a cascading of taxes due to "Tax
on Tax". No credit excise duty and service
tax are paid at the state of manufacture are
available to the traders while paying the
state level sales tax or VAT.
• No payment of state taxes speed in one
state can be reimbursed in other states.
Hence the prices of goods set artificially
inflated to the extent of "Tax on Tax".
There are three kinds of taxes under the GST.
They are: -
1. SGST: - State Goods and Services Tax is
a part of a tax diverted to the state which
is credited by the revenue department of
the state government. This is generally
equivalent to GST. This compensates the
loss of existing VAT or sales tax revenue
to the state government. In the case of
local sales, 50% quantum of tax amount
under GST is diverted to SGST tax.
2. CGST: - Central Goods and Services Tax
is all the goods tax diverted to revenue
department of Central Government. This
share of the tax compensates the loss of
existing excise duty and service tax to the
Central government. In the case of local
Types of GST
sales, balance i.e. 50% quantum of GST
is transferred to CGST.
3. IGST: - Integrated Goods and Services
Tax is levied under interstate sales and
purchase is made. One part of this tax
transferred to the central government and
other to the state government to whom
goods and services belong. The IGST is
the separate tax which is charged only in
case of interstate sales or when
transactions between two states are
• Dual Good and Services Tax:
The functioning of CGST and
SGST has helped a lot to the
Features of GST
• Interstate transactions and
IGST mechanism: The center
would levy and collect the
Integrated Goods and Services
Tax on all interstate supply of
goods and services. IGST
mechanism has been signed to
ensure seamless goods flow from
one state to another. The
interstate seller would pay IGST
on the sale of his goods to the
central government. After
adjusting credit of IGST, CGST,
and SGST on his purchases in
that order. The exporting state
will transfer to the Center. The credit of
SGST used in payments of IGST. The
importing dealer will claim a credit of IGST
while discharging his content tax liability
(both CGST added GST of state) in his own
state. The center will transfer to the
importing state, the credit of IGST used in
payment of SGST.
• Destination-based consumption tax:
GST will be a destination-based tax. This
implies that all SGST collected will ordinarily
occur to the state where the consumer of
goods and services sold resides.
• Consumption of GST on the basis of
Invoice Credit Method: The liability under
the GST will be invoice credit method i.e.
credit will be allowed on the basis of the
invoice issued by suppliers.
• Payment of GST: The CGST and SGST are
to be paid to accounts of the central and
• Input Tax Credit (ITC) set off: ITC for
CGST and SGST will be taken for taxes
allowed against central and state
VAT or sales tax is levied and collected by
State Government. Different state government
charge different rate of taxes on the kinds of
goods traded within their respective territories
limits under the extreme power provided to the
state under the state list of the constitution
whereas GST is levied by the central
government and collected by the state as per
concurrent list of the constitution whereas the
excise duty as per Central Excise Act in 1994
and service tax as per Finance Act 1994 is
levied and collected by central government
through the extreme power provided under
Union list of constitution. Due to this distribution
of powers under the constitution, no state
government wants to lose the revenue source
called VAT or Sales Tax. GST is a subject
matter of union list and no state agrees to
bifurcate their income to the central
government but as some political party is in
maturity in India and or state government
agreed to the proposal. As a result, GST roll
act. GST was first time introduced instead after
being initiated in 1986 by Vishwanath Pratap
(7th Prime Minister of India) than in 2007 and
2011. After the passage of time (25 years) of
economic reforms, in indirect taxes is giving for
a revolutionary change in form of GST. So, we
can say that GST is a complete insight impact
tax rate and conclusion posted on 22nd July
GSTN is a non-profit platform organized to
create and for all the concerned parties i.e.
stakeholders, government, taxpayers to
collaborate on a single portal. The portal will be
accessible to the central government which will
track down every transaction till its end and
while the taxpayers will be having a vast
service to return file their taxes and maintain
their details. The IT network will be developed
by private firms which are being in a tie with the
central government and will be having stakes
accordingly. The known authorized capital of
GSTN is Rs. 10 crores (US $ 1.6 million) in
which the central government holds 24.5% and
rest with the private banking firms.
Goods and Services
• Firstly, the GST will greatly increase the
reserves available at the states and centers
disposal by expanding the tax base. More
importantly, the resources of the power
states like U.P., Bihar, Madhya Pradesh will
• Secondly, the GST will facilitate "Made in
India" by converting the geographical
landscape of the country into a single
market. Despite being one country, India is
a union of 30 or more markets. Too many
taxes in the current system like the central
sales tax or interstate taxes and the
extensive nature of the countervailing duty
exemptions, favor imports domestic
production. GST would get rid of and
Why does India
subsume most of the other taxes and since
it will also be applicable to imports, the
major tax factor working against "Made in
India" disappear, greatly boosting the
production and in turn exports. This will
ultimately help to bridge the current
• Thirdly, the GST would improve tax
governance in two ways:
- One like the VAT, it is a self-collecting
and self-enforcing text, what essentially
means that the companies which are
buying suppliers from outside parties
will insist on tax payment on the goods
supplied as without this, they cannot get
set off on their own final product sales.
Two, due to dual monitoring structure of
GST- one by the states and another by
the center. It is difficult to evade taxes.
Even if one set of tax authorities
overlooks or fails to detect evasion,
there is the possibility that the other
overseeing may not happen by the next
• Moreover, the current structure of taxes in
India is a rat trap. The wide powers to levy
and collect taxes provided to state and
Central Government. As a result, both levy
different kind of taxes which makes the
Indian tax structure very complex and
complex economy too.
• GST is a transparent tax and reduces the
number of indirect taxes.
• GST will not be a cost to registered
retailers. Therefore, there is no hidden
taxes and the cost of doing business will be
• Benefit people as prices will come down
which will intern help companies as
consumption will increase.
• There is no doubt that the production and
distribution ok good services will not
• It will also help to build a transparent and
corruption-free taxation system.
• GST is backed by GSTN which is fully an
integrated platform to deal with all
aspects of GST.
• Adaptation and migration to the new
GST system reduce thinking troubles
and learning from the entire
• Some economists say that GST in India
would impact negatively on the real estate
market. It would add up to 8% to the cost of
the new home and reduce demand by 12%.
• Some experts say that CGST and SGST
are nothing but new names of central
excise duty, service tax, VAT and CGST.
Hence, there is no major reduction in the
number of tax layers.
• The aviation industry would be affected.
Service taxes on airfares currently range
from 6-9 % and effectively double the tax
• Some retail products currently have only
4% text on them. After GST, garments, and
clothes would become more expensive.
• Adaptation and migration to the new GST
system would have thinking troubles and
learning from the entire ecosystem.
GST is a consumption-based tax. It is
based on destination principles. It is
applied to all goods and services at the
place where final consumption happens.
GST is paid on procurement of goods and
services. The manufacturers or
wholesalers or retailers pay the applicable
GST rate what will claim back through tax
GST can be levied on the place of
consumption of goods and services. It will
be levied on intrastate supply and
consumption of goods and services. GST
is a comprehensive tax levied on the
manufacture, sale, and consumption. The
system will change from the current
production-based taxation to consumption
based. It is expected to increase efficiency.
How is GST
Goods and services tax is set to be rolled out
from 1st July 2017 and GST Council in its meet
in Srinagar on 18th may 2017 decided on tax
rates or 1211 items. It is found that 43% of 1211
items have put in 18% GST slab which is bound
to make things cheaper, 14% items have been
brought under 5% GST slabs, 17% items in
12% tax slab and rest only 7% have been
exempted from GST ambit.
Starting from quite essential soap two to hotel
and restaurant services will become cheaper.
1. Soaps are being taxed at 28% but not at
18% under GST cheaper as it dropped to
10% from 28%.
2. Cereals and food grains that have a current
tax rate of 6% and 5% will be excluded from
from GST and brought under 10% tax rate
are milk and cream, not concentrated nor
containing added sugar or other
sweetening matter. Excluding UHT milk
and dairy products.
3. Food grains will be at 0% tax rate.
4. Eggs, butter, curd, milk etc. will be at 0%
tax rate under GST.
5. Edible oil that is currently taxed between 3
to 9% will be brought down to 5% under
6. Tea, coffee, and masala that are taxed at 3
to 9% will be at 5% under GST.
7. Coal will come down from 11.7% to GST
8. Entertainment services will fall from 22% to
The following are the things that will get
cheaper for the common man: -
1. Prices of movie tickets will become cheaper
in most of the states.
2. Food grains, edible oils, etc.
3. Dining in restaurants.
4. Books, pencils, notebooks, etc.
5. Two wheelers.
6. Coal and coal products.
7. SUV's or luxury or premium cars.
Things to get
8. Staying in hotels.
10. Other entertainment services.
11. Washing machines.
12. Tea, coffee and other masalas.
14. Eggs, curd, butter, paneer.
15. Toothpaste, hair products, cereals, and
Some critics say that GST would affect low and
middle-income groups very badly as the prices
of the goods will go up with the implementation
The following things are expected to become
costlier under GST for the common man.
1. Mobile bills.
2. Renewal premium for Life Insurance policy.
3. Banking and investment management.
4. Residential rent.
6. School fees.
7. Courier services.
8. Aerated drinks.
Things to get
9. Cigarettes and tobacco.
10. Basic luxurious for the common man like
Wi-Fi and DHT services.
11. Online booking of tickets for railways,
Presently, the government has long-term
prospects in their minds. It is clearly a long-
term strategy which will lead to higher
investments, higher output, more
employment opportunities, and higher
economic growth but during the initial
phase of implementation, it is expected
then there will be a hike in inflation rates,
more administered cost and stiff protest
from the opposition. In pre-GST India,
states have the capability of reduction of
taxes, thereby making a comparative
advantage for themselves, now places like
Puducherry relied on the ability to create a
lower tax burden. Aside from this, it was
seen that there were zero women on GST
Council. Thus, aids for pregnant ladies are
not being taken care of.
GST is one tax in India, is not a correct
statement. Indirect taxes such as customs duty
or import or export will remain continuous to
levy. Further, few amendments have already
been made in customs law and the same will
remain applicable in India. All other direct taxes
like income tax, gift tax, property tax, etc. will
remain continued in forces as earlier.
One India One tax Is A
This project helped me to learn that changes
in society are bound to happen. We need to
bring change accordingly to the society.
Economic reforms are one such step. Seeing
the present scenario, old economic policies
seem to be outdated as it used to divide India
into economic terms. Value of money was not
the same to all persons. States which used to
have less tax help their people save more tax
which brings disharmony among people. New
GST policy will put people of all states on
equal footing. Moreover, the interstate trade
will become easier that will help to boost the
economy. It also brings the feeling of united
India. Although, people are finding new rules
and regulations much difficult. But this
problem will surely be solved in the long run
and India will move towards economic growth
Most analysts forecast the economy to grow
close to 7.4% in 2017-18, the first year of GST
rollout, which is slightly higher than 7.1% in
2016-17, but lower than 7.4 in 2015-16 while
GST is unlikely to be a positive for economic
growth in short term. This reform will improve
the ease of doing business, bold star investor
sentiment and have a more foreign investment
in coming years. GST rates are divided into 5,
12, 18 and 28% slabs. Petrol, gas, crude oil are
out of GST. It is the best decision taken by the
government. For the same reason, 1st July is
celebrated as Financial Independence Day in
India wherein all MPs attend the function in the
Parliament House. Confusion and complexities
are expected to happen. It is up to the
government to address the capacity building
amongst the participants of GST. GST will
become Goods and Services Tax only if the
entire country works as a whole towards
making it successful.