1. GROUP III
• Kezang Choden (Chemistry)
• Karma Dorji
• Yonten Tshering
• Yeshi Dorji (Biology)
• Pema Namgay
• Aushmita Pradhan
• Sushma Chhetri
• Migma Tshering
• Learning and learning styles
• Elements of curriculum and their relationship with
Tyler's four basic questions
• Objectives of curriculum
• Human development
• My ideas of education
• Women`s place in mans life cycle
3. Learning & learning styles
What do you understand by the term ‘learning’?
• The cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge is
• Learning Styles are simply different approaches or ways of
• Information enters our brain in three main ways: Sight,
Hearing and Touch, the one which we use the most is called
our Learning Style
Styles of learning are:
• Prefer to see information such as pictures,
diagrams, cartoons & demonstrations etc.
• Prefer to hear information spoken
Tactile or Kinesthetic Learners
• Role-playing can help them learn and
remember important ideas
5. Tyler's Four Basic question
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are
likely to attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being
6. Elements of curriculum
There are 3 important set of factors weighed against the
above questions, they are:
1. The nature of the learners-Developmental factors,
learner interests and needs, life experiences
2. The values and aims of society- Democratizing principles,
values and attitudes
3. Knowledge of subject matter- What is believed to be
worthy and usable knowledge
7. Objectives of Curriculum
• Develop self realization
• Making individual literate
• Encouraging social mobility
• Providing skills and understanding for productive
• Furnishing tools requisite for making effective choices of
• Furnishing tools necessary for continued learning
9. 4 Focus questions -
1.How do learners differs in their stages of
2.What are the five aspects of human development
that should guide curriculum planners?
3.What is the “problem of the match”, and how
does it influence curriculum planning?
4.What are the salient characteristics of learners’
cognitive, psychosocial, and moral development?
10. How do learners differs in their stages of
• Learners ability is different at various
11. 5 aspects of human development that should guide
Curricula & learning
5. Cultural and social
experiences appropriate to
learners nature and needs
1. The biological basis
4. Emotional growth
12. Problem of the match
• There must be match between the learner’s developmental
stage & the explicit curriculum.
• when the match between the skills of the learner and the
challenges of the subject matter is limited.
• Planned curriculum must match at various age level, research
suggests 5 different stages where growth of brain take place
from birth – 17. (3-10 month, 2-4 yrs., 6-8 yrs., 10-13 yrs., 15-
• Challenges for the curriculum planner; to make the timing and
content of learning experiences fit the pattern of brain growth.
13. Theories of development
1.Piaget’s model of cognitive development
2.Erikson’s model of psychosocial development
3.Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s models for moral
14. 1. Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development
Stages Age Description
An infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at
birth to the beginning of symbolic thought. The infant
constructs an understanding of the world by
coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions.
2 to 7
The child begins to represent the world with words and
images, reflect increased symbolic thinking and go
beyond the connection of sensory information and
7 to 11
The child can now reason logically about concrete events
and classify objects into different sets.
The adolescent reasons in more abstract and logical
ways. Thought is more idealistic.
15. 2. Erikson’s model of psychosocial
• He views on the emotional growth and development of
• Emphasizes developmental change throughout the human
• Eight stages of development unfold in Erickson’s theory.
16. Psychosocial stages
Approximate Age Virtues
0–2 years Hopes
Basic Trust vs.
2–4 years Will
Autonomy vs. Shame
4–5 years Purpose Initiative vs. Guilt Family
5–12 years Competence Industry vs. Inferiority Neighbors, School
13–19 years Fidelity
Identity vs. Role
Peers, Role Model
20–39 years Love Intimacy vs. Isolation Friends, Partners
40–64 years Care
Ego Integrity vs.
Mankind, My Kind
20. My Idea of Education
This paper was written by Ashley Montagu
describing what he feels about how education
should be taught in schools.
He believes as an anthropologist, that the
human are distinct from other creatures
because of their ability to educate themselves
and the most important is the psychological
need for love.
21. Our Brain
He says that the human brain is so flexible and malleable and
the most educable of all that they can turn accidents into
For e.g. when Newton was sitting under a tree an apple fell
on Newton’s head and he turned this accident into an
But not everyone has the same capacity of thinking like this
because when some brains arrive at truth and conclusions
others might think it as utterly impossible. For e.g. When the
flying machines were invented, leading experts of the world
thought it was a physical impossibility.
22. Children and their Ways
Ashley Montagu says that we should recognize this
ability especially when dealing with children because
their brain is the most educable of all.
In schools we should not force the children
to learn the ways of an adult but let them
learn in their own ways. He says we need to
grow up into children and not adults.
Though many teachers are capable of recognizing
the fact that every child is different but because they
are within a system where the higher officials fail to
understand the needs of the children and the
teachers, they are rendered helpless.
The most important education a teacher can give to
a child is on being human, because whatever the
child learns in the class will determine how he is
going to be in the future.
24. Education is all about being human
Meaning developing traits that are uniquely human for the benefit of
individual and others
1. These traits are Need to LOVE
2. Need to THINK soundly
3. Need to LEARN, etc.
Most important of all human basic psychology needs is, the need
Research found that baby not only want to be loved but also learn to love.
LOVE is the need of students and teacher ought to love his/her students
Meaning child who hasn’t been loved is biochemically, physiologically, and
psychologically very different from who has been loved
25. LOVE definition
LOVE is the ability to communicate by demonstrative acts to
others our involvement in their welfare.
Love should be the first and foremost priority teacher
ought to teach; and reading, writing, and arithmetic are of
Meaning this idea will stand a chance of solving most of
the problems that bedevil the world.
This is my idea of education by Ashley Montagu
27. Women’s place in man’s life cycle
“Arguing that Kohlberg’s model of moral reasoning is based on
male perspective and addresses the rights of the individual,
Gilligan suggests that moral reasoning from a female perspective
stresses the individual’s responsibility to other people.
Life- cycle theories, she concludes, should encompasses the
experiences of both sexes”.
29. Carol Gilligan
Born on November 28, 1936,
in New York City.
In 1970 she became a
research assistant for the great
theorist of moral
In 1982 she published a book
In a different Voice:
Psychological Theory and
Women ' s Development.
30. Views on moral reasoning
• Development of masculinity- Separation
• Development of femininity- Attachment
• Kolhberg’s-Moral development is concerned with rights
Gilligan’s-Moral development is
concerned with responsibilities and
31. Gilligan’s moral reasoning
• Pre Conventional
-Person only cares for themselves in order to ensure survival
-More care shown for other people
• Post Conventional
-Acceptance of the principle of care for self and others is
32. Gilligan's Theory and Education
• Carol Gilligan's theory helps both men and women in seeing
each other in a different perspective.
• In terms of education everyone should focus on it and
everyone's need for education is important.
• A person should not put the needs of others in front of their
own, especially in the case of education.
33. Kohlberg Vs Gilligan
A) Preconvention level
1. Deferring to authority
2. Learning to satisfy one’s own need
B) Conventional level
3. Conforming to stereotypical roles
4. Sense that individual roles contribute
to social order
C) Post- conventional level
5. Morality thought of in terms of rights
and standards endorsed by society as a
6. Morality thought of as self-chosen,
universal principles of justice.
A) Preconvention level
1. Caring for the self.
2. Stage 1 concern judged to be selfish.
B) Conventional level
3. Goodness is caring for others, frequently
equated with self-sacrifice.
4. Illogic of the inequality between self and
others becomes evident. Search for
C) Post- conventional level
5. Focus on the dynamics of relationships, to
eliminate the tension between self and
6. Care is extended beyond personal
relationships to a general recognition of the
interdependence of self and other,
accompanied by a universal condemnation
of exploitation and hurt
Gilligan, C. (n.d). Theories of life stages and
human development. Retrieved from
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
Retrieved on August 18,
Parkay. W & etal (2006). Curriculum planning. Contemporary approach. United
states of America: Pearson Education, Inc.
Stephen.J(2009). Moral Development. Retrieved on August 18, 2014 from:
Theory of moral education. (n.d). Retrieved from
http://education portal.com/academy/lesson/ carol-gilligans-theory-of-moral-development.
Hinweis der Redaktion
Morality refers to a doctrine or system of beliefs, values, or principles that govern human conduct in two ways: by prescribing positive behaviors that benefit others and by proscribing negative actions that harm others.
Level 1: Preconventional
Level 2: Conventional
Level 3: Post conventional
Her theory is divided into three stages of moral development beginning from " selfish , to social or conventional morality , and finally to post conventional or principled morality . " Women must learn to deal to their own interests and to the interests of others . She thinks that women hesitate to judge because they see the complexities of relationships.
Level 1: This is how everyone is as children .In this transitional phase, the person 's attitude is considered selfish, and the person sees the connection between themselves and others.
Level 2: Gilligan says this is shown in the role of Mother & Wife. Situation sometimes carries on to ignoring needs of self. In this transitional phase, tensions between responsibility of caring for others and caring for self are faced.
Level 3: Gilligan has tried to show that women move from a conventional to a postconventional mode of thinking
Kohlberg’s moral development: At stage 1 children think of what is right as that which authority says is right. Doing the right thing is obeying authority and avoiding punishment. At stage 2, children are no longer so impressed by any single authority; they see that there are different sides to any issue. Since everything is relative, one is free to pursue one's own interests, although it is often useful to make deals and exchange favors with others.
At stages 3 and 4, young people think as members of the conventional society with its values, norms, and expectations. At stage 3, they emphasize being a good person, which basically means having helpful motives toward people close to one At stage 4, the concern shifts toward obeying laws to maintain society as a whole.
At stages 5 and 6 people are less concerned with maintaining society for it own sake, and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society. At stage 5 they emphasize basic rights and the democratic processes that give everyone a say, and at stage 6 they define the principles by which agreement will be most just.
Gilligan's theory focused on both care-based morality and justice-based morality. Carol Gilligan has argued that Kohlberg's theory is overly androcentric. Kohlberg's theory was initially developed based on empirical research using only male participants; Gilligan argued that it did not adequately describe the concerns of women. Kohlberg stated that women tend to get stuck at level 3, focusing on details of how to maintain relationships and promote the welfare of family and friends. Men are likely to move on to the abstract principles, and thus have less concern with the particulars of who is involved. Consistent with this observation, Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring