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Presentation Mila Gascó

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Presentation Mila Gascó

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Presentation Mila Gascó

  1. 1. Co-production and ICT-enabled co-production Dr. Mila Gascó ESADEgov – Center for Public Governance ESADE Business & Law School CeDEM16 – Conference for eDemocracy & Open Government Danube University Krems Krems, May 19, 2016 1
  2. 2. 2 OUTLINE •  Open government and co-production •  Open innovation and co-production •  ICT-enabled co-production •  ICT-enabled co-production examples •  Factors that influence ICT-enabled co-production •  Final ideas on (ICT-enabled) co-production
  3. 3. 3 On open government OPEN GOVERNMENT AND CO-PRODUCTION (1) •  An open government is a transparent, collaborative and participative government, that achieves its goals by means of the intense use of ICT tools and, in particular, of open data and open action •  The open government idea is not new •  Open government principles: –  Transparency and accountability –  Collaboration –  Participation
  4. 4. 4 On collaboration OPEN GOVERNMENT AND CO-PRODUCTION (2) •  Collaboration is about different actors, inside and outside the organization, working jointly and transversally •  Different types of initiatives: –  Interoperability –  Social innovation –  Co-production: process of planning, designing, delivering, and evaluating public services with the direct involvement of citizens, users, and stakeholders (OECD, 2011)
  5. 5. 5 On open innovation OPEN INNOVATION AND CO-PRODUCTION (1) •  Open innovation is about inviting problem solvers help reinvent products, services, or even business models that might contribute to the survival of the organization (Chesbrough, 2006 & 2003) •  Through open innovation, organizations search for solutions outside their institutional boundaries: previously untapped problem solvers are actively involved in decision-making, above all through ICT platforms, in order to increase political awareness, tackle social problems and increase the trust between government and citizens (Mergel & Desouza, 2013)
  6. 6. 6 Co-production as an open innovation process OPEN INNOVATION AND CO-PRODUCTION (2) •  Internal innovation processes: –  Policy-induced (top-down) –  Employee suggestions •  External innovation processes: –  Contractors –  Adapt to industry standards •  Open innovation processes: –  Crowdsourcing –  External professional and amateur problem solvers
  7. 7. 7 Co-production to deliver open services OPEN INNOVATION AND CO-PRODUCTION (3) •  Open services refer to the application of the open innovation paradigm to the specific issue of public services: this means that public organizations harness productive forms of shared responsibility outside their institutional boundaries for the delivery of public services – through the employment of ICT tools (OECD, 2013)
  8. 8. 8 Cucciniello & Nasi (2015) ICT-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION
  9. 9. 9 Challenge.gov ICT-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION EXAMPLES (1) •  Background: –  2009 American Innovation Strategy –  2010 America COMPETES Act •  Challenge.gov is a technical platform and list of challenge and prize competitions, all of which are run by more than 75 agencies across the US federal government. These include technical, scientific, ideation, and creative competitions where the US government seeks innovative solutions from the public, bringing the best ideas and talent together to solve mission-centric problems
  10. 10. 10 Love Clean Streets ICT-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION EXAMPLES (2) •  It is the leading UK public engagement platform for local governments and municipalities who want to provide efficient ways for citizens, their partners and their employees to report and deal with images and location based reports •  Environmental issues: among other, graffiti, fly-tipping or fly-posting, potholes, abandoned cars, and dog mess •  Multichannel: Internet, smartphones (app), social media
  11. 11. 11 Kerrokartalla ICT-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION EXAMPLES (3) •  It is based on the Helsinki City Council’s strategy to promote more open governance and transparency through open innovation •  It is an interactive online service developed in 2010 in cooperation with local SME •  Citizens are actively involved in city planning through web tools •  More than 20,000 comments have been received so far but there are some challenges to overcome
  12. 12. 12 Simple apps developed by citizens using open data ICT-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION EXAMPLES (4) •  The Great British Public Toilet Map (United Kingdom) •  Rodalia.info (Spain) •  Bike Like a Local (The Netherlands) •  Alertcops (Spain) •  Avisora (Mexico) •  Don’t Eat At (United States)
  13. 13. 13 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ITC-ENABLED CO-PRODUCTION •  Organizational factors (Voorberg et al., 2014): –  Preparedness for participation –  Open attitude –  Risk averse administration culture –  Clarity of incentives •  Citizen factors (Voorberg et al., 2014): –  Citizens’ characteristics and values –  Awareness and feeling of ownership –  Social capital •  ICT factors (Cucciniello & Nasi, 2015): –  ICT infrastructure and capacity –  ICT readiness –  Disruptive nature of the Internet
  14. 14. 14 FINAL IDEAS ON (ICT-ENABLED) CO-PRODUCTION •  Not everyone wants/knows how to co-produce – different service models are needed •  Co-production is not free – resources, both in terms of time and money, are needed •  Often, the process is more important than the outputs/outcomes themselves •  Co-production does not need ICT but ICT facilitate and speed up the processes of co-production
  15. 15. THANK YOU! Dr. Mila Gascó E-mail: mila.gasco@esade.edu Twitter: @MilaGasco ESADEgov: http://www.esade.edu/research-webs/eng/igdp 15