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Express Notes Science Form 1

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Express Notes Science Form 1

  1. 1. Written By Ng Chee Kin B.Sc.(Hons.), MBA ngcheekin@gmail.com mrcheekin@blogspot.com.auAll Rights Reserved ©2012 Ng Chee Kin
  2. 2. Page 1 PREsSS E X p r e����� u .a CHAPTER 1 om Introduction to Science 1.1 What is Science? t.c 1 Science is a systematic study of nature and its Measuring cylinder Evaporating dish effects on us and the environment. Beaker Filter funnel 2 Natural phenomena are events that happen po naturally around us. 3 Science can be divided into many fields such as: Biology, physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy and meteorology. gs 4 Science-based careers are occupations that are Water trough Tripod stand based on science, for example: Life science – doctor, nurse, dietician, botanist, zookeeper; lo earth science – environmental scientist, Bell jar Gas jar meteorologist, geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist; and physical science – physicist, chemist, engineer, architect, and radiologist. .b Test tube rack in 1.2 A Science Laboratory 1 It is a room or a building where scientific ek investigations are carried out. 2 We must obey safety rules and precautions when working in a science laboratory. Flat-bottomed flask Conical flask 3 Common laboratory apparatus: he Test tube holder Crucible tongs rc m Test-tube Boiling tube Flat-bottomed flask Round-bottomed flask Dropper Eureka canExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 3 4/16/09 10:49:42 AM
  3. 3. Page 2 4 Hazard warning symbols: 1.3 The Steps in a Scientific Investigation external), (1) Identifying the problem micrometer, u Highly flammable vernier (2) Forming a hypothesis calipers .a Examples: (3) Planning the experiment Ethanol, petrol (4) Controlling variables Length of String om curves and ruler, (5) Collecting data opisometer (6) Analysing and interpreting data Explosive Area of Mathematical 1 cm2 (7) Drawing a conclusion regular formulae, = 100 mm2 t.c Examples: (8) Writing a report shapes graph paper Sodium, potassium 1 m2 Area of Estimation = 10 000 cm2 1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units po 1 Physical quantities and their s1 units: irregular using graph 1 km2 Corrosive shapes paper = 1 000 000 m2 Examples: Physical Unit SI units Volume of Measuring 1 ml = 1 cm3 Concentrated quantities symbols gs hydrochloric acid, liquids cylinder, 1 l = 1 000 cm3 length metre m sodium hydroxide pipette, 1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3 mass kilogram kg burette lo time second s Poisonous/toxic Volume of Mathematical temperature kelvin K regular- formulae, Examples: Lead, mercury .b electric current ampere A shaped solids water displacement method in 1.5 Weight and Mass (Eureka can 1 The weight of an object is the pull of the or measuring ek Irritant Earth’s gravity on the object. cylinder filled 2 The mass of an object is the quantity of matter 1 m3 with water) Examples: in the object. = 1 000 000 cm3 Chlorine, chloroform Volume of Water he 1.6 Measuring Tools irregular- displacement Units shaped solids method Physical (using Highly flammable Tools/method and their rc quantity Eureka can relationship or measuring Examples: Length of Metre rule, 1 cm = 10 mm cylinder filled m Ethanol, petrol straight lines ruler, calipers 1 m = 100 cm with water) (internal & 1 km = 1000 mExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 4 4/16/09 10:49:43 AM
  4. 4. Page 3 1.7 The Importance of Standard Units Chloroplast Carries out (e) 1 Standard unit improves international photosynthesis u communications. Vacuoles Stores water and 2 They also ensure the physical quantities are .a dissolved materials measured accurately and consistently. Euglena nucleus 4 A microscope is used to study the general om CHAPTER 2 structure of a cell. (f) bud Cell As a Unit of Life 2.2 Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms 1 A unicellular organism has one cell only. t.c 2.1 What is a Cell? Yeast 1 A cell is the basic unit of life. (a) nucleus 2 Its function is to carry out life processes. po 2 A multicellular organism has many cells. Cell (a) (b) Pleurococcus gs Protoplasm Cell membrane Chondrus Hydra (b) nucleus Nucleus Cytoplasm lo (c) Spirogyra Animal cells Plant cells Irregular in shape No cell wall Regular in shape Have cell wall .b Amoeba pseudopodium 2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body in 1 Organisation of cell: No chloroplasts Have chloroplasts (c) Cell (simple) ek Mostly no vacuoles Have large vacuoles ↓ 3 The functions of cell structures: Chlamydomonas Tissue chloroplast he Structure Function ↓ Nucleus Controls all cell activities Organ Cytoplasm A place where chemical (d) ↓ rc processes take place cilium System Cell membrane Controls flow of materials ↓ m in and out of cell Paramecium Cell wall Gives shape to the cell Organism (complex)ExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 5 4/16/09 10:49:46 AM
  5. 5. Page 4 2 Examples of cell: (c) Nerve tissue 5 Examples of system: (a) Nerve cell u Nose .a Trachea Bronchus Skin om (d) Epithelial tissue (b) Red blood cell Liver Lungs Kidney t.c Urinary 4 Examples of system: bladder (c) Epithelial cell po (a) (b) Respiratory system Excretory system Oviduct or Pituitary Fallopian tube gs gland Thyroid Ovary (d) Bone cell Lungs Stomach gland Uterus lo Vagina Female .b (c) (d) Adrenal gland Sex glands Sperm duct in Ovary 3 Examples of tissue: Testis (female) Urethra (a) Connective tissue Testis (male) penis ek Endocrine system Male Eye Kidney 2.4 The Human Being – A Complex Organism he 1 A human being is a complex multicellular (e) (f) organism because the cells are organized into (b) Mucsle tissue tissues, organs and systems. rc 2 Cell specialisation helps to divide body functions among the different types of cells. 3 Cell specialisation and cell organisation m ensure the life processes are carried out Tongue Brain effectively.ExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 6 4/16/09 10:49:50 AM
  6. 6. Page 5 CHAPTER 3 Examples Soil, wood, Water, Air Liquid Mercury To make thermometer, most metals mercury hydrometer Matter u (a type of Water To make drinks, cooking, metal) .a 3.1 What is Matter? washing and cleaning 1 Matter is everything that has mass and Gas Air To fill buoy, rise hot 3.3 The Concept of Density air balloons, make a om occupies space. 1 Density is defined as mass per unit volume of submarine sink or float 2 Examples of matter are wood, air, water, soil a substance. and living things. Mass CHAPTER 4 Density = ———— 3.2 The States of Matter Volume t.c The Variety of Resources on Earth 1 Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and 2 The unit of density is gram per cubic gas. centimeter (g/cm3). 4.1 The Various Resources on Earth 2 Matter changes its state when it is heated or po 3 The buoyancy of a substance is affected by its 1 The basic resources needed for life on Earth cooled. density. are: 3 The kinetic theory of matter states that matter 4 Buoyancy (or flotation) refers to the ability consists of tiny and discrete particles. Basic Useful of a substance to float or sink in another Importance gs 4 Characteristics of state matter: resource substances substance. Characteristic Solid Liquid Gas 5 A lower density substance will float on a Air Needed for Oxygen, higher density liquid. respiration and nitrogen, Arrangement Closely Further apart Very far lo 6 On the other hand, a higher density substance combustion carbon of particles packed apart dioxide will sink in a lower density liquid. Carbon dioxide Spaces Very small Large Very large .b cork (0.24 g/cm3) water (1.00 g/cm3) is needed for photosynthesis in zinc (7.10 g/cm3) between Water Needed to support Fresh water particles the functions of the ek body systems Movement of No free Move freely, Move 3.4 The Properties of Matter and Their Application particles movement, collide with freely, very in Everyday Life Soil Contains air, water, Humus vibrate one another rapidly and minerals and organic Matter Example Applications he about a fixed randomly substances which are position Solid Iron, steel To construct buildings, needed to support bridges and vehicles, living things Density High Medium Low make cooking utensils Minerals Minerals such as Metals rc Shape Definite No definite No definite metals are used Wood To build bridges ad shape shape shape to make useful houses, making furniture m Volume Definite Definite No definite products and Plastic To make toys, components volume volume volume construct buildings in vehiclesExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 7 4/16/09 10:49:53 AM
  7. 7. Page 6 Fossil Used to produce Coal, Examples Iron, Naphthalene, Soil, air, Brittleness and Ductile (can Brittle (can fuels energy in power petroleum, hydrogen, sugar, rubber, dessert hardness be pulled break easily) u plants, factories, natural gases oxygen, table salt, into strands) and soft vehicles, machines helium, water and hard .a and to make plastics carbon, Malleability Malleable Non- Living They are sources Meat, skin, mercury (ability to be malleable om things of food, building carcasses, shaped) materials, clothes silk, milk Comparing metals and non-metals Conductivity of Good Poor and fuel heat conductor of conductor of Physical Metals Non-metals heat heat properties t.c 4.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Surface Shiny Dull Conductivity of Good Poor Comparing elements, compounds and mixtures appearance electricity conductor of conductor of electricity electricity po Aspect Element Compound Mixture Brittleness Ductile (can Brittle (can Melting point High Low Appearance and hardness be pulled into break easily) strands) and and soft Boiling point High Low hard Density High Low gs Malleability Malleable Non- Comparing the Properties of Compounds and Definition It is the It is made It is made (ability to be malleable Mixtures simples up of two up of two shaped) lo substance or more or more Aspect Compounds Mixtures Conductivity Good Poor substances substances of heat conductor of conductor of (a) Method of By chemical By physical which are chemically combined which are not chemically .b Conductivity heat Good heat Poor separation (b) Formation reactions. A new means. No new in of a new substance is substance is combined of electricity conductor of conductor of substance formed formed electricity electricity Composition Only Can consist (c) Conversion of Heat is No heat is ek consists of of one or Melting point High Low energy released or released or one type more than Boiling point High Low absorbed absorbed of particle one type of when a when a he particle Density High Low compound is mixture is Separation Cannot be Can be Can be formed formed method separated separated separated Physical methods to separate components of a mixture (d) Characteristic The The by any by chemical by rc Physical of the original characteristics characteristics processes means only, physical Metals Non-metals properties components of the original of the original such as means, components components m electrolysis such as Surface Shiny Dull are no longer are filtration appearance maintained maintainedExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 8 4/16/09 10:50:07 AM
  8. 8. Page 7 (e) Identification The original The original 1 Air consists of about 20% of oxygen. 5.2 The Properties of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide of the original components components Water fills up – of u components cannot be can be gas jar, showing Carbon that about 20% of Properties Oxygen identified identified the volume of air dioxide .a easily easily consists of oxygen Colour Colourless Colourless (f) Ratio of Components Components Odour (smell) Odourless Odourless om components are combined are formed in a specific without a Solubility in Slightly Slightly 2 Air contains water vapour. ratio fixed ratio water soluble soluble Cork Solubility Not soluble Very soluble 4.3 To Appreciate the Importance of Earth’s t.c Test tube in sodium (to form Resources Ice Liquid on the hydroxide sodium 1 Preservation of resources is the act of keeping outer wall of carbonate) the test tube the resources in their original state. Water po 2 Conservation of resources is the responsible Effect on lime No effect Lime water use and management of natural resources to water turns cloudy Beginning of End of prevent loss, waste or damage. experiment experiment Supporting Supports Does not gs 3 Preservation and conservation of Earth’s 3 Air contains microorganisms. combustion combustion. support resources are important to: combustion. (a) prevent extinction of animal and plant • A glowing • A glowing species lo splinter splinter (b) prevent depletion of natural resources relights relights such as fossil fuels and minerals • A burning • A burning (c) prevent the pollution of air and water (d) ensure the basic needs of humans are not threatened .b splinter burns more brightly splinter burns more brightly in (e) ensure the natural resources will be available for future generations 4 Air contains dust particles. pH Neutral Acidic ek CHAPTER 5 • Has no • Turns Sticky surface effect on moist blue The Air Aroun Us facing up Dust particles moist blue litmus he and red paper to 5.1 The Composition of Air litmus red papers • Turns red • Has no hydrogen rc Nitrogen (78%) Oxygen (21%) Dust effect on carbonate Inert gases + water particles vapour + dust + Carbon dioxide Glass slide Glass slide hydrogen indicator to m microorganisms (0.97%) (0.03%) carbonate yellow indicator Experiments to show the properties of airExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 9 4/16/09 10:50:09 AM
  9. 9. Page 8 5.3 Oxygen is Needed for Respiration • Bronchitis, pneumonia (caused by Energy Characteristics Examples sulphur dioxide) 1 Oxygen is needed for respiration to produce Potential Energy stored • A stretched u • Death (caused by carbon monoxide) energy. (stored energy) in an object due sling-shot 4 The effects of air pollution on the 2 The composition of inhaled and exhaled air: .a environment: to its position or • A rock on a Composition (%) • Acid rain (caused by sulphur dioxide) condition. cliff Gas • Thinning of the ozone layer (caused by • A om Inhaled air Exhaled air compressed CFC) Nitrogen 78 78 • Greenhouse effect (caused by carbon spring Oxygen 21 16 dioxide) • A wound up • Haze (caused by dust particles, soot) alarm clock Carbon t.c 0.03 4 dioxide 5.6 The Importance of Keeping the Air Clean Kinetic • Energy that • A moving Inert gases 0.97 0.97 (working is found bus 1 We can keep the air clean by practising the Water energy) in moving • A swinging po Less More following: vapour objects. pendulum • Using less CFC based products, such as • A rotating aerosols. ceiling fan gs 5.4 Oxygen is Needed for Combustion • Recycling and reducing wastes • A flying 1 Combustion is a process that requires oxygen, • Using unleaded petrol aeroplane heat and fuel. • Using public transport or sharing vehicles Heat • Energy that • A burning 2 Combustion of carbon (such as charcoal): lo (car pooling) (working is released candle Carbon + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide • Installing catalytic converters to motor energy) by hot • A boiling vehicles objects. water 3 Combustion kerosene): of hydrocarbon (such as .b 2 Cigarette smoke contains tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide which are harmful to • The hot Sun • A hot iron in Hydrocarbon + Oxygen → humans. Light • Energy that • A shining Carbon dioxide + Water (working is produced star energy) by glowing • A glowing ek objects. light bulb 5.5 Air Pollution CHAPTER 6 • A burning 1 Air pollution is caused by the pollutants in Sources of Energy campfire he the air. • A switched 2 Air pollutants are harmful substances that 6.1 The Various Forms and Sources of Energy on torch are added to the air. Sound • Energy that • A beating 1 Energy is an ability to do work. rc 3 The effects of air pollution on human beings: (working is produced drum • Lung cancers (caused by asbestos, 2 The SI unit for energy is joule (J). energy) by vibrating • A person sulphur dioxide) 3 Forms of energy: Potential, electrical, kinetic, objects. singing m • Brain damage in children (caused by lead chemical, heat, nuclear, light, mechanical, • A blowing particles, carbon monoxide) sound whistleExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 10 4/16/09 10:50:09 AM
  10. 10. Page 9 4 Sources of energy: Geothermal • Geysers • To produce • A ringing telephone • Hot geothermal Sources of u Examples Uses springs energy that energy Electrical • Energy that • An electric • Volcanoes can be used .a (working is produced iron Fossil fuels • Coal • To generate to generate energy) by flowing • An electric • Petroleum electricity in electricity • Natural power plants om electrical heater current gas • As the main 5 Energy changes from one form to another. For (electricity). fuel for vehicles example: and machines Situation Energy change Chemical • Energy that • Food t.c Wind • Moving • To move a (stored energy) is stored in • Fossil fuels A marble rolls Potential energy → air sailboat a substance (such as down a slope Kinetic energy • To turn a that can be natural gas, Winding up spring Kinetic energy → windmill for po burnt. coal and of a toy car Potential energy pumping water petrol) and grind corn Burning a candle Chemical energy → • Wood • To generate Heat + Light energy gs electricity in Nuclear • Energy that • Explosion Beating a drum Kinetic energy → wind farms (stored energy) is produced of an atomic Sound energy by atoms bomb Water • Rain fall • To generate Switching on a fan Electrical energy → lo that are • The (hydro) hydroelectricity kinetic energy broken explosion down on the Sun’s Sun • The Sun • To generate An exploding Nuclear energy → (through nuclear fission) or surface .b (solar) electricity (solar cells and solar panels collect atomic bomb Heat + Light + Sound energy in solar energy 6 The Sun is the primary source of energy. combined (through and convert 6.2 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy ek nuclear it electrical Sources fusion). energy) • To enable 1 Comparing renewable and non-renewable Mechanical • Energy that • A car is photosynthesis energy sources: he (combination is posessed driven up a in green plants. Renewable Energy Non-renewable Energy of working by an object hill Radioactive • Uranium • To produce (energy sources that (energy sources that will and stored that has • A pendulum substances • Plutonium nuclear energy. can be reused and be used up one day and rc energy) both kinetic swings back • To produce will never run out) cannot be replaced) energy and and forth electrical energy • Solar energy • Fossil fuels (such potential in submarines m (from the Sun) as natural gas, energy. and warships petroleum and coal)ExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 11 4/16/09 10:50:10 AM
  11. 11. Page 10 • Hydroelectricity • Nuclear energy Aspect Heat Temperature Affected by • Volume- • Amount of (from flowing (from plutonium) Definition A form of Degree of the bigger heat- the u water) on energy hotness of an the more the heat • Biomass energy object volume, energy is .a (from plants) the more supplied, the • Wind energy SI Unit joule (J) kelvin (K). the heat higher the Normally we om (from wind) temperature • Geothermal use degrees Celsius (°C) Difference energy (from the Earth) How it is • Kinetic • Supplying produced energy heat energy t.c P Q P Q 2 Conservation and efficient use of energy: (such as to an object (a) Use energy efficient equipment, such as rubbing (causing 100°C 100°C fluorescent lights hands) temperature po (b) Use public transport, such as buses and • Chemical to increase) P contains P and Q have light-rail transit (LRT) energy • Removing more heat the same (c) Practice car-pooling to work (such as heat from than Q temperature burning an object gs 6.3 The Importance of Conserving Energy Sources fossil fuels) (causing 7.2 The Effects of Heat Flow on Matter • Electrical temperature 1 Conserving non-renewable resources 1 Heat changes the volume of matter. energy to decrease) will make them last longer for the future 2 When heated, the volume of matter increases. lo (such as generations. Hence, matter expands. lighting a light bulb) 3 When cooled, the volume of matter decreases. CHAPTER 7 Heat .b • Nuclear energy 4 Hence, matter contracts. Heat flows from a hot region to a cold region in three ways: in (such as nuclear (a) conduction, occurs in solids 7.1 Heat as a Form of Energy (b) convection, occurs in fluids (such as fission in ek 1 Heat is a form of energy the Sun) liquids and gases) 2 Heat can be produced from: (c) radiation, does not require a medium Effect • Causes • Causes (a) kinetic energy, such as rubbing two matter to matter to he objects together 7.3 Effects of Heat on Matter expand or become hot (b) chemical energy, such as burning fossil contract or cold Change of state fuels Process Heat flow • Causs • Causes of matter (c) electrical energy, such as lighting an matter to heat to flow rc electric bulb Melting Solid → Liquid Heat is change from a hot (d) nuclear energy, such as nuclear fission in absorbed from one region to a the Sun m state to cold region Freezing Liquid → Solid Heat is 3 Comparing heat and temperature: released anotherExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 12 4/16/09 10:50:11 AM
  12. 12. Page 11 Boiling Liquid → Gas Heat is (a) Mercury or alcohol in thermometers 7.6 The Benefits of Heat Flow absorbed (b) Bimetallic strip in thermostats 1 Application of heat flow via conduction: u (c) Bimetallic strip in fire alarms (a) Heat is used for cooking food with Condensation Gas → liquid Heat is (d) Gaps in railway tracks and bridges cooking utencil .a released (e) Telephone wires (b) Heat is used to melt metal for making Evaporation Liquid → Gas Heat is (f) Metal pipes carrying hot water and oil jewellery and equipment absorbed om 2. Applications of heat flow via convection: Sublimation Solid → Gas 7.5 Absorbing and Giving Out Heat (a) Convection currents improve the air Gas → Solid Heat is 1 Objects that absorb heat are called heat circulation and keeps the buildings cool absorbed absorber. (b) Convection currents cool the Earth’s Heat is 2 Objects that give out heat are called heat surface through sea breeze and land t.c released radiator. breeze. 3 Dark, dull objects are good heat absorber and 3 Applications of heat flow via radiation: good heat radiator. (a) Heat flow by radiation is used to dry po 7.4 Application of Contraction and Expansion of 4 White, shiny surfaces are poor heat absorber laundry Matter and poor heat radiator. (b) The heat from the Sun keeps the Earth 1 Application of expansion and contraction of and our body warm matter: gs lo .b in ek he rc mExpressNotes SC (F1)1st 13 4/16/09 10:50:11 AM

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