Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

i.school, The University of Tokyo "Divergence, convergence, and expression of ideas"

https://schoo.jp/class/2094

  • Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

i.school, The University of Tokyo "Divergence, convergence, and expression of ideas"

  1. 1. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 1 1©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  2. 2. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 2 School for Innovation, i.school,  The  University  of  Tokyo  
  3. 3. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 3 Format of this series   5 lectures   3  workshops     ①   4/16  [FoundaAon  and  methodology  in   creaAng  innovaAon]   ②   4/23  [Understanding  1:  The  purposes   and  methods  of  interviews  and  field   work]   ③   4/30  [Understanding  2:  The  purposes   and  methods  of  technological  research   and  case  studies]   ④   5/7  [CreaAon:  Divergence,   convergence,  and  expression  of  ideas]   ⑤   5/14  [RealizaAon:  Methods  of  concept   designing  and  user  surveys]   ⑥   6/3  [Workshop  1:  Learn  from  everyday   robots  in  the  future]   ⑦   6/10  [Workshop  2:  Learn  from  services   in  India]   ⑧   6/17  [Workshop  3:  Learn  from  on-­‐   campus  services]  
  4. 4. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 4 Goals of this series:   Understand the enAre  process of creating innovation   Learn to provide a concept idea   Understand the process of coming up with a concept idea  
  5. 5. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 5 Guest facilitator   Jun  Murakoshi   i.lab:   Product  Designer     Master's degree from the Design and Science Course, Chiba University Graduate School of Engineering.   Master's degree from Royal College of Art (RCA)  Design   Products in the U.K. Murakoshi was a specially appointed researcher at the Graduate School of Engineering at Chiba University and worked as a specially appointed associate professor at the Center for International Research and Education of the same university before joining i.lab. He has a number of award-winning works that are exhibited in Japan and Europe.  
  6. 6. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 6   6 Objectives of the 4th class:   ▶  Understand the processes and tips for coming up with ideas   ▶  Make the ideas come much easier!  
  7. 7. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 7   7 Review of   the 3rd class  
  8. 8. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 8   8 Objectives  of the 3rd class:   ▶  Understand the purposes, targets and methods of technology- centered research   ▶  Turn everything surrounding you into hints for ideas right  away  
  9. 9. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 9   9 Questions  received  the 3rd class:   ▶ Thank you for your participation!   ▶ Shin and Yokota responded to all of the questions!  
  10. 10. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 10 1 0©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  11. 11. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 11   11 Objectives of the 4th class:   ▶  Understand the processes and tips for coming up with ideas   ▶  Make the ideas come much easier!  
  12. 12. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 12 Abstract Detailed Process   Degree  of   Abstrac1on   ① Collect miscellaneous factual   information   ③ Understand a situation   structurally   ④ Explore business   opportunities   ② Group and abstract   factual information   ⑥ Create ideas   ⑦ Select an idea   ⑨ Refine the idea   ・・・・   ・・・・   ・・・・   ⑤ Establish a business opportunity   ⑧ Put the idea into shape   0   1   Understand Create Realize
  13. 13. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 13   13 First of all,   what are your tips   for coming up with ideas?   Post and share your ideas!  
  14. 14. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 14 Society     Market     Human s     Technolog y     Idea    Technology People I d e a m a k e r Idea   (Product, service, experience)   IDEA   i.school's   integrated  approach  
  15. 15. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 15   15 - Electrified wire glows   The essence of creating ideas is to seek new links between existing knowledge on ends and existing knowledge on means.   Means   (Function, shape, mechanism)   Ends   (Provided value, challenge)   - Light up a dark place  
  16. 16. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 16 How your brain works when coming up with ideas: •  Brings in useful information   •  Processes the information  
  17. 17. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 17     Working memory   (→ mainly processing functions)   Types of memory: 1.  Short-term memory (→ storage)   2.  Long-term memory (→ storage)   3.  Working memory: plays an important role in processing information   Long-term memory   Short- term memory   Retain   Playback  
  18. 18. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 18 Utilizing working memory   •  If creating ideas means processing information to identify new relationships between existing pieces of information, we need to focus on existing information as raw material and pay attention to how you handle it.   •  It is essential to consider what information goes into working memory for processing and how you can help in the processing.                             Working memory   ①  What?   ②  How?  
  19. 19. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 19                           Working memory   Research is for preparing materials for working memory   • Types of information include  ①  information on ends and  ② information on means.   • Access or organize these pieces of information in order to induce ideas for a domain that  includes your intended ends or technologies for the  means.   Means   (= technolo-­‐ gies)   Ends   (=People)  
  20. 20. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 20 I n d a i l y l i v i n g ,   w a l k i n g a i d s t r a n s f o r m f r o m   w e l f a r e d e v i c e t o   f a s h i o n a b l e i t e m .   The multifaceted nature of walking aids   prompted the popularizing of this device. Implication   Walking   sAcks   and   wheelchairs   are   oien   considered   to   be   mobility   aids   for   the   disabled   and   the   elderly.   Many   elderly   people   aren't   pleased  with  this  associaAon  when  they  use  them.   In Sugamo, you will notice a number of walking aids that don't really fit into that category. Multipurpose products like these have the potential to attract the younger senior population.     Objective information You often see elderly people using walking aids on   the   Sugamo shopping street. Unlike typical welfare mobility aids like wheelchairs, sticks or walkers, there are a number of waking aids that also serve normal purposes or come with stylish designs.   The lady in the photo was using this suitcase as her walking aid.   While she does not seem to need a walking aid, she is obviously using this bag for that purpose.  
  21. 21. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 21 Overview� Provided values (= ends)� Functions and shape that create the values (= means)� The  "Roomba" is a house cleaning robot equipped with various sensors to detect room conditions. � ‣ The  Roomba is a house-cleaning robot equipped with artificial intelligence. It detects the size and shape of the room as well as dirt and debris on the floor and cleans the area autonomously without human operation.   ‣ It has numerous sensors to detect walls, bumps, and dirt to sense the condition of the room and clean the area efficiently.   ‣ hjp://www.irobot-­‐jp.com/roomba/technology.html   ‣ Cleans the floor by itself   ‣ Attracts affection like a pet   ‣ Moves in all directions over a flat surface   ‣ Sucks up air   ‣ Detects dirt and makes adjustments   ‣ Detects obstacles like walls and bumps and makes adjustments   ‣ Makes an emotional sound when something goes wrong   ‣ Controllable with a remote  
  22. 22. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 22 Society     Market     Human s     Technology     Idea    Technology People I d e a m a k e r Idea   (Product, service, experience)   IDEA   Intentionally combine   the knowledge you want to utilize  
  23. 23. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 23 Divergence  Convergence   Individual work   Group work   Formula for the creation process • Divergence  and  convergence   • From  individual  work  to  group  work  
  24. 24. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 24 Divergence   Individual work   Group work   Why individual work before group work?   • Group work should not depend on influential opinions or a quick thinker.   • It motivates you to present all of your ideas and listen to those of others.   • It allows for understanding of the features of your ideas and those of others in the big picture.   (*Some say that you should begin with group work.)   1 0 m i n   5 0 m i n  
  25. 25. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 25   25 ・・・   Work individually on ideas for   supporting the elderly in going out.   Post and share your ideas!   (The end is defined here.)  
  26. 26. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 26 2 6©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  27. 27. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 27 Divergence  Convergence   Individual work   Group work   Formula for the creation process • Divergence  and  convergence   • From  individual  work  to  group  work  
  28. 28. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 28 It's difficult to know how individuals  process  their  thinking in 10 mins. • Information on common ends and means are added to their working memory.   • Yet, the way they process them in a 10 minute period varies significantly.                             Working memory   Means   (= techno-­‐ logies)   Ends   (= people)   IDEA  How?  
  29. 29. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 29   29 Murakoshi and Yokota are going to present their 10 mins of thinking.   Listen well and notice similarities and differences with your process, and   post what you thought.  
  30. 30. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 30                           Working memory                             Working memory   Yokota 1: Seek ideas comprehensively and nonverbally. It's exploration rather than creation. 1.  I pick a card that got my attention from the "ends" side and simulate situations around it comprehensively and reconstruct people's behaviors and feelings.   2.  Once I find a good end (= value, challenge) that's both unique and essential, then I comprehensively seek means for it (= provision, solution) to some extent.   3.  If the idea is unique enough and worth writing down, which requires 30 seconds, I describe it verbally and write it down.                             Working memory   Means   (= techno-­‐ logies)   Ends   (=People)   Idea  ★   ★   ★   ★   ★   ★   ★   ★   ★   ●  ●  
  31. 31. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 31   31 31   A   B   C   A’   B’   C’   That Other than that   D   E   ・   Yokota 2: When the thinking hits a wall, forcefully shift the thinking to another area •  By the time you come up with 3 ideas, you might be bored.   •  Find commonality among them and put them together as "that." The ideas after that are defined as "other than that."   •  For example, "that" can be ideas to encourage the elderly to go out and "other than that" can be ideas to provide the same effect of going out while staying at home.   •  I try to come up with 5 ideas in 10 minutes.  
  32. 32. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 32 Murakoshi 1: Come up with ideas  →    Write down (draw)  →    Forget •  I try to remember only the ends that inspired me most and mix that with means and hints.   •  I don't evaluate them as I want to leave the divergence phase independent from the rest.   •  I write down or draw ideas that I came up with so that I can remove them from my working  memory.   •  While I'm thinking, I focus on the image I have in my head and write it down.                             Working memory   Means   (= techno-­‐ logies)   Ends   (=People)   ×   ^o^   ´  -­‐  `   ^o^   ´  -­‐  `  
  33. 33. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 33 Murakoshi 2: When I get stuck, I move the idea up and down and left to right. •  I try to change the essential part of the ideas I came up with. Image of shifting to the right. (Outdoor  →  Indoor  /  Ocean  →  Ground) (bottom left)   •  Abstract it and then actualize it. Lift it up and bring it down. You need to understand where you stand. (Umbrella  →  create a loose border  →  hedge, line white line) (image on the bottom right)   A   B   C   D  
  34. 34. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 34   34 What are some common tips?   ①  Have a ground for creating ideas (standpoint)   ②  Refresh thoughts when necessary (place/ action)   ③  Write down or draw ideas     *These are put together in real time.  
  35. 35. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 35 3 5©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  36. 36. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 36 Expression style ①:   Prepare  a  piece of letter size paper, and include the title, a rough drawing and a description.   Don't forget to include the source of the idea and your name so that you can trace it back later.   Title   Drawing   Description   InformaAon  on  ends     and  means   Name  
  37. 37. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 37 Image of the deliverable:   Include  the title, a rough drawing and a description.   Don't forget to include the source of the idea!  
  38. 38. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 38 3 8©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  39. 39. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 39 Divergence  Convergence   Individual work   Group work   Formula for the creation process • Divergence  and  convergence   • From  individual  work  to  group  work  
  40. 40. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 40 Convergence   Group work   Meaning of convergence   ① Limit the number   ② Refine the quality   *This process is actually repeated several times.   ① Limit the number   ② Refine the quality  
  41. 41. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 41 Convergence  ①:  On what grounds do you limit the number?   A.  Novelty:   - Does the idea use a method that you have never seen or heard of? - Does the idea offer new elements of values or experiences for customers? - Does that include an original perspective that is currently controversial?     B.  Impact:   - Is the expected market or sales large or growing enough for your company's standard?   - Is the qualitative change of lifestyles and values brought about by the idea important or great?     C.  Feasibility:   - Is the expected condition of society or market relevant? - Is the logic relevant enough to describe the impression, intention and demand of the expected customer? - Is it feasible to ensure and develop resources (technologies, people, capital, intellectual property, etc.) to  put the idea into shape?  
  42. 42. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 42 Convergence  ②  :On what grounds do you refine the quality?   •  Don't get distracted by less important ideas (branches and leaves) but try to identify the "trunk" idea among the selected ideas. You can talk about the branches and leaves later.   •  Naturally, finding a potential "trunk" is not easy. It requires fierce discussion, which is also a meaningful process.   Feature C     Feature A   Feature B   Idea  
  43. 43. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 43 Expression style ②:   •  Use  lejer  size  paper divided into two parts (top and bottom).   •  Include voting results and comments on the "trunk" for sophistication.   •  You can scan this and save it digitally.   Title   Drawing   Description   InformaAon  on  ends   and  means   Name   ・・・  ・・・   ・・・   ・・・  
  44. 44. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 44 Abstract Detailed Process   Degree  of   Abstraction ① Collect miscellaneous factual   information   ③ Understand a situation   structurally   ④ Explore business   opportunities   ② Group and abstract   factual information   ⑥ Create ideas   ⑦ Select an idea   ⑨ Refine the idea   ・・・・   ・・・・   ・・・・   ⑤ Establish a business opportunity   ⑧ Put the idea into shape   0   1   Understand Create Realize
  45. 45. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 45   45 Objectives of the 4th class:   ▶  Understand the processes and tips for coming up with ideas   ▶  Make the ideas come much easier!  
  46. 46. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 46   46 Recommended  readings  for   knowledge  seekers  
  47. 47. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 47   47 This  is  a classic on coming up with ideas.     It's a thin book. 1 hour is enough to finish this book.     5 steps:   1.  Collect materials   2.  Try structural organization   3.  Leave problems   4.  Come up with ideas   5.  Put the ideas into shape       A Technique for Producing Ideas   (James  W.  Young)  
  48. 48. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 48   48 This  is  a  collection of photos of plants. The author was an art professor that specialized in sculpture and originally collected the photos as study material.     - Transform your perspective maybe   - Beautiful things are right by your side   - How to reinforce your ability to discover, build images and create   Unformen der Kunst (Artforms in Nature)   (Karl Blossfeldt)  
  49. 49. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 49   49 Q&A  
  50. 50. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 50 5 0©  UT  i.school,  All  rights  reserved  
  51. 51. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 51 Abstract Detailed Process   Degree  of   Abstraction ① Collect miscellaneous factual   information   ③ Understand a situation structurally   ④ Explore business opportunities   ② Group and abstract   factual information   ⑥ Create ideas   ⑦ Select an idea   ⑨ Refine the idea   ・・・・   ・・・・   ・・・・   ⑤ Establish a business   opportunity   ⑧ Put the idea into shape   0   1   Understand Create Realize
  52. 52. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 52   52 ・・・   Bring  the  idea   down  to  earth  
  53. 53. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 53   53 ・・・   Prototyping  
  54. 54. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 54   54 User survey  
  55. 55. 2014 i.school All Rights Reserved. This material shall be the sole and exclusive property of i.school at The University of Tokyo and shall not be used for any other purpose nor disclosed to any other party without i.school’s written consent. 55   55 Thank  you!  

×