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Winning against worms

  1. 1. Winning against worms SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu – wormx.info
  2. 2. Gastro-intestinal parasites • GI parasites are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats; they represent a major obstacle to profitability and sustainability. • There is no “silver bullet!” • Successful control requires a integrated approach that combines deworming with management practices that are able to minimize the need for deworming.
  3. 3. Four potential components of an integrated parasite management program 1. Administering combination treatments to clinically- parasitized animals. 2. Using copper oxide wire particles to combat barber pole worm infections. 3. Using genetics to control internal parasitism. 4. Feeding nematode-trapping fungus to reduce pasture contamination.
  4. 4. Combination treatments “There now is very strong evidence that using combination treatment is the best method for using dewormers and should be instituted on all farms immediately.” January 2017 Dr. Ray Kaplan University of Georgia
  5. 5. Three anthelmintic (dewormer) classes GROUP 1 Benzimidazoles (BZ) GROUP 2 Macrocylic lactones (ML) GROUP 3 Nicotinic agonists Avermectins Milbemycins Imidazothiazoles Tetrahydropyrimidines THIABENDAZOLE TBZ® IVERMECTIN Ivomec® MOXIDECTIN Cydectin® Quest® LEVAMISOLE Prohibit® Leva-Med® Tramisol® Levasol® MORANTEL Rumatel® Positive Pellet® Goat DewormerFENBENDAZOLE SafeGuard® Panacur® DORAMECTIN Dectomax® PYRANTEL Strongid® ALBENDAZOLE Valbazen® EPRINOMECTIN Eprinex®OXFENDAZOLE Synanthic®
  6. 6. Percent sheep farms (n=30) in three southeastern states with anthelmintic resistance (Avg. 84% H. contortus) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Benzimidazoles Ivermectin Levamisole Moxidectin Maryland Virginia Georgia 2018 Let’s Grow
  7. 7. Combination Treatments • A combination treatment is when you give several different dewormers at the same time. • You get an additive effect with each drug used (unlike rotating dewormers). • By achieving a higher efficacy, there are fewer resistant worms that survive the treatment; thus, diluting the resistant worms. Drug 1 Drug 2 Drug 3 Combo12 Combo123 80% 80% 80% 96.00% 99.20% 90% 90% 90% 99.00% 99.90% 60% 95% 98.00% 98.00% 60% 60% 95% 84.00% 99.20% 99% 99% 99.99% 99.99% 60% 60% 60% 84.00% 93.60% 50% 50% 50% 75.00% 87.50% 40% 40% 40% 64.00% 78.40% 95% 80% 20% 99.00% 99.20%
  8. 8. Combination treatments • Purchase and administer each dewormer singly in a separate syringe. • Use the most potent drug from each dewormer class. • Do not mix dewormers! • Administer each dewormer at full dose, based on an accurate weight.
  9. 9. Combination treatments Valbazen®* Cydectin® Prohibit® Sheep 1.5 ml/50 lbs. [7 days] 4.5 ml/50 lbs. [7 days] Depends on dilution [3 days] Goats 4 ml/50 lbs. [9 days meat] [7 days milk] 9 ml/50 lbs. [17 days meat] [8 days milk] Depends on dilution [4 days meat] [3 days milk] Camelids 4 ml/50 lbs. 9 ml/50 lbs. Depends on dilution *Do not use first 30 days of pregnancy www.wormx.info
  10. 10. Combination treatments • Can give one dewormer immediately after the other. • Observe withdrawal period of drug with longest withdrawal (usually moxidectin). • Requires extra label drug use for goats and camelids. • Extra label drug use requires valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship.
  11. 11. Targeted selective treatment (TST) • Combination treatments should only be given to clinically parasitized animals, as evidenced by FAMACHA© scores, Five Point Check©, or other indicators. • Selective treatment is necessary to maintain refugia (worms not exposed to drugs) and prevent development of multi-drug resistant worms.
  12. 12. Copper oxide wire particles “Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) can be successfully integrated into Haemonchus contortus management strategies on sheep and goat farms, particularly when producers are armed with knowledge on how to use it safely. .” December 2015 Dr. Lisa Williamson University of Georgia
  13. 13. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) • Though results have been variable, COWP have been shown to reduce barber pole worm infections in small ruminants. • COWP are only effective against barber pole worm infections. • COWP may be approved by organic certifiers. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 d (-6) d-0 d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 Test - COWP Study - no COWP COWP Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test (2015) 82% reduction in FEC
  14. 14. Copper oxide wire particles • Tiny needles of copper oxide. • Slow release form of copper. • Poorly absorbed form of copper, unlike copper sulfate. • COWP are available as supplements for cattle (12 and 25-g) and goats (2 and 4-g). Cattle boluses repacked for small ruminants
  15. 15. Using COWP • Use smallest dose possible to achieve effect, usually 0.5-1 g for lambs/kids and 1-2 g for mature animals. • Repackage cattle and goat boluses into smaller doses for deworming, especially for sheep. • Administer using a bolus or balling gun. • Selectively treat animals. • Minimize number of treatments.
  16. 16. Using COWP Safely • Sheep are especially susceptible to copper toxicity. • Copper in excess of dietary requirements accumulates in liver until a toxic level is reached. • Before using and periodically ,assess the copper status of your flock or herd by submitting liver and kidney samples from healthy animals to a diagnostic lab. • Do not use copper sulfate for deworming or minerals containing high levels of copper.
  17. 17. Combination treatment with copper oxide wire particles Treatment (10-23 lambs per Tx group) Efficacy (%FECR) No treatment (control) Increase Valbazen® (3 ml/50 lbs.) 20% COWP (2 g, Ultracruz™) 58% COWP (2 g, Copasure®) 12% Valbazen® + COWP 99% • Research conducted at Dale Bumpers Small Farm Research Center in Booneville, Arkansas by Joan Burke. • Similar results were obtained with levamisole (Prohibit®, Levamed®.
  18. 18. Genetic control of parasites “Genetic resistance to gastrointestinal parasites is one of the most promising means to control worms in a flock/herd.” October 2017 Dr. Joan Burke USDA-ARS
  19. 19. There are two traits to consider. RESILIENCE • Ability of animal with withstand or tolerate parasite infection or challenge and still perform (grow, produce milk). • Measured by FAMACHA© (estimate of packed cell volume), body condition score and other performance indicators. • Resilient animals require less deworming, but may still shed a lot of eggs onto the pasture. RESISTANCE • Ability of animal to limit infection by suppressing worm growth, suppressing larvae establishment, and expelling worms. • Measured by fecal egg counts (FEC). • Resistance animals reduce the need for deworming by reducing the level of pasture contamination. • The better trait for selection programs.
  20. 20. Selection for parasite resistance • Parasite resistance is a moderately heritable trait (20-30%). • Parasite resistance is more objectively measured and heritable than resilience. • There is usually a low-to- moderate correlation between resistance and resilience. • Selection for resistance involves collecting fecal samples.
  21. 21. Using genetics to control internal parasites • Raise a more resistant species. • Raise a more resistant breed. • Cross with a more resistant breed. • Purchase breeding stock, especially males, with documented resistance. • Select for resistance within your own flock or herd.
  22. 22. More resistant breeds SHEEP • Hair sheep Barbados Blackbelly, St. Croix • Native sheep of the Southeast Florida, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Natives • Hair sheep composites Katahdin, Royal White(?) • Terminal sire Texel GOATS • Myotonic • Kiko • Spanish • There is less data documenting breed differences in goats.
  23. 23. More resistant animals The 70:30 Rule • Fecal egg counts are not evenly distributed in a flock or herd. • Approximately 30% of animals shed 70% of worm eggs and vice versa. • Removing heavy egg shedders will result in permanent change in flock/herd genetics and reduce the need for deworming (over- time).
  24. 24. On-farm selection principles • Select on basis of fecal egg counts, not just FAMACHA© and deworming need. • Be sure to select best males for breeding; they represent half of the flock or herd’s genetics. • Get rid of the worst females • Always compare “apples to apples” not “apples to oranges!” (i.e. animals in same contemporary group.
  25. 25. On-farm selection principles • Don’t penalize high producing females or lambs/kids from multiple births. • Make sure you have enough animals to compare, at least 10, preferable 15 or more. • Make sure you have a sufficient parasite challenge when making selection decisions (minimum >500 epg group average, ideally >1000 epg)
  26. 26. Nematode-trapping fungus “The world’s first biological worm control for livestock has been developed in Australia and approved for sale in Australia, New Zealand and the US.” December 2018Chris Lawlor International Animal Health
  27. 27. Nematode-trapping fungus • Duddingtonia flagrans is a naturally-occurring fungus that kills infective warm larvae. • When consumed by grazing livestock, it reduces pasture infectivity; thereby, lowering fecal egg counts and worm burdens in livestock.
  28. 28. BioWorma® • After more than 20 years of study, an animal health company in Australia has commercialized the fungus. • It is being sold under the trade name BioWorma®. • A second product called Livamol® with BioWorma© is also being marketed.
  29. 29. Two products BioWorma® • Contains 34.6% Fungus • 500,000 units per gram • Due to EPA restrictions, the distribution of BioWorma® is limited to veterinarians, feed mills, and premixers. Livamol® with BioWorma® • Nutritional supplement that contains 2.2% fungus • 34,000 units per gram • Available to end users (producers)
  30. 30. Using BioWorma® • It is recommended that livestock consume BioWorma® daily. • It can be drenched, top-dressed, or incorporated into a feed or mineral product. • It should be fed during periods when conditions are conducive to larvae development and transmission onto pasture at temperatures above 40F.
  31. 31. Feeding BioWorma® Periparturient females and young lambs/kids are the most worm susceptible.
  32. 32. BioWorma® Limitations • Cannot get wet • Cannot be pelletized. • Is not currently organic. • Is not effective in animal. • Is not effective against life cycles of other parasites: coccidia, tapeworms, or liver flukes. • 2 year shelf life.
  33. 33. Cost-Benefit Analysis • While the cost of BioWorma® and Livamol® with BioWorma® is not yet known, it is likely to be expensive. • Every farm will need to determine if the added cost (product + labor) exceeds the losses caused by parasites. • It may not be economical for all producers.
  34. 34. BioWorma® Status • BioWorma® was approved in the US in 2018. • As of mid-December, BioWorma® had been approved in 45/50 states, including Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. • The first container load of products left Australia bound for the US in December. • It is not know when products will be available for purchase.
  35. 35. Thank you.