Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Stuff we do to lambs and kids after they are born

Nächste SlideShare
Use of livestock guardians
Use of livestock guardians
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 45 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Ähnlich wie Stuff we do to lambs and kids after they are born (20)


Weitere von University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program (20)

Aktuellste (20)


Stuff we do to lambs and kids after they are born

  1. 1. Stuff we do to lambs and kids after they are born Docking  Castrating  Disbudding  Identifying SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu – wormx.info
  2. 2. Lamb and Kid Processing 1. Docking 2. Castrating 3. Disbudding 4. Identifying • Should you do it? • When should you do it? • How do you do it?
  3. 3. Docking • Is when the tail is shortened (not removed). • Is a traditional and recommended practice for sheep. • 81.5% of US lambs (2011, NAHMS) • 78.6% of US sheep operations (2011, NAHMS). • Of course, it’s not customary to dock goat tails.
  4. 4. Sheep tails • The tail protects the sheep's anus, vulva, and udder from weather extremes. • Sheep lift their tail when they defecate and use their tail, to some extent, to scatter their feces. • The tail does not interfere with breeding or lambing. • There are efforts to breed sheep with shorter tails, so they do not require docking.
  5. 5. Why dock?  Health and hygiene • Docking prevents fecal matter from accumulating on the tail and hindquarters of sheep and lambs. • Tail docking greatly reduces the incidence of fly strike. • Docking facilitates shearing, milking, and slaughter. • It is easier to observe the udders of docked ewes. • It is generally recommended that lambs from the wooled breeds be docked.
  6. 6. Why not dock? • Some breeds do not require tail docking, e.g. hair sheep, Northern European short or rat-tailed breeds, and fat-tailed sheep. • If lambs are slaughtered at a young age, it may not be necessary to dock their tails. • If hindquarters can be kept be kept clean, it may not be necessary to dock lambs, especially males. • Some markets prefer (require) an unblemished (undocked) lamb.
  7. 7. Tools for docking lambs Elastrator Ringer Callicrate Bander™ Burdizzo (Baby) Emasculatome (clamp) knife, scalpel, All-in-one Electric docker Hot iron Emasculator
  8. 8. Methods of docking ELASTRATOR BANDER • Bloodless • Band is placed over the caudal tail fold and released. • The tight band cuts off blood supply to the tail, causing it to atrophy and fall off. KNIFE ALL-IN-ONE • Cut tail off with knife or use All-in- one to cut off tail. • May result in excessive bleeding. • NOT RECOMMENDED ELECTRIC DOCKER OR HOT IRON BURDIZZO + KNIFE • Crush tail to cut off blood supply. • Use knife to cut tail completely off. • Bloodless • Specialized tool (“scissors”) or hot iron used to sever tail and cauterize wound. EMASCULATOR • Cut and crush tail at same time, sealing blood vessels.
  9. 9. Length of tail dock • Leave long enough to cover ewe’s vulva and ram’s anus. • No shorter than the distal end of the caudal tail fold. • Short-tail docking damages muscles and nerves. • Short-tail docking contributes to incidence of rectal prolapses (maybe vaginal prolapses). Proper length
  10. 10. When to dock • As soon as management allows. 1-7 days recommended, especially when banding. • Too early (< 24 hours) may interfere with bonding and colostrum intake. • All methods of docking should be done by 12 weeks of age. • After 3 months of age, pain relief should be provided (Vx). • High-tension bands (Callicrate Bander™) may be more humane and are advocated for docking bigger lambs.
  11. 11. Welfare considerations • All tail docking methods cause pain. • Surgical (knife) docking is the most painful method of docking; it is recommended that tails not be cut off with a knife. • Response to pain in banded lambs is variable and could be associated with placement of the band. • Rubber ring + crushing (clamp) may reduce pain when banding. • A electric docker or hot iron is probably the most humane method of docking. • There is no justification for “ultra-short” tail docking (for cosmetic reasons). • Local anesthetics (e.g. lidocaine) and NSAIDs can reduce pain associated with docking (Rx). • Protection against tetanus is recommended for all methods of tail docking.
  12. 12. Castration • Removal or destruction of the testicles. • A castrated male sheep or goat is called a wether. • About three-quarters of US lambs are castrated (2011, NAHMS); probably, fewer goats. • Average age of castration is 24.7 days (2011, NAHMS).
  13. 13. Why castrate? • Prevent indiscriminate breeding. • Eliminate undesirable behavior and/or odor. • Easier to manage • Easier to shear/crutch • For show • Market preference • Easier to process • Improve meat quality • Tradition
  14. 14. Why not castrate? • Males grow faster and produce leaner carcasses. • Castration is a painful procedure that has risks associated with it. • Some producers want to see how males grow out. • Some markets prefer an intact male.
  15. 15. Methods of castration Elastrator Ringer Bander Callicrate Bander™ Burdizzo (Baby) Emasculatome “Surgical” Scalpel or knife All-in-one tool Band, crush, or cut! Emasculator
  16. 16. Methods of castration ELASTRATOR BANDER (RINGS) • Bloodless method • Band is placed above both testicles, around the spermatic cords. • The tight band cuts off blood supply to the testicles, causing them to atrophy and fall off. • Tetanus risk BURDIZZO (BABY) EMASCULATOME • Bloodless method • A clamp is used to crush both spermatic cords; one cord at a time. • Testicles shrink and disappear in a couple of months. • Requires most skill. EMASCULATOR • Cut lower one-third of scrotum off, remove testicles, and allow wound to drain and heal naturally. • Can use all-in-one tool to cut scrotum and pull testicles out. • Risk of bleeding, infection, and fly strike. SURGICAL (KNIFE, SCALPEL, ETC) • Crush and cut cords
  17. 17. Age to castrate • Castration, especially banding, should be done at an early age, ideally 1-7 days of age. • Too early (< 24 hours) may interfere with bonding and colostrum intake. • All methods of castration should be done by 12 weeks of age. • Banding larger scrotums may cause more inflammation. • The Callicrate Bander™ has been advocated for later castrations;.
  18. 18. Welfare considerations • All methods cause some pain. • Surgical is most painful method of castration and should not be done during fly season. • Clamping is less painful than banding and can be done later. • Clamping + banding may be more humane method of castration. • High-tension bands (Callicrate Bander™) may be more humane and are advocated for older lambs/kids. • Local anesthetics (e.g. lidocaine) and NSAIDs can reduce pain (Rx). • Protection against tetanus is recommended for all methods of castration.
  19. 19. Is there an alternative? YES, A SHORT-SCROTUM • A short-scrotum ram is a cryptorchid. • It is made by pushing the testicles up inside the body cavity and banding the empty scrotum. • It is a less painful procedure than castration (by banding).
  20. 20. COMPARISON INTACT MALE • Superior growth • Heavier carcass • Leaner carcass • Breeding risk • Undesirable behavior/odor • Processing issues WETHER • No (low) breeding risk • Ease of management • Meat quality (?) • Slower growth • Lighter carcass • Fatter carcass • Painful procedure (welfare) SHORT SCROTUM
  21. 21. Comparison of ram, wether, and short-scrotum lambs Schoenian, Selmer, Gordon, Bennett, O’Brien, Wildeus, Anderson, and Travis • University of Maryland’s Western Maryland Research & Education Center (WMREC) in Keedysville. • 60 lambs from Maryland dairy farm Averaged 57 lbs. and 81 days of age 19 ram, 25 wether, 17 short-scrotum • 110 days: April 26-August 13 • Pastured-raised Cool and warm season grasses Annual and perennial grasses Supplemental feeding (2x day)
  22. 22. Research protocol • Lambs were weighed bi-weekly to determine body weights and deworming need. • Towards end of project, lambs were scanned to determine ultrasound rib eye measurements. • Towards end of project, lambs were evaluated to determine reproductive characteristics. • All lambs were slaughtered to collect carcass data and specimens (testicles).
  23. 23. Project results Growth and carcass • Short-scrotum rams grew faster than wether lambs (+14% advantage). • Short-scrotum rams had heavier final weights than wether lambs (+$16.06 value). • Wether lambs produced fatter carcasses. Reproductive • Short-scrotum rams had smaller testicles than ram lambs. • Short-scrotum rams had similar breeding behavior (libido) as ram lambs. • Short-scrotum ram lambs did not have viable semen; they were deemed sterile.
  24. 24. Should you castrate? NO • Early-born • Winter-born • Early weaned • Pen-raised • Marketed at young age • Market preference • Can separate on farm YES • Late-born • Spring-born • Pasture-raised • Late weaned • Market at older age • Market preference • Can’t separate on farm INSTEAD… SHORT-SCROTUM • Gain benefits of intact male, without some of the management hassles.
  25. 25. Disbudding • Destroying the horn cells to prevent the horns from growing. • Disbudding is not the same as dehorning. • It is not customary to disbud (or dehorn) sheep.
  26. 26. Why disbud? • Goats are generally horned. • There is an increased risk of hermaphroditism when two naturally polled goats are bred. • It is customary to disbud dairy goats and other goats that will be handled frequently or be kept in close quarters. • Safety: horned goats can cause injury to people and other goats. • Horned goats get their heads stuck more easily. • Some shows require goats to be disbudded. • Personal or market preference. Generally, horned and hornless goats should not be kept together.
  27. 27. Why not disbud? • It is natural for goats to have horns. • Horns serve as a natural cooling mechanism. • It is not customary to disbud meat or fiber goats or goats raised extensively. • Goats that will go to market early do not need disbudding. • Disbudding may not be allowed to meet animal welfare certifications • Personal preference.
  28. 28. Disbudding kids • Disbudding is a skilled procedure; in the UK, only veterinarians may perform procedure. • The most common and recommended method of disbudding is with an electric disbudding iron. • The circular tip of the iron should be about ¾ inch in diameter. • Wattage varies by manufacturer. • An extension cord should not be used to power the tool.
  29. 29. Disbudding kids • The kid is usually placed in a (disbudding) box, with its head sticking out. • The areas over and around the horn buds should be clipped prior to the procedure. • The circular iron is placed over each horn bud.
  30. 30. Disbudding kids • The iron is held for 8-15 seconds, depending upon manufacturer’s instructions. • A “copper-colored” ring appears around the horn buds when the procedure has been properly done. • Afterwards, it is a good idea to put an anesthetic on the horn buds.
  31. 31. Timing is everything • Kids should be disbudded as soon after birth as possible, usually 3-7 days. • Exact timing depends on breed, sex, and goat. • Disbud as soon as the horn buds can be distinguished.
  32. 32. Welfare considerations • Disbud at proper time • Make sure disbudding iron is hot enough • Don’t press iron too hard • Do not apply iron for too long • Be careful not to overheat kid’s head • Consider providing pain medication (Rx) • Inexperienced producers should seek the assistance of an experienced producer or veterinarian. • Disbudding kids is preferable to dehorning adults. Chemical methods of disbudding are being evaluated.
  33. 33. Identifying sheep and goats • To tell animals apart • For record-keeping • Is required for breed registration • Is required for 4-H/FFA • Is required for health papers • USDA scrapie ID is mandatory
  34. 34. Methods of identifying sheep and goats PERMANENT • Ear tags* • Tattoos* • Ear notches • Electronic ID • Ear tag • Rumen bolus TEMPORARY • Paint brands • Spray markers • Crayon, chalk, or paint stick • Raddle paint • Stick tags • Neck chains, straps, or collars
  35. 35. Official Scrapie ID • USDA requires almost all sheep and goats to have premise identification before leaving their place of origin (birth). • Exception: young animals (<18months) going directly to slaughter • The ear tag has the owner’s premise ID number on one side and the individual animal ID on the other. • Tattoos are permissible for registered animals, if registration papers accompany animal. • Records must be kept for 5 years on all animals.
  36. 36. Scrapie identification • Metal tags (and applicators) are free from USDA. • Plastic tags are no longer available. • Metal tags are problematic for sheep shearers. • Do not need to apply tags until animals leave farm. • To get a premise ID number (and order free tags and applicator) call toll free 1-866-873-2824.
  37. 37. Ear tags for identification • Ear tags come in many different designs, shapes, colors, and sizes. • There are brass, aluminum, and plastic tags. • There are button, swivel, and looping (one-piece) tags. • Tags can be custom printed. • Which tag to use is a matter of situation and personal preference.
  38. 38. Electronic ID RFID = radio frequency identification • Wave of the future • May be required in future • Animal health • National Animal ID • 4-H/FFA program • Some electronic tags have been approved as scrapie ID. • Many advantages: facilitates record keeping, eliminates mistakes reading tags • Electronic tags are usually paired with visual ID.
  39. 39. Ear tagging basics • Different tags usually require different applicators. • Proper technique maximizes tag retention and minimizes ear infections. • Proper restraint of animal is necessary to prevent tearing of the ear.
  40. 40. Applicator • Make sure you are using the right applicator for the right tag(s). • Make sure the applicator is working properly. • Do not use applicators with worn or damaged pins. • Insert a tag and make sure the male pin is aligned with the female applicator.
  41. 41. Placement of ear tag • No more than 2 inches from skull • Avoid veins and ridges of cartilage • Put pin (male part) on inside or ear • Put looping tags on top of ear; allow room to grow.
  42. 42. Preventing ear infections • Place tag in center of ear. • Tag lambs/kids instead of mature animals. • Don’t insert tags during fly season (late-spring to summer) • Don’t tag dirty, wet ears. • Metal and round tags cause more infections. • Can apply antibiotic, fly repellent, or disinfectant to ear or tag. • Dip tagger in disinfectant between animals. • Store tags properly. Don’t use dirty tags.
  43. 43. Tattooing for ID • A more permanent form of ID than ear tags. • Required by some breed registries. • Qualifies as scrapie ID, when accompanied by registration certificate. • A second type of ID is usually applied. There are different sized numbers.
  44. 44. Tattooing • Insert correct numbers in pliers and test on piece of paper or cardboard. • Properly restrain animal. • Clean ear with alcohol • Apply ink generously to ear using paste-type or roll-on. • Place symbols parallel to and between veins or cartilage of ear. • Squeeze pliers firmly, then pull straight away. • Apply another layer of ink. • Will heal in 5-21 days. Green ink is best, especially for dark ears.
  45. 45. Thank you.