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Retinal diseases of eye

  2. INTRODUCTION • The retina is the light-sensing tissue that resides in the back of your eye. It is responsible for relaying images to your brain. Without a healthy retina, you can’t read, drive, or see fine details. A retinal disorder or disease affects this very important tissue, which, in turn, can affect vision to the point of blindness. • Common retinal conditions include floaters, macular degeneration, diabetic eye disease, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigments. There are other issues that can occur, but these conditions are some of the most common and serious that a person can experience.
  3. Floaters • Eye floaters are spots in your vision. They may look to you like black or gray specks, strings, or cobwebs that drift about when you move your eyes and appear to dart away when you try to look at them directly. • Most eye floaters are caused by age-related changes that occur as the jelly-like substance (vitreous) inside your eyes becomes more liquid. Microscopic fibers within the vitreous tend to clump and can cast tiny shadows on your retina. The shadows you see are called floaters. Symptoms of eye floaters may include: • Small shapes in your vision that appear as dark specks or knobby, transparent strings of floating material • Spots that move when you move your eyes, so when you try to look at them, they move quickly out of your visual field • Spots that are most noticeable when you look at a plain bright background, such as a blue sky or a white wall • Small shapes or strings that eventually settle down and drift out of the line of vision
  4. Diagnosis: • Your doctor will conduct a complete eye exam including eye dilation to better see the back of your eyes and the vitreous to determine the cause of the floaters. Treatment: • An ophthalmologist removes the vitreous through a small incision (vitrectomy) and replaces it with a solution to help your eye maintain its shape. Surgery may not remove all the floaters, new floaters can develop after surgery. Risks of a vitrectomy include bleeding and retinal • Risks of laser therapy include damage to your retina if the laser is aimed incorrectly. Laser surgery to treat floaters is used infrequently.
  5. Macular Degeneration • Age-related macular degeneration — also called macular degeneration, AMD or ARMD — is deterioration of the macula, which is the small central area of the retina of the eye that controls visual acuity. • Macular degeneration is diagnosed as either dry (non-neovascular) or wet (neovascular). Neovascular refers to growth of new blood vessels in an area, such as the macula, where they are not supposed to be. • Treatments for macular degeneration depend on whether the disease is in its early-stage, dry form or in the more advanced, wet form that can lead to serious vision loss. No FDA-approved treatments exist yet for dry macular degeneration, although nutritional intervention may help prevent its progression to the wet form. • For wet AMD, treatments aimed at stopping abnormal blood vessel growth include FDA- approved drugs called Lucentis, Eylea, Macugen and Visudyne used with Photodynamic Therapy or PDT. Lucentis has been shown to improve vision in a significant number of people with macular degeneration. There are treatments, such as an antioxidant supplement that can slow the progression, blocking unhealthy blood vessel development, and several others.
  6. Diabetic Eye Disease • Those with diabetes are more susceptible to retinal damage. There are many people throughout Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, suffering from diabetes, and their eyes are paying a price. • They notice blurry vision, double vision, floaters or dark spots, pressure or pain in at least one eye, trouble with peripheral vision, flashing lights, or rings. • The good news is that laser surgery is a treatment that can help a person suffering from diabetic eye disease. It is also important to note that diabetics are also at increased risk of glaucoma and cataracts.
  7. Retinal Detachment • retinal detachment can occur when too much fluid accumulates behind the retina, causing separation. However, there are other risk factors that increase the chances of retinal detachment. They are: Extreme nearsightedness Previous retinal detachment in the other eye Genetic predisposition Previous cataract surgery The presence of other eye disorders Eye injury • The presence of floaters indicates that retinal detachment may be occurring. There may also be flashes in the eye. If the condition isn’t quickly treated, it can cause permanent vision loss. If you suddenly notice floaters or you have had them and they have increased, see your doctor immediately. Other symptoms include a decrease in vision or seeing a gray curtain in your field of vision.
  8. Retinitis Pigmentosa • Retinitis pigmentosa describes genetic conditions that can cause retinal degeneration. Vision loss gradually declines as the rods and cones die. Leber’s congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, Bardet-Biedel syndrome, rod-cone disease, and Refsum disease are some examples of conditions that are classified as retinitis pigmentosa. • Usually, rods are affected first, and then the degeneration moves to the cones. One of the earliest symptoms is night blindness, but some people experience central vision loss or color blindness. Adolescents and young adults are especially vulnerable since this is an inherited condition. • If you notice any changes in your vision, it is very important to have your eyes checked as soon as possible. While some changes may be benign, others can indicate more serious conditions.