2. EARLY DIAGOSIS IMPORANT
• Most Common cancer in woman
• Second most common cause of death from
cancer in UK
• Some men suffer from breast cancer too
3. Risks of breast cancer
• Previous history of breast cancer.
• AGE-Risk increases with age; ≤5% of cases present before age 35, ≤25% before 50 years.
• Family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative.
• The BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 mutations carry very high risk but only 3-5% of women are likely to
carry them on their chromosomes. The lifetime risk of breast cancer in a BRCA1 carrier is 80-85%,
with a 60% chance that the cancer will be bilateral.
• Never having borne a child, or first child after age 30.
• Not having breast-fed (breast-feeding is protective).
• Early menarche and late menopause.
• Continuous combined HRT increases risk.
• Radiation to chest (even quite small doses).
• High alcohol intake may increase risk in a dose-related manner.
• Breast augmentation is not generally associated with increased risk. Type of implant used may be
• Men with Klinefelter's syndrome are at increased risk, as are men with other causes of
gynaecomastia, including the hormonal treatment of carcinoma of prostate or hormones taken to
create breast development intentionally.
• LUMP is the commonest presentation
• 10% of patients present with nipple change.
• 5% of patients present with skin contour
• Breast pain/mastalgia alone is a very
• Intraduct carcinoma may present as a bloody
discharge from the nipple.
10. BREAST AWARENESS
• No right or wrong way of checking your breast
• Get used to looking at and feeling your breast
• check all parts of your breast, your armpits
and up to your collarbone.
• be aware of any changes that are different for
11. BREAST AWARENESS
• Any change in size or shape of breast
• Redness or rash on the skin and or around the nipple
• Discharge that comes from the nipple without squeezing
• Swelling in your armpit or around the collar bone
• A lump or thickening that feels different from the rest of
• A change in skin texture like puckering or dimpling (like
• Your nipple becoming inverted or changing its position or
• Constant pain in oyur breast or armpit
• no symptoms in its early stages.
• the most common unusual is unusual vaginal
bleeding, which can occur after sex, in
between periods or after the menopause.
• Blood stained vaginal discharge
• Lower abdominal pain
15. CANCER SCREENING
• The NHS offers a cervical screening programme to all
women from the age of 25. During cervical screening
(previously known as a "smear test“).
• Women aged 25 to 49 years of age are offered
screening every three years
• women aged 50 to 64 are offered screening every five
• For women who are 65 or older, only those who
haven't been screened since they were 50, or those
who have had recent abnormal tests, are offered
16. • Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused
by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a
very common virus that can be passed on
through any type of sexual contact with a man
or a woman.
• Since 2008, a HPV vaccine has been routinely
offered to girls aged 12 and 13.
17. EARLY DIAGNOSIS
• if cervical cancer is diagnosed at an early
stage, it's usually possible to treat it using