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4.01 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY
MEANING AND NATURE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Strategic Management – Defined
―Art & science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating, cross-functional decisions that
enable an organization to achieve its objectives’
Strategic management activities are related to the total system. These activities may be a change
in organizational goals or managerial strategies that have implications throughout the
organization or business unit
Nature, Characteristics, and features of Strategic Management,
The Nature, Characteristics, and features of Strategic Management as following:-
a) It involves a long time perspective:- the directional decisions in strategic management
can be expected to have effects on the organization for three to five years .
b) It is an intellectual process:- in strategic management, key individuals perceive, analyze,
and choose between alternatives, interrelating such elements as definitions of businesses,
objectives, and functional/program strategies.
c) It involves wide ramifications:- Strategic Management activities are related to the total
system. These activities may be change in organizational goals, or managerial strategies
that have implications throughout the organization or business unit.
d) It is a continuing dynamic social process:- Strategic Management is not just a course to
be undertaken a few times each year when top management meets to decide critical issues
e) It use critical resources towards perceived opportunities or threats in a changing
environment:- the most important human, financial, and other resources are brought to
bear in certain situations, which provide the organization with an opportunity to manage
the elusive environment.
Its importance and relevance, of Strategic Management,
There are many benefits of strategic management and they include identification, prioritization,
and exploration of opportunities.
It has been shown in many studies that firms that engage in strategic management are more
profitable and successful than those that do not have the benefit of strategic planning and
strategic management. When firms engage in forward looking planning and careful evaluation of
their priorities, they have control over the future, which is necessary in the fast changing
business landscape of the 21st century. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 businesses
fail in the US every year and most of these failures are to do with a lack of strategic focus and
strategic direction. Further, high performing firms tend to make more informed decisions
because they have considered both the short term and long-term consequences and hence, have
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oriented their strategies accordingly. In contrast, firms that do not engage themselves in
meaningful strategic planning are often bogged down by internal problems and lack of focus that
leads to failure.
The section above discussed some of the tangible benefits of strategic management. Apart from
these benefits, firms that engage in strategic management are more aware of the external threats,
an improved understanding of competitor strengths and weaknesses and increased employee
productivity. They also have lesser resistance to change and a clear understanding of the link
between performance and rewards. The key aspect of strategic management is that the problem
solving and problem preventing capabilities of the firms are enhanced through strategic
management. Strategic management is essential as it helps firms to rationalize change and
actualize change and communicate the need to change better to its employees. Finally, strategic
management helps in bringing order and discipline to the activities of the firm in its both internal
processes and external activities.
In recent years, virtually all firms have realized the importance of strategic management.
However, the key difference between those who succeed and those who fail is that the way in
which strategic management is done and strategic planning is carried out makes the difference
between success and failure. Of course, there are still firms that do not engage in strategic
planning or where the planners do not receive the support from management. These firms ought
to realize the benefits of strategic management and ensure their longer-term viability and success
in the marketplace.
The Strategic Management Process – The strategic management process means defining the
organization’s strategy. It is also defined as the process by which managers make a choice of a
set of strategies for the organization that will enable it to achieve better performance. Strategic
management is a continuous process that appraises the business and industries in which the
organization is involved; appraises it’s competitors; and fixes goals to meet all the present and
future competitor’s and then reassesses each strategy.
Strategic management process has following four
1.Environmental Scanning- Environmental scanning refers to a process of collecting,
scrutinizing and providing information for strategic purposes. It helps in analyzing the internal
and external factors influencing an organization. After executing the environmental analysis
process, management should evaluate it on a continuous basis and strive to improve it.
2.Strategy Formulation- Strategy formulation is the process of deciding best course of action
for accomplishing organizational objectives and hence achieving organizational purpose. After
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conducting environment scanning, managers formulate corporate, business and functional
3.Strategy Implementation- Strategy implementation implies making the strategy work as
intended or putting the organization’s chosen strategy into action. Strategy implementation
includes designing the organization’s structure, distributing resources, developing decision
making process, and managing human resources.
4.Strategy Evaluation- Strategy evaluation is the final step of strategy management process.
The key strategy evaluation activities are: appraising internal and external factors that are the
root of present strategies, measuring performance, and taking remedial / corrective actions.
Evaluation makes sure that the organizational strategy as well as it’s implementation meets the
These components are steps that are carried, in chronological order, when creating a new
strategic management plan. Present businesses that have already created a strategic management
plan will revert to these steps as per the situation’s requirement, so as to make essential changes.
Components of Strategic Management Process
Strategic management is an ongoing process. Therefore, it must be realized that each component
interacts with the other components and that this interaction often happens in chorus.
Relationship between a Company’s Strategy and its Business Model.
The term "business strategy" describes the methods a business uses achieve its mission and
objectives. The company's strategy might involve buying products from local food producers,
encouraging customers to bring their own grocery bags, advertising in local newspapers and
buying recycled product packaging materials. A business’ strategy includes how it deals with the
opportunities and threats it faces.
A company's business model describes the basic means by which it creates value, delivers value
to consumers and collects revenue from customers to make a profit. Business models can vary
greatly from one company to another. A local grocery store's business model might involve
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buying food at wholesale prices and selling it to end consumers at a higher price to make profit.
A website might have a business model based on providing video content to customers and
generating revenue through advertisements placed on the site.
How They Are Related
A company's business model is a part of its business' overall strategy: It is the nuts and bolts
behind how the company plans to achieve its goals, such as making a profit. A company can
change its business model over time as a part of its profit-making strategy. For example, if
website does not make enough revenue from advertisements to make profit, managers might
decide implement a new business model, such as selling T-shirts and other goods though an
online store, as a strategy to boost profit.
CORPORATE BUSINESS POLICY Vs STRATEGY
Policy is the spheres or scope within which decisions are taken by the subordinates in a company
or organization. Strategy is an action that managers and directors take to achieve one or more of
the company's goals.
International Business Policy;
Staffing Policy A firm’s staffing policy is concerned with the selection of employees who have
the skills required to perform a particular job A staffing policy can be a tool for developing an
promoting the firm’s corporate culture (the organization’s norms and value system) A strong
corporate culture can help the firm implement its strategy
Types Of Staffing Policy There are three main approaches to staffing policy within international
1. the ethnocentric approach:-
The ethnocentric approach to staffing policy fills key management positions with parent-
country nationals It makes sense for firms with an international strategy Firms that pursue
an ethnocentric policy believe that: there is a lack of qualified individuals in the host
country to fill senior management positions it is the best way to maintain a unified
corporate culture value can be created by transferring core competencies to a foreign
operation via parent country nationals
2. The polycentric approach:-
The polycentric staffing policy recruits host country nationals to manage subsidiaries in
their own country, and parent country nationals for positions at headquarters It makes
sense for firms pursuing a localization strategy The polycentric approach: can minimize
cultural myopia may be less expensive to implement than an ethnocentric policy
3. the geocentric approach:-
The geocentric staffing policy seeks the best people, regardless of nationality for key jobs
this approach is consistent with building a strong unifying culture and informal
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management network It makes sense for firms pursuing either a global or transnational
strategy Immigration policies of national governments may limit the ability of a firm to
pursue this policy
Human resource policies are systems of codified decisions, established by an organization, to
support administrative personnel functions, performance management, employee relations and
resource planning. Each company has a different set of circumstances, and so develops an
individual set of human resource policies.
These activities include:
Determining the firm's human resource strategy
The Strategic Role Of International HRM Firms need to ensure there is a fit between their human
resources practices and strategy In order to carry out a strategy effectively, employees need the
right training, an appropriate compensation package, and a good performance appraisal system
Small Business Policy;
A marketing policy aimed at distribution centers to encourage their promotion of a product or
services to their customers. For example, a pushing policy might be used by an industrial
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business to market to a distribution channel of wholesalers and retailers to obtain their assistance
in getting their customers to buy its product.
Performing a situation analysis, self-evaluation and competitor analysis: both internal and
external; both micro-environmental and macro-environmental.
Concurrent with this assessment, objectives are set. These objectives should be parallel to
a timeline; some are in the short-term and others on the long-term. This involves crafting
vision statements (long term view of a possible future), mission statements (the role that
the organization gives itself in society), overall corporate objectives (both financial and
strategic), strategic business unit objectives (both financial and strategic), and tactical
These objectives should, in the light of the situation analysis, suggest a strategic plan.
The plan provides the details of how to achieve these objectives.
The following aspects or levels of strategy formulation, each with a different focus, need to be
dealt with in the formulation phase of strategic management.
Corporate Level Strategy: In this aspect of strategy, we are concerned with broad
decisions about the total organization's scope and direction. Basically, we consider what
changes should be made in our growth objective and strategy for achieving it, the lines of
business we are in, and how these lines of business fit together. It is useful to think of
three components of corporate level strategy: (a) growth or directional strategy (what
should be our growth objective, ranging from retrenchment through stability to varying
degrees of growth - and how do we accomplish this), (b) portfolio strategy (what should
be our portfolio of lines of business, which implicitly requires reconsidering how much
concentration or diversification we should have), and (c) parenting strategy (how we
allocate resources and manage capabilities and activities across the portfolio -- where do
we put special emphasis, and how much do we integrate our various lines of business).
Competitive Strategy (often called Business Level Strategy): This involves deciding how
the company will compete within each line of business (LOB) or strategic business unit
Functional Strategy: These more localized and shorter-horizon strategies deal with how
each functional area and unit will carry out its functional activities to be effective and
maximize resource productivity.
Developing Strategic vision and Mission for a company
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What is a vision?
Vision statement provides direction and inspiration for organizational goal setting.
Vision is where you see yourself at the end of the horizon OR milestone therein. It is a single
statement dream OR aspiration. Typically a vision has the flavors of 'Being Most admired',
'Among the top league', 'being known for innovation', 'being largest and greatest' and so on.
Involves thinking strategically about
Future direction of company
Changes in company’s product-market-customer-technology to improve
Current market position
A strategic vision is a road map showing the route a company intends to take in developing and
strengthening its business. It paints a picture of a company’s destination and provides a rationale
for going there.
What is a mission?
Mission of an organization is the purpose for which the organization is. Mission is again a single
statement, and carries the statement in verb. Mission in one way is the road to achieve the vision.
For example, for a luxury products company, the vision could be 'To be among most admired
luxury brands in the world' and mission could be 'To add style to the lives'
A good mission statement will be:
Clear and Crisp: While there are different views, We strongly recommend that mission
should only provide what, and not 'how and when'. We would prefer the mission of
'Making People meet their career' to 'making people meet their career through effective
career counseling and education'. A mission statement without 'how & when' element
leaves a creative space with the organization to enable them take-up wider strategic
Have to have a very visible linkage to the business goals and strategy: For example you
cannot have a mission (for a home furnishing company) of 'Bringing Style to People’s
lives' while your strategy asks for mass product and selling. Its better that either you start
selling high-end products to high value customers, OR change your mission statement to
'Help people build homes'.
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Should not be same as the mission of a competing organization. It should touch upon
how its purpose it unique.
Mission follows the Vision:
The Entire process starting from Vision down to the business objectives is highly iterative. The
question is from where should be start. I strongly recommend that mission should follow the
vision. This is because the purpose of the organization could change to achieve their vision.
Setting Objectives –
Purpose of setting objectives
Converts vision into specific performance targets
Creates yardsticks to track performance
Pushes firm to be inventive, intentional, and focused in its actions
Setting challenging, achievable objectives guards against
Status quo performance
Targets to be achieved soon
Milestones or stair steps for reaching long-range performance
Targets to be achieved within 3 to 5 years
Prompt actions now that will permit reaching targeted long-range performance
Strategic Objectives and Financial Objectives –
Any objective that is market based is strategic objective. Any objective that can be derived from
financial statements is financial objective. Strategic objectives are objectives that set out what the
business are trying to achieve. They can set at two levels:
Corporate level: These objectives are ones that include the business as a whole. For example,
‘Our Company’s top line goal is to increase our annual income by 15% for every year.'
Functional level: These objectives are set out to improve on an area of assigned responsibilities
of the chosen division of the business. Additionally the objectives are usually set after the
corporate objectives have been set.
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Financial objectives focus on achieving acceptable profitability in a company’s pursuit of its
mission/vision, long-term health, and ultimate survival. Financial objectives signal commitment
to such outcomes as good cash flow, creditworthiness, earnings growth, an acceptable return on
investment, dividend growth, and stock price appreciation.
The following are examples of financial objectives:
Growth in revenues
Growth in earnings
Wider profit margins
Bigger cash flows
Higher returns on invested capital
Attractive economic value added (EVA) performance
Attractive and sustainable increases in market value added (MVA)
A more diversified revenue base
BALANCE SCORE CARD
The score card allows managers to evaluate a firm from different complementary perspectives.
The arguments run this
(i) A firm can offer superior returns to stakeholders if it has a competitive advantage in
its product or service offerings when compared to its rivals.
(ii) In order to sustain a competitive advantage, a firm must offer superior value to
(iii) this, in turn, requires development of operations with necessary capabilities.
(iv) In order to develop the needed operational capabilities, a firm requires the service of
employees having requisite skills, creativity, diversity and motivations.
Four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard:
The Customer’s perspective: Does the firm provide the customer with superior value in terms of
product differentiation, low cost and quick response.
The operation perspective: How effectively and efficiently do the core processes that produce
customer value perform? Which are the most important sources of customer value, which need
improving to offer greater customer value?
The Organizational perspective: Can this firm adapt to changes in its environment? Is its
workforce committed to shared goals? Does the organization learn from past mistakes? When
confronted with a problem, does it go to work on root causes or does it only scratch the surface!
The Financial Perspective: Does the firm offer returns in excess of the total cost of capital, as
suggested by the economic value added ―To succeed financially, how should we appear to our
shareholders? Is the question to be answered here?
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Goals and targets are more precise and expressed in specific terms. They are stated in precise
terms as quantatively as possible. The emphasis in goals is on measurement of progress toward
the attainment of objectives. Goals have the following features, they:
i) Are derived from objectives
ii) Offer a standard for measuring performance
iii) Are expressed in concrete terms
iv) Are time-bound and work-oriented
Any company needs solid goals in order to grow the business and reach full potential. If you are
looking to set a few company goals to inspire your employees and make your business more
successful, then you are going to need the full cooperation of all the employees involved. With
the help of everyone at your company, you can set and subsequently reach goals that are made to
make your business more successful and your employees more satisfied and productive. Here's
The literature on company philosophy is neither very extensive nor very satisfactory. But one
dictionary definition of philosophy does apply: "general laws that furnish the rational
explanation of anything." In this sense, a company philosophy evolves as a set of laws or
guidelines that gradually become established, through trial and error or through leadership, as
expected patterns of behavior. Some typical examples of basic beliefs that serve as guidelines to
action will clarify the concept. Although such basic beliefs inevitably vary from company to
company, here are five that recurring frequently in the most successful corporations:
1. Maintenance of high ethical standards in external and internal relationships is essential to
2. Decisions should be based on facts, objectively considered -- what I call the fact-founded,
thought-through approach to decision making.
3. The business should be kept in adjustment with the forces at work in its environment.
4. People should be judged on the basis of their performance, not on personality, education,
or personal traits and skills.
5. The business should be administered with a sense of competitive urgency.
The hierarchy of Strategic Intent –
Strategic intent refers to the purposes the organization strives for. These may be expressed in
terms of a hierarchy of strategic intent. The framework within which firms operate, adopt a
predetermined direction and attempt to achieve their goal is provided by a strategic intent. The
hierarchy of strategic intent covers the vision, mission, business definition, business model and
the goals and objectives.
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Merging the Strategic Vision Objectives and Strategy into a Strategic Plan
A company’s strategic plan lays out its future direction, performance targets, and strategy.
Developing a strategic vision, setting objectives and crafting a strategy are basic-direction setting
tasks. They map out the company’s direction, its short range and long range performance targets,
and the competitive moves and internal action approaches to be used in achieving the targeted
business results. Together, they constitute a strategic plan for coping with industry and
competitive conditions, the expected action of the industry’s key players, and the challenges and
issues that stand as obstacles to the company’s success. In companies committed to regular
strategy reviews and the development of explicit strategic plans. The strategic plan may take the
form of a written document that is circulated to managers (and perhaps to select employees). In
small privately owned companies, strategic plan exist mostly in the form of oral understandings
and commitments among managers and key employees about where to head, what to accomplish
and how to proceed. Short-term performance targets are the part of the strategic plan most often
spelled out explicitly and communicated to managers and employees. A number of companies
summarize key elements of their strategic plans in the company’s annual report to shareholders,
in postings on their websites, in press releases, or in statements provide to the business media.
Other companies, perhaps for reasons of competitive sensitivity, make only vague, general
statements about their strategic plans that could apply to most any company.
Strategic decisions differ from other functions of management as strategic decisions deal with
growth of an organization (long range focus). Whereas, operational decisions are routine ones
pertaining to day to day activities and administrative decisions are by and large patterned after
existing practices in the corporation. In short, strategic planning provides the company with an
easily discernible, clear cut, objective-strategy design which in turn takes the company in the
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Strategic planning is however not a single task, it is an integrated package of several tasks that
are distinct, yet inter-related
Clarifying vision / mission
Defining the business
Surveying the environment
Internal appraisal of the firm
Setting the corporate objectives
Formulating the corporate / business strategy
Monitoring the strategy
GENERIC COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES
Analyzing a company’s resources and competitive position –
There are five key questions to consider in analyzing a company's own particular competitive
circumstances and its competitive position vis-à-vis key rivals:
How well is the present strategy working? This involves evaluating the strategy from a
qualitative standpoint (completeness, internal consistency, rationale, and suitability to the
situation) and also from a quantitative standpoint (the strategic and financial results the strategy
is producing). The stronger a company's current overall performance, the less likely the need for
radical strategy changes. The weaker a company's performance and/or the faster the changes in
its external situation (which can be gleaned from industry and competitive analysis), the more its
current strategy must be questioned.
What are the company's resource strengths and weaknesses, and its external opportunities
and threats? A SWOT analysis provides an overview of a firm's situation and is an essential
component of crafting a strategy tightly matched to the company's situation. The two most
important parts of SWOT analysis are (1) drawing conclusions about what story the compilation
of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats tells about the company's overall situation,
and (2) acting on those conclusions to better match the company's strategy, to its resource
strengths and market opportunities, to correct the important weaknesses, and to defend against
external threats. A company's resource strengths, competencies, and competitive capabilities are
strategically relevant because they are the most logical and appealing building blocks for
strategy; resource weaknesses are important because they may represent vulnerabilities that need
correction. External opportunities and threats come into play because a good strategy necessarily
aims at capturing a company's most attractive opportunities and at defending against threats to its
Are the company's prices and costs competitive? One telling sign of whether a company's
situation is strong or precarious is whether its prices and costs are competitive with those of
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industry rivals. Value chain analysis and benchmarking are essential tools in determining
whether the company is performing particular functions and activities cost-effectively, learning
whether its costs are in line with competitors, and deciding which internal activities and business
processes need to be scrutinized for improvement. Value chain analysis teaches that how
competently a company manages its value chain activities relative to rivals is a key to building a
competitive advantage based on either better competencies and competitive capabilities or lower
costs than rivals.
Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals? The key appraisals here
involve how the company matches up against key rivals on industry key success factors and
other chief determinants of competitive success and whether and why the company has a
competitive advantage or disadvantage. Quantitative competitive strength assessments, using the
method presented in Table 4.4, indicate where a company is competitively strong and weak, and
provide insight into the company's ability to defend or enhance its market position. As a rule a
company's competitive strategy should be built around its competitive strengths and should aim
at shoring up areas where it is competitively vulnerable. When a company has important
competitive strengths in areas where one or more rivals are weak, it makes sense to consider
offensive moves to exploit rivals' competitive weaknesses. When a company has important
competitive weaknesses in areas where one or more rivals are strong, it makes sense to consider
defensive moves to curtail its vulnerability.
What strategic issues and problems merit front-burner managerial attention? This
analytical step zeros in on the strategic issues and problems that stand in the way of the
company's success. It involves using the results of both industry and competitive analysis and
company situation analysis to identify a "worry list" of issues to be resolved for the company to
be financially and competitively successful in the years ahead. The worry list always centers on
such concerns as "how to . . . ," "what to do about . . . ," and "whether to . . ."—the purpose of the
worry list is to identify the specific issues/problems that management needs to address. Actual
deciding on a strategy and what specific actions to take is what comes after the list of strategic
issues and problems that merit front-burner management attention is developed.
Value chain Analysis –
Value Chain Analysis describes the activities that take place in a business and relates them to an
analysis of the competitive strength of the business. Influential work by Michael Porter
suggested that the activities of a business could be grouped under two headings:
(1) Primary Activities - those that are directly concerned with creating and delivering a product
(e.g. component assembly); and
(2) Support Activities, which whilst they are not directly involved in production, may increase
effectiveness or efficiency (e.g. human resource management). It is rare for a business to
undertake all primary and support activities.
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Value Chain Analysis is one way of identifying which activities are best undertaken by a
business and which are best provided by others ("out sourced").
Linking Value Chain Analysis to Competitive Advantage
What activities a business undertakes is directly linked to achieving competitive advantage. For
example, a business which wishes to outperform its competitors through differentiating itself
through higher quality will have to perform its value chain activities better than the opposition.
By contrast, a strategy based on seeking cost leadership will require a reduction in the costs
associated with the value chain activities, or a reduction in the total amount of resources used.
Strategic benchmarking looks at what other companies are doing in terms of top management
capabilities, strategic initiatives, competitive product development and other long-term qualities
and processes that have proved successful. Determining what a company is doing strategically is
sometimes easier than trying to learn how they manage individual procedures. Top management
capabilities are often evident in the operations of the company. Leaders that are savvy in terms of
technology tend to implement technology-rich processes. Strategic direction can be found in
annual reports, if the company is public. Selecting a company to study that is not a direct
competitor makes it easier to approach management and ask for advice and information on how
the company built its success
Generic Competitive Strategies:-
• An integrated set of actions taken to produce goods or services with features that are
acceptable to customers at the lowest cost, relative to that of competitors with features
that are acceptable to customers
– Relatively standardized products
– Features acceptable to many customers
– Lowest competitive price
• Cost saving actions required by this strategy:
– Building efficient scale facilities
– Tightly controlling production costs and overhead
– Minimizing costs of sales, R&D and service
– Building efficient manufacturing facilities
– Monitoring costs of activities provided by outsiders
– Simplifying production processes
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Approach under which a firm aims to develop and market unique products for different customer
segments. Usually employed where a firm has clear competitive advantages, and can sustain an
expensive advertising campaign. It is one of three generic marketing strategies (see focus
strategy and low cost strategy for the other two) that can be adopted by any firm. See also
This strategy tells that the organization can gain competitive advantages (advantages over and
above our competitors) by offering a product with higher attributes/ facilities/ additional features
(NOT a Basic product) at a lower price compared to its competitors.
Higher Attributes + Low Price = Best Cost Provider Strategy
Ex – One of the best examples would be Toyota Lexus. Toyota had been doing various
researches and experiments on producing a Luxury vehicle which can outperform Benz, BMW,
Cadillac and Volvo. (A vehicle with higher attributes/ features than Benz, BMW) So the ultimate
result was the introduction of Lexus. But the main important thing was that they could sell this
Luxury Vehicle at a lower price compared to its main competitors Benz and BMW. This is
mainly due to their Lean Management (Keeping wastage at the minimum level and increase the
efficiency)Toyota has been recognized as the best company for practicing Lean Management at
the best possible level. According to Toyota
Performance of Lexus = Performance of BMW 5 series car but the price of Lexus = BMW 3
series car price.
In this example the strategy was to offer a product with high attributes at a lower price (Lexus) -
Low Cost Provider Strategy
Ultimate result was the advantage achieved by Toyota over and above its competitors -BMW,
A marketing strategy in which a company concentrates its resources on entering or expanding in
a narrow market or industry segment A focus strategy is usually employed where the company
knows its segment and has products to competitively satisfy its needs. Focus strategy is one of
three generic marketing strategies. See differentiation strategy and low cost strategy for the other
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An arrangement between two companies that have decided to share resources to undertake a
specific, mutually beneficial project A strategic alliance is less involved and less permanent than
a joint venture, in which two companies typically pool resources to create a separate business
entity. In a strategic alliance, each company maintains its autonomy while gaining a new
opportunity. A strategic alliance could help a company develop a more effective process, expand
into a new market or develop an advantage over a competitor, among other possibilities.
Collaboration is working with each other to do a task. It is a recursive process where two or
more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, (this is more than the
intersection of common goals seen in co-operative ventures, but a deep, collective, determination
to reach an identical objective
Collaborative partnerships (people and organizations from multiple sectors working together in
common purpose) are a prominent strategy for community health improvement. This review
examines evidence about the effects of collaborative partnerships on (a) community and systems
change (environmental changes), (b) community-wide behavior change, and (c) more distant
population-level health outcomes. We also consider the conditions and factors that may
determine whether collaborative partnerships are effective.
A partnership between two or more people that gives structure and organization for planning,
thinking, and working together to accomplish a common goal. The only question that remains is,
'what partnership isn't considered collaborative'?
Mergers and acquisition,
Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate
finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different
companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of
origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a
joint venture. The distinction between a "merger" and an "acquisition" has become increasingly
blurred in various respects (particularly in terms of the ultimate economic outcome), although it
has not completely disappeared in all situations.
Joint Ventures Strategies
A business agreement between two different companies to work together to achieve specific
goals Unlike a merger or acquisition, a strategic joint venture does not have to be permanent, and
it offers companies the benefits of maintaining their independence and identities as individual
companies while offsetting one or more weaknesses with another company's strengths.
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Strategic outsourcing is the process of engaging the services of a provider to manage essential
tasks that would otherwise be managed by in-house personnel. This is often done to allow a
business to arrange the use of its assets to best advantage, and allow the company to move closer
to the achievement of its goals. An outsourcing strategy of this type may be employed by
businesses and other organizations of any size, and normally helps to reduce the cost of
operations as well as allow available resources to be allocated to the other necessary functions
that are still managed within the organization proper.
International Business level strategies
• An integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions the firm uses to gain a
competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in specific product markets
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FORMULATING LONG-TERM AND GRAND STRATEGIES
Tailoring Strategy to fit specific Industry and company situation – long term objectives for
The company mission encompasses the broad aims of the firm.
The most specific statement of aims presented in the mission appeared as the goals of the firm.
However, those goals, which commonly dealt with profitability, growth, and survival, were
stated without specific targets or time frames.
They were always to be pursued but could never be fully attained.
They gave a general sense of direction but were not intended to provide specific benchmarks for
evaluating the firm’s progress in achieving its aims.
Providing such benchmarks is the function of objectives.
Tailoring Strategy to fit specific Industry and company situation – long term objectives for
Grand Strategies- Innovation, Integration and diversification – Conglomerate Diversification,
Retrenchment, Restructuring and turnaround –
Strategic managers recognize that short-run profit maximization is rarely the best approach to
achieving sustained corporate growth and profitability.
To achieve long-term prosperity, strategic planners commonly establish long-term objectives in
Profitability The ability of any firm to operate in the long run depends on attaining an
acceptable level of profits. Strategically managed firms characteristically have a profit
objective, usually expressed in earnings per share or return on equity.
Productivity Strategic managers constantly try to improve the productivity of their
systems Firms that can improve the input-output relationship normally increase
profitability. Thus, firms almost always state an objective for productivity. Commonly
used productivity objectives are the number of items produced or the number of services
rendered per unit of input. However, productivity objectives are sometimes stated in
terms desired cost decreases. For example, objectives may be set for reducing defective
items, customer complaints leading to litigation, or overtime. Achieving such objectives
increases profitability if unit output is maintained.
Competitive Position One measure of corporate success is relative dominance in the
marketplace Larger firms often establish an objective in terms of competitive position,
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often using total sales or market share as measures of their competitive position. An
objective with regard to competitive position may indicate a firm’s long-term priorities.
For example, Gulf Oil set a five-year objective of moving from third to second place as a
producer of high-density polypropylene. Total sales were the measure.
Employee Development Employees value growth and career opportunities. Providing
such opportunities, often increases productivity and decreases turnover. Therefore,
strategic decision makers frequently include an employee development objective in their
long- range plans. For example. A company can declare an objective of developing a
highly skilled and flexible employees and thus providing steady employment for a
reduced number of workers.
Employee Relations Whether or not they are bound by union contracts, firms actively
seek good employee relations. In fact, proactive steps in anticipation of employee needs
and expectations are a characteristic concern of strategic managers. Strategic managers
believe that productivity is linked to employee loyalty and perceived management
interest in workers’ welfare. They therefore set objectives to improve employee relations.
Among the outgrowths of such objectives are safety programes, worker representation on
management committees, and employee stock option plans.
Technological Leadership Firms must decide whether to lead or follow in the
marketplace. Approach can be successful, but each requires a different strategic posture
Therefore, many firms state an objective with regard to technological leadership. For
example, Caterpillar Tractor Company established its early reputation and dominant
position in its industry by being in the forefront of technological innovation in the
manufacture of large earthmovers.
Public Responsibility Firms recognize their responsibilities to their customers and to
society at large. In fact, many firms seek to exceed the demands made by government.
They work not only to develop reputations for fairly priced products and services but also
to establish themselves as responsible corporate citizens. For example, they may establish
objectives for charitable and educational contributions, minority training, public or
political activity, community welfare, or urban renewal.
Qualities of Long-Term Objectives
What distinguishes a good objective from a bad one? What qualities of an objective improve its
chances of being attained?
Perhaps these questions are best answered in relation to seven criteria that should be used in
preparing long-term objectives:
3. Measurable over time,
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FORMULATION OF GRAND STRATEGIES
These provide a comprehensive general approach guiding major actions designed to accomplish
the firm’s long-term objectives.
Many planning experts believe that the general philosophy of doing business declared by the
firm in the mission statement must be translated into a holistic statement of the firm’s strategic
orientation before it can be further defined in terms of a specific long-term strategy.
In other words, a long-term or grand strategy must be based on a core idea about how the firm
can best compete in the marketplace.
The popular term for this core idea is generic strategy. From a scheme developed by Michael
Porter, many planners believe that any long-term strategy should derive from a firm’s attempt to
seek a competitive advantage based on one of three generic strategies:
1. Striving for overall low-cost leadership in the industry.
2. Striving to create and market unique products for varied customer groups through
3. Striving to have special appeal to one or more groups of consumer or industrial buyers,
focusing on their cost or differentiation concerns.
While the need for firms to develop generic strategies remains an unresolved debate, designers of
planning systems agree about the critical role of grand strategies. Grand strategies, often called
master or business strategies provide basic direction for strategic actions. They are the basis of
coordinated and sustained efforts directed toward achieving long-term business objectives
.Grand strategies indicate how long-range objectives will be achieved. Thus, a grand strategy
can be defined as a comprehensive general approach that guides a firm’s major actions. Any one
of these strategies could serve as the basis for achieving the major long-term objectives of a
21. SATYA SM & B Page 21
An innovation strategy involves new processes, business ideas, and more basic R&D than is
usually associated with a product development strategy. Innovation is usually paired with other
strategies as a supporting or complementary strategy
These are two types
This strategy focuses on mergers or acquisitions in the same industry. This strategy will usually
increase a firm's market share and it helps the firm gain relevant knowledge and expertise.
Horizontal integration strategy can support a concentrated growth or market development
Vertical integration is a grand strategy that involves acquiring either suppliers or customers.
The transaction may involve stock purchase, buying assets, or stock swap. Backward vertical
integration involves acquiring a firm at an earlier stage of the value chain. Forward integration
involves acquiring a firm at a later stage in the value chain. This strategy can result in control of
more value chain activities. For example, backward vertical integration may insure control of
sources of supply. Forward integration enables an organization to obtain increased control over
its distributors or retailers. It can be implemented when the distribution of an organization is
costly, distributors are unreliable. When an organization is not able to avail the advantage of
competition due to lack of quality distribution
A diversification strategic thrust involves acquiring related or unrelated businesses, and in some
cases major new product line development programs. Concentric diversification focuses on
creating a portfolio of related business. The portfolio is usually developed by acquisition rather
than by internal new business creation. Product-market synergies are a major issue in creating
the portfolios of SBUs. This strategy focuses on expansion in the same industry or area of
technical know how
This strategy focuses on expansion through new products and new markets.
Conglomerate diversification involves acquiring a portfolio of businesses based on financial
performance criteria. Product-market synergies are not an issue.
It can be implemented:
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When basic industry of an organization is facing a downfall in annual sales and profit.
When an organization has the opportunity to purchase an unrelated business that looks
like an attractive investment.
When there is a financial synergy between acquired and acquiring organization.
When existing markets are saturated
Retrenchment is a corporate level strategy that aims to reduce the size or diversity of an
organization. Retrenchment is also reduction in expenditure to become financially stable.
Retrenchment strategy is a strategy used by corporates in order to reduce the diversity or to cut
the overall size of the operations of the company. This strategy is often used to cut down
expenses with the goal of becoming more financially stable business. Typically the strategy
involves withdrawing from certain markets or the discontinuation of selling certain products or
services in order to make a beneficial turn around.
Retirement is one of the retrenchment strategy. It is a point where a person stops employment
completely. A person may also semi retire by reducing work hours. Many people choose to retire
when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits, although some are forced to retire
when physical conditions do not allow them to work anymore.
Turnaround management is a process dedicated to corporate renewal. It uses analysis and
planning to save troubled companies and returns them to solvency. Turnaround management
involves management review, activity based costing, root failure causes analysis, and SWOT
analysis to determine why the company is failing. Once analysis is completed, a long term
strategic plan and restructuring plan are created. These plans may or may not involve a
bankruptcy filing. Once approved, turnaround professionals begin to implement the plan,
continually reviewing its progress and make changes to the plan as needed to ensure the
company returns to solvency.
GE nine cell planning grid and BCG Matrix
General Electric with the assistance of McKinsey and Company developed this matrix.
• This matrix includes 9 cells based on long-term industry attractiveness (on Y-axis) and
business strength/competitive position (on X-axis).
• The industry attractiveness includes Market size, Market growth rate, Market profitability,
Pricing trends, Competitive intensity / rivalry, Overall risk of returns in the industry, Entry
barriers, Opportunity to differentiate products and services, Demand variability, Segmentation,
Distribution structure, Technology development
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• Business strength and competitive position includes Strength of assets and competencies,
Relative brand strength (marketing),Market share, Market share growth, Customer loyalty,
Relative cost position (cost structure compared with competitors), Relative profit margins
(compared to competitors), Distribution strength and production capacity, Record of
technological or other innovation, Quality, Access to financial and other investment resources,