Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm inthickness,
2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length respectively.
Each weights about 4–8 gm
Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and
behind the uterine/fallopian tubes.
attached to uterus by ovarian ligament
Structure of the ovaries
Ovaries and Relationship
to Uterine Tube and Uterus
A series of ligaments holds them in position
1.Broad ligament of uterus, a fold of parietal
peritonium, attaches to ovaries by double layered
fold of peritonium called mesovarium.
2. Ovarian ligament-ovary to uterus
3. Suspensory ligament-ovary to pelvic wall
Each ovary contains a hilum(hilus), a point of
entrance & exit for blood vessels & nerves
Function of the ovary
Secrete estrogen & progesterone.
Production of ova (female
The two tubes extended fromthe cornu
of the uterus to the ovary.
It runs in the upper free borderof the
Length 8 to 14 cm
Its divided into 3parts. a. Infundibulum
It is funnel or trumpetshaped.
Fimbriae are fingerlike projections,
adherent to the ovary.
The fimbriae catch and hold the egg
when it released from ovary.
Which is the wider part about 5 cm in length.
Inner layer made up of specialized cilia which
helps the ova in moving ahead.
Which is the narrow part/nack liketube
adjacent/opens in to the uterus.
Straight and cord like , about 2–3 cm
Fertlization process takes place here(fusion of
male and female gamates)
Functions of Fallopian tubes
Gamete transport (ovum pickup, ovum transport, sperm
Final maturation of gamete post ovulate oocyte
maturation, sperm capicitation.
Fluid environment forearly embryonic development.
Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus.
The uterus is a hollow, pear
shaped muscular organ.
The uterus measures about
7.5 X 5 X 2.5 cm and weight
about 50 – 60 gm.
T h e uterus divided intothree parts
a. Fundus/body of uterus
a. Body of the uterus/ fundus
The upper part is the corpus, orbody
of the uterus
The fundus is the part of the body
above the area where the fallopian
tubes enter the uterus.(cornu of
Length about 5 cm.
A narrower transitionzone.
Is between the fundus and cervix.
During late pregnancy, the isthmus
elongates and is known as the lower
The lowermost position ofthe uterus
The length of the cervix isabout
2.5 t0 3 cm.
The upper part of the cervix is marked by
internal os and the lower cervix is marked
by the external os.
Layers of the uterus
Is the outer peritoneal layer of serous
membrane that covers most of the
Laterally, the perimetrium is
continuous with the broad ligaments
on either side of the uterus.
thick Is the middle layer of
Most of the muscle fibers are
concentrated in the upper uterus,
and their number diminishes
progressively toward the cervix.
myometrium contains 3 types of
smooth muscle fiber
fibers /outer layer:
found mostly inthe
designed to expel the
towards pelvic outlet
2. Middle fibers:
contract after birth
to compress the blood
vessels that pass
between them to
limit blood loss.
form constrictions where
the fallopian tubes enter
Also prevent reflux of
menstrual blood and
tissue into the fallopian
Is the inner layer of theuterus.
It is responsive to the cyclic variations of
estrogen and progesterone during the female
reproductive cycle every month.
this layer is shed during each menstrual
period and after child birth
The Function of the uterus
1.Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off
2.Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and
allows the fetus to grow.
3.Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract
and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the
It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and
membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long.
Lying between the bladder
anteriorly and the rectum
The vagina connects theuterus above
with the vestibule below.
The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or
rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow
the vagina to stretch considerably during
The reaction of the vagina is acidic, the
pH is 4.5 that protects the vagina against
Functions of the vagina
To allow discharge ofthe
As the female organs ofcoitus.
To allow passage of the fetusfrom
the uterus.(called birth canal)
External Female Structures
Collectively, the external female
reproductive organs are called the
Is rounded, soft fullness of
subcutaneous fatty tissue, that forms
the anterior border of the external
It is covered with varying amounts
of pubic hair.
Labia Majora & Minora
The labia Majora are two thick rounded, lip like structure
of tissue that extended from the mons pubis.
Also called "greater lips" are the part around the vagina containing
two glands (Bartholin’s glands) which helps lubrication during
I t is protect the labia minora,urinary orifice and vaginal
Consists of sweat and sebaceous glands & also pubic hairs.
"lesser lips" are the thin hairless ridges at the
entrance of the vagina, located between the labia
In front they split to enclose the clitoris
The lateral and anterior aspectsare usually
more sebaceous glands and don’t have
sweat glands& pubic hairs.
having rich vascularity.
is a small pea- shaped structure. It plays an
important part in sexual excitement in females.
It’s rich vascular, highlysensitive to
temperature, touch, and pressure sensation
Below this external urethral orifice and below that
vaginal orifice is located.
Is oval-shaped area formed
between the labia minora, clitoris.
Vestibule contains the external
urethral orifice, vaginal orifice,
and Bartholins glands.
The bony pelvis support
and protects the lower
abdominal and internal
Muscle, Joints and ligaments
added support for
organs of the pelvis
against the downward force of
gravity and the increases in
Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4
1. Two hip bones.
1. Two hip bones.
Each or hip bone is composed
of three bones:
It is the flared outpart.
The greater part of its inner
aspect is smooth and concave,
forming the iliac fossa.
The upper border of the iliumis
called iliac crest
It is the thick lower part.
It has a large prominence
known as the ischial tuberosity
on which the body rests while
Behind and little above the
tuberosity is an inward
projection the ischial spine.
Is a wedge shaped bone consistingof
The anterior surface of the sacrumis
The upper border of the firstsacral
vertebra known as the sacral
Consists of four
vertebrae forming a
small triangular bone.
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