Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System 1

Nächste SlideShare
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 46 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Ähnlich wie Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System 1 (20)


Weitere von sarita1916 (20)

Aktuellste (20)


Anatomy & Physiology of Female Reproductive System 1

  1. 1. Anatomy & Physiology Of Female Reproductive System Sarita Sharma Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacology Mumbai
  2. 2. Internal Female Structures 1) Ovaries 2)Fallopian tubes 3) Uterus 4) Vagina
  3. 3. 1)Ovaries Oval solid structure, 1.5 cm inthickness, 2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in length respectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine/fallopian tubes. attached to uterus by ovarian ligament
  4. 4. Structure of the ovaries Cortex Medulla Hilum
  5. 5. Ovaries and Relationship to Uterine Tube and Uterus
  6. 6. A series of ligaments holds them in position 1.Broad ligament of uterus, a fold of parietal peritonium, attaches to ovaries by double layered fold of peritonium called mesovarium. 2. Ovarian ligament-ovary to uterus 3. Suspensory ligament-ovary to pelvic wall Each ovary contains a hilum(hilus), a point of entrance & exit for blood vessels & nerves
  7. 7. Function of the ovary Secrete estrogen & progesterone. Production of ova (female gamate)
  8. 8. 2)Fallopian tubes  The two tubes extended fromthe cornu of the uterus to the ovary.  It runs in the upper free borderof the broad ligament. Length 8 to 14 cm Its divided into 3parts. a. Infundibulum b. Ampulla c. Isthmus
  9. 9. 1. Infundibulum It is funnel or trumpetshaped. Fimbriae are fingerlike projections, adherent to the ovary. The fimbriae catch and hold the egg when it released from ovary.
  10. 10. 2. Ampulla  Which is the wider part about 5 cm in length. Inner layer made up of specialized cilia which helps the ova in moving ahead.
  11. 11. 3. Isthmus Which is the narrow part/nack liketube adjacent/opens in to the uterus. Straight and cord like , about 2–3 cm in length. Fertlization process takes place here(fusion of male and female gamates)
  12. 12. Functions of Fallopian tubes Gamete transport (ovum pickup, ovum transport, sperm transport). Final maturation of gamete post ovulate oocyte maturation, sperm capicitation. Fluid environment forearly embryonic development. Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus.
  13. 13. 3)Uterus The uterus is a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ.  The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5 X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 – 60 gm.  T h e uterus divided intothree parts a. Fundus/body of uterus b. Isthmus c. cervix
  14. 14. a. Body of the uterus/ fundus The upper part is the corpus, orbody of the uterus The fundus is the part of the body above the area where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus.(cornu of uterus) Length about 5 cm.
  15. 15. b. Isthmus  A narrower transitionzone. Is between the fundus and cervix. During late pregnancy, the isthmus elongates and is known as the lower uterine segment.
  16. 16. c. Cervix The lowermost position ofthe uterus “neck”. The length of the cervix isabout 2.5 t0 3 cm. The upper part of the cervix is marked by internal os and the lower cervix is marked by the external os.
  17. 17. Layers of the uterus  Perimetrium.  Myometrium.  Endometrium.
  18. 18. 1. Perimetrium  Is the outer peritoneal layer of serous membrane that covers most of the uterus. Laterally, the perimetrium is continuous with the broad ligaments on either side of the uterus.
  19. 19. 2. Myometrium thick Is the middle layer of muscle. Most of the muscle fibers are concentrated in the upper uterus, and their number diminishes progressively toward the cervix.
  20. 20. myometrium contains 3 types of smooth muscle fiber 1. Longitudinal fibers /outer layer: found mostly inthe fundus designed to expel the fetus efficiently towards pelvic outlet during birth 2. Middle fibers: These fiber contract after birth to compress the blood vessels that pass between them to limit blood loss. 3.Circular fibers/inner layer: form constrictions where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus Also prevent reflux of menstrual blood and tissue into the fallopian tubes.
  21. 21. 3. Endometrium Is the inner layer of theuterus.  It is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month.  this layer is shed during each menstrual period and after child birth
  22. 22. The Function of the uterus 1.Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium. 2.Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow. 3.Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus
  23. 23. 4)Vagina  It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long. Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly. The vagina connects theuterus above with the vestibule below.
  24. 24. The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth.  The reaction of the vagina is acidic, the pH is 4.5 that protects the vagina against infection.
  25. 25. Functions of the vagina To allow discharge ofthe menstrual flow. As the female organs ofcoitus. To allow passage of the fetusfrom the uterus.(called birth canal)
  26. 26. External Female Structures Collectively, the external female reproductive organs are called the Vulva.
  27. 27. External Female Structures 1.Mons Pubis. 2.Labia Majora 3.Labia Minora. 4.Clitoris. 5.Vestibule.
  28. 28. Mons Pubis Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, that forms the anterior border of the external reproductive organs. It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
  29. 29. Labia Majora & Minora The labia Majora are two thick rounded, lip like structure of tissue that extended from the mons pubis. Also called "greater lips" are the part around the vagina containing two glands (Bartholin’s glands) which helps lubrication during intercourse.  I t is protect the labia minora,urinary orifice and vaginal orifice. Consists of sweat and sebaceous glands & also pubic hairs.
  30. 30. Labia Minora  "lesser lips" are the thin hairless ridges at the entrance of the vagina, located between the labia majora.  In front they split to enclose the clitoris  The lateral and anterior aspectsare usually pigmented.  more sebaceous glands and don’t have sweat glands& pubic hairs.  having rich vascularity.
  31. 31. Clitoris. is a small pea- shaped structure. It plays an important part in sexual excitement in females. It’s rich vascular, highlysensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensation Below this external urethral orifice and below that vaginal orifice is located.
  32. 32. Vestibule. Is oval-shaped area formed between the labia minora, clitoris. Vestibule contains the external urethral orifice, vaginal orifice, and Bartholins glands.
  33. 33. Support structures The bony pelvis support and protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.
  34. 34. Muscle, Joints and ligaments provide internal added support for organs of the pelvis against the downward force of gravity and the increases in intra-abdominal pressure
  35. 35. Bony Pelvis  Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4 bones: 1. Two hip bones. 2. Sacrum. 3. Coccyx.
  36. 36. 1. Two hip bones. Each or hip bone is composed of three bones: *Ilium *Ischium *Pubis
  37. 37. Ilium* It is the flared outpart. The greater part of its inner aspect is smooth and concave, forming the iliac fossa. The upper border of the iliumis called iliac crest
  38. 38. Ischium* It is the thick lower part. It has a large prominence known as the ischial tuberosity on which the body rests while sitting.
  39. 39. Behind and little above the tuberosity is an inward projection the ischial spine.
  40. 40. 2. Sacrum Is a wedge shaped bone consistingof five vertebrae. The anterior surface of the sacrumis concave The upper border of the firstsacral vertebra known as the sacral promontory
  41. 41. .Coccyx. 3  Consists of four vertebrae forming a small triangular bone.