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Rogers and Maslow's Theory

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Rogers and Maslow's Theory

  1. 1. Abraham Harold Maslow
  2. 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Conative Needs • Basic Needs • Prepotency
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Needs Deficiency needs 1. Physiological Needs -the only needs that can be completely satisfied or even overly satisfied and their recurring nature
  4. 4. 2. Safety Needs -Physical security, stability, dependency, protection and freedom from threatening forces and the needs for law, order and structure. *Basic Anxiety- when their attempts of satisfying their needs are not satisfied. 3. Love and Belongingness - desire for friendship, the wish for a mate and children, the need to belong to a family, a club, a neighborhood, a nation, sex and human contact.
  5. 5. 4. Esteem Needs - Self-respect, confidence, competence, and the knowledge that others hold them in high esteem. 2 levels of esteem needs: a. Reputation- perception of the prestige, recognition, or the fame a person has achieved in the eyes of others. b. Self- Esteem- person’s own feelings of worth and confidence.
  6. 6. Growth Needs 5. Self- Actualization Needs - Self-fulfillment, the realization of all one’s potential and a desire to become creative in the full sense of the world.
  7. 7. 6. Aesthetic Needs -the need for beauty and aesthetically pleasing experiences. 7. Cognitive Needs -the desire to know, to solve mysteries, to understand and to be curious. 8. Neurotic Needs -The satisfaction of conative, aesthetic and cognitive needs -Leads only to stagnation and pathology *Hoarding Drive- a neurotic need that leads to pathology whether or not It is satisfied
  8. 8. Measuring Self-Actualization Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) -developed by Everett L. Shostrom in 1974 -To measure the values and behaviors of self-actualizing people -consists of 150 forced-choice items
  9. 9. 2 Major Scales of POI: •Time competence/ Time Incompetence Scale - Measure the degree to which people are present oriented •Support Scale - Designed to measure whether an individual’s mode of reaction is characteristically ‘self’ oriented or ‘other’ oriented.
  10. 10. Subscales of POI: •Self-Actualizing Values (SAV) •Existentiality (Ex) •Feeling Reactivity (Fr) •Spontaneity (S) •Self-Regard (Sr) •Self-Acceptance (Sa) •Nature of Man (Nc) •Synergy (Sy) •Acceptance of Aggression (A) •Capacity (C)
  11. 11. Short Index Self-Actualization - borrowed 15 items from the POI that are most correlated with the total self-actualization score. - a 6 point Likert scale. Brief Index of Self-Actualization - 40 items placed on a Likert scale and yields scores from 40 – 240. 4 factors: 1.Core self-actualization 2.Autonomy 3.Openness to experience 4.Comfort with solitude
  12. 12. Carl Rogers
  13. 13. Person-Centered Theory - Known as “nondirective”, “client-centered”, “person centered”, “student-centered”, “group-centered” and “person-centered” - Refers to Rogerian personality theory - Approach to understanding personality and human relationships - Used in psychotherapy and counseling, education, organizations and other group settings.
  14. 14. Basic Assumptions 1. Formative Tendency - There is a tendency for all matter, both organic and inorganic to evolve from simpler to more complex forms. 2. Actualizing Tendency - Tendency within all humans (and other animals and plants) to move towards completion or fulfillment of potentials. • *the need for maintenance • *enhancement
  15. 15. 3 therapeutic conditions: 1. Congruent/ authentic 2. Empathy 3. Unconditional Positive Regard
  16. 16. The Person of Tomorrow 1. A growing openness to experience - They move away from defensiveness and have no need for subsection. 2. An increasing existential lifestyle - Living each moment fully, not distorting the moment to fit personality or self-concept but allowing personality and self-concept to emanate from the experience.
  17. 17. 3. Increasing organismic trust - They trust their own judgment and their ability to choose behavior that is appropriate for each moment. 4. Freedom of Choice - They believe that they play a role in determining their role in determining their own behavior and feel responsible for their own behavior. 5. Creativity - They will be more creative in the way they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform.
  18. 18. 6. Reliability and Constructiveness - Open to all their needs will be able to maintain a balance between them. 7. A rich full life - The life is of a fully functioning individual is rich, full and exciting and suggests that they experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak fear and courage more intensely.
  19. 19. References: •Carl Rogers. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, from http://www.bapca.org.uk/about/carl- rogers.html • Fiest, J. & Fiest, G. (2009). Holistic-Dynamic Theory, Theories of Personality Seventeenth Edition. (pp. 274-296) •Fiest, J. & Fiest, G. (2009). Person-Centered Theory, Theories of Personality Seventeenth Edition. (pp. 308-328)
  20. 20. That in all things, God may be glorified!