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 Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.
 They are commonly found in aquatic environments including
freshwater, m...
MORPHOLOGY OF AN ALGAL CELL
Algae are generally classified on the basis of the following
characteristics:
 Chemical and physical feature of the cell ...
 One of the best known algal classification was proposed by Fritsch
who divided them into 11 classes(1945).
 Classificat...
 1980 - Lee used fine structural aspects of organelles such as
chloroplast, ER, flagellum, eyespot and nucleus to classif...
 Chlorophyta is the division of the green algae.
 They are principally freshwater species.
 They are also found in sea ...
 Some species have special structures called
holdfasts, which anchor them to submerged
objects or aquatic plants.
 The c...
Chlamydomonas:
 It is a typical unicellular motile green algae widely distributed in
stagnant water, damp soils and even ...
Volvox:
 Volvox is a colonial green algae.
 Found in freshwater habitats.
 It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 ...
Chlorella:
 It is a green algae which is mainly found in freshwater habitats such as
ponds, ditches and lakes.
 It is gl...
Ulothrix:
 It is a filamentous green algae found in freshwater and marine water.
 They are found in flowing streams.
 T...
Spirogyra:
 Also known as pond silk, water silk or blanket weed.
 It is a filamentous green algae.
 Named for the helic...
Acetabularia:
 The name, Acetabularia, derives from the Latin word acetabulum, a
broad, shallow cup used for dipping brea...
 The members of this division
are red in colour. Hence they
are known as “Red Algae”.
 Red algae are red because of
the ...
 Some rhodophytes are also important in the formation of tropical reefs.
 These reef-building rhodophytes are called cor...
Gelidium:
 Gelidium is a genus of
thalloid red algae comprising
124 species.
G.amansii - Used in making agar.
Gracilaria:...
 The cryptomonads are a small
group of biflagellate organisms.
 They have two unequal flagella,
which arise from the bas...
There are one or two plastids, with or without pyrenoids
per cell.
Food reserve is stored as a true starch as well as oi...
Cryptomonas:
 It is a very important member of the
cryptophyta division.
 They are widely distributed in freshwater
habi...
 The members of this algal division are commonly called as
euglenoids, because the best known genus of the group is Eugle...
 Of the accessory pigments that are present, the most important are
β-carotene, neoxanthin and diadinoxanthin, although e...
Euglena:
 They are both plant-like and animal-like.
 They are unicellular.
 They are motile by means of flagellum.
 Th...
 In low moisture conditions, or when food is scarce, Euglena forms
a protective wall around itself and lies dormant as a ...
 It is a large group of algae
commonly found in the
freshwater.
 Species of chrysophycophyta
are predominantly flagellat...
 Their characteristic colour is due to the masking of their
chlorophyll by brown pigments.
 Reproduction is commonly by ...
Chrysamoeba:
 They are unicellular flagellates.
 The flagella are unequal in length.
 There are two distinctive plastid...
Thank
you
Classification of algae
Classification of algae
Classification of algae
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Classification of algae

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General characteristics of algae
Basis for the classification of algae
classification of algae

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Classification of algae

  1. 1.  Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.  They are commonly found in aquatic environments including freshwater, marine and brackish water.  They are either motile or non-motile.  Some of the motile and non-motile algae may form a colony known as Coenonbium.  Algae possess the usual eukaryotic structures - Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum and a nucleus.  The algae includes both the microscopic unicellular to macroscopic multicellular organisms.  Most of the algae are autotrophic characterized by their ability to use the carbon-di-oxide as a carbon source and light as an energy source.  They reproduce both sexually and asexually.
  2. 2. MORPHOLOGY OF AN ALGAL CELL
  3. 3. Algae are generally classified on the basis of the following characteristics:  Chemical and physical feature of the cell walls  Nature and properties of pigments that contribute to photosynthesis  Morphological charactersitics of cells and thalli.  Habitat  Flagella number and the location of their insertion in motile cells.  Reproductive behaviour
  4. 4.  One of the best known algal classification was proposed by Fritsch who divided them into 11 classes(1945).  Classification is based on pigments, flagella and reserve food material. Eleven classes proposed by Fritsch are as follows: 1. Chlorophyceae 2. Xanthophyceae 3. Chrysophyceae 4. Bacillariophyceae 5. Cryptophyceae 6. Dinophyceae 7. Chloromonadineae 8. Euglenineae 9. Phaeophyceae 10. Rhodophyceae 11. Myxophyceae.
  5. 5.  1980 - Lee used fine structural aspects of organelles such as chloroplast, ER, flagellum, eyespot and nucleus to classify the algae into 6 divisions and 15 classes.  The 6 divisions are : Cyanophyta, Glaucophyta, Chromophyta, Rhododphyta, Chlorophyta and Charophyta.  Rosowski and Parker (1982) classified algae into 15 classes.  Van den Hoek (1995) classified algae into 11 divisions:  Cyanophyta  Prochlorophyta  Glaucophyta  Rhodophyta  Heterokontophyta  Haptophyta  Cryptophyta  Dinophyta  Euglenophyta  Chloroarachniophyta  Cholorphyta
  6. 6.  Chlorophyta is the division of the green algae.  They are principally freshwater species.  They are also found in sea water, and many other terrestial ecosystems.  This division contain around 500 genera and around 8000 species.  There are many single celled forms and many colonial types of green algae.  Many unicellular green algae are motile by flagella action.  Colonial types occur as spheres, filaments or plates.
  7. 7.  Some species have special structures called holdfasts, which anchor them to submerged objects or aquatic plants.  The cells of the chlorophycophyta have a well- defined nucleus and usually a cell wall and the chlorophyll and other pigments are in chloroplasts as in higher plants.  Majority of the green algae contain one chloroplasts per cell.  The cholorplasts contains chlorophyll a and b.  Green algae reproduce both sexually and asexually.  The cholorplasts are green because they are not masked by any accessory pigments. Because of this character, the members of chlorophyta are called as green algae.  The chlorophyta has a characteristic set of acessory pigments such as β-carotene and Xanthophylls.
  8. 8. Chlamydomonas:  It is a typical unicellular motile green algae widely distributed in stagnant water, damp soils and even in snow as “Snow algae”. (Chlamydomonas nivalis - found in snow).  They reproduce both sexually and asexually.  Model organism
  9. 9. Volvox:  Volvox is a colonial green algae.  Found in freshwater habitats.  It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells.  The individual cells are biflagellate and are morphologically similar to that of Chlamydomonas.
  10. 10. Chlorella:  It is a green algae which is mainly found in freshwater habitats such as ponds, ditches and lakes.  It is globular in shape.  It is non-motile in nature.  Generally used in supplemental food supply - SCP.
  11. 11. Ulothrix:  It is a filamentous green algae found in freshwater and marine water.  They are found in flowing streams.  They are attached to the twigs or stones by holdfasts at the bases of the filaments.  It reproduces by means of the flagellated zoospores. Each Zoospore may become attached to a solid object and develop in to a filament.
  12. 12. Spirogyra:  Also known as pond silk, water silk or blanket weed.  It is a filamentous green algae.  Named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts.  Spirogyra is very common in relatively clean eutrophic water, developing slimy filamentous green masses.
  13. 13. Acetabularia:  The name, Acetabularia, derives from the Latin word acetabulum, a broad, shallow cup used for dipping bread; the upturned cap of Acetabularia resembles such a cup. For this reason, it is also sometimes called mermaid's wineglass.  Each Acetabularia cell is composed of three segments: the "foot" or base which contains the nucleus, the "stalk," and the "cap."
  14. 14.  The members of this division are red in colour. Hence they are known as “Red Algae”.  Red algae are red because of the presence of the pigment phycoerythrin.  They are generally found in frehwater or marine water.  The members of this division are generally multicellular though unicellualr forms are known.
  15. 15.  Some rhodophytes are also important in the formation of tropical reefs.  These reef-building rhodophytes are called coralline algae, because they secrete a hard shell of carbonate around themselves, in much the same way that corals do.  In many red algae, asexual reproduction takes place by non motile spores called monospores.  Sexual reproduction is oogamous type involving specialised female cells called Carpogonia and specialised male cells called spermatia.  Several red algae is of economic importance: Carrageenan : It is extracted from the walls of several red algae. It is used as a stabilizer or emulsifier in foods such as ice cream, custards and evaporated milk. Agar, a well-known solidifying agent used in the preparation of microbiological media is extracted from Gelidium and Gracilaria.
  16. 16. Gelidium:  Gelidium is a genus of thalloid red algae comprising 124 species. G.amansii - Used in making agar. Gracilaria:  Gracilaria is a genus of red algae notable for its economic importance in producing agar.  It is generally used as a food source for humans and certain fishes such as tangs.
  17. 17.  The cryptomonads are a small group of biflagellate organisms.  They have two unequal flagella, which arise from the base of the groove.  The cells are slipper shaped and occur singly.  Some forms have a cellulose wall while others are naked, being surrounded by plasmalemma with a thin granular material on the outside.
  18. 18. There are one or two plastids, with or without pyrenoids per cell. Food reserve is stored as a true starch as well as oil. The longer flagellum bears two rows of mastigonemes, while the shorter flagellum bears a single row of mastigonemes. The choloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and c, but their colour is masked by a variety of accessory pigments which occur in different proportions. The pigments include phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, α- carotene and the Xanthophylls. Reproduction is either by means of longitudinal cell division or the formation of zoospores or cysts.
  19. 19. Cryptomonas:  It is a very important member of the cryptophyta division.  They are widely distributed in freshwater habitats.  Cryptomonas is a dimorphic genus, meaning it could be either protozoan (Cryptomondida) or alga (Cryptophyceae).  The cells are usually brownish in color, and have a slit-like furrow at the anterior.  They are not known to produce any toxins and are used to feed small zooplankton, which is the food source for small fish in fish farming.  Currently there are 26 species of Cryptomonas.
  20. 20.  The members of this algal division are commonly called as euglenoids, because the best known genus of the group is Euglena.  Most of the euglenophyta are freshwater organisms, but some are marine.  There are around 800 species of euglenophytes.  They are unicellular flagellates.  There are almost always two flagella, but one of these is often very short.  The members lack a cell wall but normally are surrounded by an outer layer of pellicle composed of proteins and lipids.  The euglenoid algae contain chlorophylls a and b like the green algae and typically appear green because the chlorophylls are not masked by any accessory pigments.
  21. 21.  Of the accessory pigments that are present, the most important are β-carotene, neoxanthin and diadinoxanthin, although echinenone, diatoxanthin and zeaxanthin are also found.  This group is known to contain carbohydrate paramylon. Nutrition: A) Photosynthetic: They can supplement photosynthesis by taking up the organic compounds. Eg: Euglena. B) Heterotrophic: There are also many colourless euglenophytes which are completely dependent on heterotrophic nutrition. Eg: Astasia. C) Phagotrophic: Few euglenophytes are phagotrophic and possess a special apparatus for capturing the prey and a cytostome for ingesting them. Eg: Peranema.
  22. 22. Euglena:  They are both plant-like and animal-like.  They are unicellular.  They are motile by means of flagellum.  They commonly occur in freshwater and salt water.  There is no cell wall containing cellulose.  The outer membrane is an organised periplast.  Certain species develop a prominent stigma or eye spot.  Contractile vacuoles are also present.  Most species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants.
  23. 23.  In low moisture conditions, or when food is scarce, Euglena forms a protective wall around itself and lies dormant as a resting cyst until environmental conditions improve.  All Euglenoids have two flagella rooted in basal bodies located in a small reservoir at the front of the cell.  In Euglena, one flagellum is very short, and does not protrude from the cell, while the other is relatively long, and often easily visible with light microscopy.
  24. 24.  It is a large group of algae commonly found in the freshwater.  Species of chrysophycophyta are predominantly flagellates.  Some are amoeboid with the psudopodial extensions of the protoplasm.  Most forms are unicellular, but some form colonies.  They differ from the green algae in the nature of their pigments, in storing reserve food as oil or chrysolaminarin rather than starch.
  25. 25.  Their characteristic colour is due to the masking of their chlorophyll by brown pigments.  Reproduction is commonly by binnary fission but occasionally isogamous. Ochromonas:  It is an unicellular genus with unequal flagellation.  They are either spherical or cylindrical in shape.  They commonly appear in freshwater, brackish or marine waters.  Some species (especially Ochromonas danica) are important in physiological and molecular studies.
  26. 26. Chrysamoeba:  They are unicellular flagellates.  The flagella are unequal in length.  There are two distinctive plastids in the photosynthetic forms.  It is an amoeboid cell with a number of long rhizopodia radiating from the central mass of protoplasm.
  27. 27. Thank you

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