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Genre
Analysis
M.A , TEFL, Tehran, Iran
Presenter: Sara
Tehrani
Genre means “ kind “ or “ form” and it refers
to major types of literature: poetry, drama &
epic.
Genre refers to differen...
Genres are specific
communicative event.
Communicative
purposes is the
distinctive feature of
genres. / eg. lectures
Genre...
Other
characteristic
features of
GENRE
Conventionalized
Lexicogrammatical
features
Staging
Genre as
a flexible
concept
Gen...
Staging
Communities of practice
Some gens are quite formulaic (like
marriage vows). For example by the use of
parallel grammatical structure and the use
o...
Recurrent
nature of
genres
Genre knowledge
develop through
repeated exposure
and practice. Knowledge
acquired through repe...
Genre
as a
flexible
concept
A “flexible”, rather than a “static”
view is required :
Swales (2004)  metaphor
Palrtidge (20...
These notions can
be classified
under the umbrella
of genre relations
Genre set
Genre system
Genre chain
Disciplinary genre
Types of genre relations
Genre set
Genre system
Genre chain
Disciplinary
genre
A range of genres which a professional grou...
How there are references
in one text to other texts.
Intertextuality has various forms:
 From Fairclough viewpoint (1992)...
Various forms
of
intertextuality
Fairclough
(1992)
1) Manifest intertextuality
(quotation, citation, paraphrase)
2) Consti...
Various forms of intertextuality
Devitt (1991)
Referential Functional Generic
When one text
refers directly
to another one...
Intercultu
ral
nature of
genres
Genres are likely to be subject to
intercultural variation.
Various writers prefer to see ...
Approaches to Genre Pedagogy
The ESP School The Sydney School
The New Rhetoric School
(Rhetorical Genre Studies)
Started by:
Swales (1990)
Bhatia (1993)
Investigating
academic
genres
(primarily research
articles)
More interested
in bus...
The best-known model of generic staging is Swales’s
CARS Model
Create a Research Space
Move 1.
Establishing a territory
Mo...
Another example of schematic structure: Bhatia (1993)
offers the following model of seven typical moves for
the genre of s...
Bhatia (2004) contrasts what he refers to as the relatively
simplicity as the “ideal world” with the greater complexity of...
1- Placing the given genre-text in a situational context.
2- Surveying the existing literature.
3- Refining the situationa...
Application of ESP genre theory has focused on tertiary-level
context, helping students to prepare for both undergraduate
...
Through these six main resources and strategies,
writers move toward expert genre knowledge (Tardy,
2009)
1) Prior experie...
This approach to genre was
developed among followers of the
SFL Halliday, under the leadership
of Martin (Martin defines g...
Distinction
between
genre
&
text type
Paltridge
(2002)
Genre: Can be recognized according to external
criteria and are nam...
To show how schematic structure & form-function correlations
interact, Coffin (2006) did an interesting work: He shows how...
 In contrast to ESP, with its pedagogic focus on tertiary- level
contexts, Sydney School genre theory has been developed ...
As RGS Scholars as A.M. Johns
(2002) say, this approach has a
much more social way of looking
at genre. RGS claims some ne...
Hyon (1996)  RGS focuses more on situational context,
social purposes & actions resulting from these purposes
rather than...
RGS stresses:
Reflexivity
of genres
Similarities
of these
three
schools
They insist on the limitation of
traditional conceptions of genres
which focused only ...
RGS has primarily focused on genres in academic & professional
contexts. RGS is combined with a familiarisation on the par...
Critiques;
Paltridge (2001) discussed the limitations of the genre approach
in general:
 The difficulty in assgining text...
1) For Paltridge, genre-based teaching , develops the acquisition of
generic competence, that is the ability to respond to...
Genre Analysis
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Discourse Analysis, Genres in Language

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Genre Analysis

  1. 1. Genre Analysis M.A , TEFL, Tehran, Iran Presenter: Sara Tehrani
  2. 2. Genre means “ kind “ or “ form” and it refers to major types of literature: poetry, drama & epic. Genre refers to different communicative events which are associated with particular setting and which have recognized structures and communicative functions. Generally In the field of Applied Linguistics
  3. 3. Genres are specific communicative event. Communicative purposes is the distinctive feature of genres. / eg. lectures Genre Register Register is a type of lg. associated with a particular field of activity or profession. This lg. may be used for various purposes. /eg. Instruction manuals
  4. 4. Other characteristic features of GENRE Conventionalized Lexicogrammatical features Staging Genre as a flexible concept Genre relations Intertextuality
  5. 5. Staging
  6. 6. Communities of practice
  7. 7. Some gens are quite formulaic (like marriage vows). For example by the use of parallel grammatical structure and the use of material process verbs. Conventional lexigogrammatical features
  8. 8. Recurrent nature of genres Genre knowledge develop through repeated exposure and practice. Knowledge acquired through repeated exposure is stored in the form of shemata.
  9. 9. Genre as a flexible concept A “flexible”, rather than a “static” view is required : Swales (2004)  metaphor Palrtidge (2006)  prototype Kress (2003)  tension
  10. 10. These notions can be classified under the umbrella of genre relations Genre set Genre system Genre chain Disciplinary genre
  11. 11. Types of genre relations Genre set Genre system Genre chain Disciplinary genre A range of genres which a professional group uses in the course of their daily routine. (Devitt, 1991) A full set of genres (spoken or written) which are involved in a complete interaction. (Bazerman, 1994) A chronologically related sequences of genres in a given interaction. (Raisanen, 2002) All those genres associated with a profession or discipline. (Bhatia, 2004)
  12. 12. How there are references in one text to other texts. Intertextuality has various forms:  From Fairclough viewpoint (1992)  From Devitt viewpoint (1991)
  13. 13. Various forms of intertextuality Fairclough (1992) 1) Manifest intertextuality (quotation, citation, paraphrase) 2) Constitutive intertextuality (generic features which do not leave an obvious trace from the source)
  14. 14. Various forms of intertextuality Devitt (1991) Referential Functional Generic When one text refers directly to another one. When a text is part of a larger system of texts, dealing with a particular issue. When a text draws on similar texts created in a similar situation.
  15. 15. Intercultu ral nature of genres Genres are likely to be subject to intercultural variation. Various writers prefer to see the differences among cultures in terms of “ the differences or preferences in the pragmatic and strategic choices that writers make in response to external demands and cultural histories. A number of differences were noted both at the level of assessment by members of the two communities of practice & at the level of rhetorical structure.
  16. 16. Approaches to Genre Pedagogy The ESP School The Sydney School The New Rhetoric School (Rhetorical Genre Studies)
  17. 17. Started by: Swales (1990) Bhatia (1993) Investigating academic genres (primarily research articles) More interested in business and legal genre. Communicative purposes are expressed in stages or sequenced manner, a text being built up systematically through a series of what are called moves and steps.
  18. 18. The best-known model of generic staging is Swales’s CARS Model Create a Research Space Move 1. Establishing a territory Move 2. Establishing a niche Move 3. Occupying the niche Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 or or Step 3 or Step 2 Claiming centrality Making topic generalization Reviewing items of previous research Counterclaiming Indicating a gap Question Raising or Counting a tradition Outlining Purposes Announcing present research Announcing principal findings Indicating research article structure Step 3
  19. 19. Another example of schematic structure: Bhatia (1993) offers the following model of seven typical moves for the genre of sales letters: 1- Establishing credentials. offering the product/ service 2- Introducing the offer. essential detailing of the offer 3- Offering incentives. Indicating value of the offer 4- referring to enclosed documents. 5- inviting further communication. 6- using pressure tactics. 7- ending politely.
  20. 20. Bhatia (2004) contrasts what he refers to as the relatively simplicity as the “ideal world” with the greater complexity of the “real world”. The “real world” incorporates three main insights: 1- The genres occur in relation to other genres & shouldn’t be considered in isolation, 2- The genres are dynamic & have propensity to develop. 3- There are disciplinary differences in genres .
  21. 21. 1- Placing the given genre-text in a situational context. 2- Surveying the existing literature. 3- Refining the situational / contextual analysis. 4- Selecting a corpus. 5- Selecting the institutional context. 6- Levels of linguistic analysis. 7- Consulting with specialist informants. The seven stages Bhatia (1993) recommends for Genre Analysis
  22. 22. Application of ESP genre theory has focused on tertiary-level context, helping students to prepare for both undergraduate and postgraduate study. One of the most applications of the results of ESP genre has been Swales CARS model & adaptations to various contexts. Swales already suggested “consciousness raising” rather than “over teaching”. Application to Pedagogy
  23. 23. Through these six main resources and strategies, writers move toward expert genre knowledge (Tardy, 2009) 1) Prior experience & repeated practice. 2) Textual interactions. 3)Oral interactions. 4) Mentoring & disciplinary participation. 5) Shifting roles within a genre network. 6) Resource availability.
  24. 24. This approach to genre was developed among followers of the SFL Halliday, under the leadership of Martin (Martin defines genre as a staged goal-oriented, purposeful activity. Sydney School, like ESP School, share the notion of staging. In SFL, this notion was referred to as schematic structure OR structural formula Sydney school emphasizes communicative purpose & staging as the distinctive features of the letter.
  25. 25. Distinction between genre & text type Paltridge (2002) Genre: Can be recognized according to external criteria and are named by their users. Ex  Laboratory reports, research articles, lectures. Text types OR Elemental Genres: Rhetorical modes that follow systematic internal discourse patterns. Ex  problem – solution, exposition – argument. Text types combine together to create what are called “ macro-genres”
  26. 26. To show how schematic structure & form-function correlations interact, Coffin (2006) did an interesting work: He shows how the school genre of historical account typically develops according to three stages: Background Account sequence Deduction Here, the writer chronicles events as they unfolded in the past time. Events play an agentive role in producing subsequent events. In the grammar, this is realized as nominalizations in initial clause (thematic) position.
  27. 27.  In contrast to ESP, with its pedagogic focus on tertiary- level contexts, Sydney School genre theory has been developed within the context of Australia, where it has been used as a tool for developing a fully fledged pedagogy. (Martin & Rose, 2012)  Sydney School linguistics have applied their genre model to the teaching of reading.  The description of generic stages or phases, is used to inform the preparation before reading; the teacher is able to paraphrase the text which is about to read. Application to Pedagogy
  28. 28. As RGS Scholars as A.M. Johns (2002) say, this approach has a much more social way of looking at genre. RGS claims some negative aspects towards linguistic approaches:  Linguistic approaches don’t pay attention to this fact that genres are all the time evolving.  They fail to account the multiple purposes of genres.  They neglect the potential for creativity within genres.  They fail to take account of genres’ intertextual nature.  They fail to take account of genres’ hybrid nature. ESP School & Sydney School are both linguistic approaches
  29. 29. Hyon (1996)  RGS focuses more on situational context, social purposes & actions resulting from these purposes rather than linguistic forms. Miller (1984)  He claims that a definition of genre should be focused on the action it is used to accomplish rather than its substance or form. For RGS, genre focuses on action & it must be related to cognition. According to RGS, genre is linked to procedural knowledge & background knowledge.
  30. 30. RGS stresses: Reflexivity of genres
  31. 31. Similarities of these three schools They insist on the limitation of traditional conceptions of genres which focused only on recurring textual feature. They stressed the need to recognize the social dimensions of genres. They emphasized the addressee, the context & the occasion.
  32. 32. RGS has primarily focused on genres in academic & professional contexts. RGS is combined with a familiarisation on the part of learners with the target context & related genres. Some overt pedagogical issues : META-GENRE AWARENESS ( an awareness which stresses the interaction between genre & context) Application to Pedagogy
  33. 33. Critiques; Paltridge (2001) discussed the limitations of the genre approach in general:  The difficulty in assgining texts into specific genre categories.  The difficulty for teachers who are working in communities where the target lg. is not widespread use.  The question of creativity.  The difficulty of the teachers of finding suitable texts & lack of familiarity with the particular features of the target genre.
  34. 34. 1) For Paltridge, genre-based teaching , develops the acquisition of generic competence, that is the ability to respond to new genres. 2) For Paltridge, genre-based pedagogy provides access to genres which have high cultural capital, that is genres which are highly valued by society. 3) For Paltridge, genre-based pedagogy allows for the inclusion of the best aspects of other syllabus types. Application to Pedagogy : General Principles

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