THE
PLATFORM
MANIFESTO
SANGEET PAUL
CHOUDARY
Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alst...
The times they are a’changin’
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marsha...
used to work like
PIPES
Traditional business models
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Value created upstream,

delivered downstream

PRODUCTION ASSEMBLY DISTRIBUTION
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Ge...
Emerging business
models work like
PLATFORMS
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Pa...
APPS
DEVELOPERS USERS
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
LISTINGS
HOSTS TRAVELERS
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
VIDEOS
VIDEO
CREATORS
VIDEO
VIEWERS
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
EBOOKS
WRITERS READERS
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
PRODUCERS CONSUMERS
VALUE
PLATFORM
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
“
Uber, the world’s largest taxi company, owns no
vehicles. Facebook, the world’s most popular media
owner, creates no con...
Pipe Scale (n):
Business scale powered by the ability to
coordinate internal labor and resources
toward efficient value cr...
Platform Scale (n):
Business scale powered by the ability to leverage and orchestrate a
global connected ecosystem of prod...
Business principles change in a
world of platform scale
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
We need
a new mental map
to navigate a changing world
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Ge...
The manifesto explains the shift
in business principles while acknowledging that
value creation and delivery are still cen...
1. The ecosystem is the new warehouse
2. The ecosystem is also the new supply chain
3. The network effect is the new drive...
Too busy to read all the slides?
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Download the deck
Better still,
click here
to get the whole book
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
THE ECOSYSTEM IS
THE NEW WAREHOUSE
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
M...
Pipe Scale :
Traditionally, businesses relied
on internal labor and owned
resources to scale value
creation
Source: PLATFO...
Platform Scale :
Leverage an external ecosystem of
users and partners connected to the
business over the Internet
Source: ...
Amazon
From warehouse to ecosystem
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
M...
Started as a traditional online store
Moved to marketplace
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudar...
Leverages warehouses distributed across
an ecosystem of partner merchants
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sange...
FROM: Warehouse-powered store
Liquidate inventory
TO: Ecosystem-powered marketplace
Govern ecosystem interactions
Source: ...
COMPETING WITH HOTELS
using an ecosystem
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker...
Traditional media
differentiates on
ownership of content
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
YouTube and Soundcloud unlock an
ecosystem of content creators
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Cho...
Huffington Post started in-
house content
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parke...
Eventually
scaling on
an ecosystem model
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker...
THE ECOSYSTEM IS
THE NEW WAREHOUSE
Ecosystems, not resources, 

determine competitive advantage
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
...
THE ECOSYSTEM
IS ALSO THE NEW
SUPPLY CHAIN
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Park...
Scale is achieved through the
efficient organization of
ecosystems and processes
towards 

value creation
Pipe Scale :
Organize resources and labor
around internal and controlled
processes
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2...
Platform Scale :
Organize ecosystem resources and
labor through a centralized platform
coordinating actions
Source: PLATFO...
Traditional software creation
model follows linear supply
chain
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Ch...
Open-source software
organizes an ecosystem towards
creation and updation of software
Encyclopedia
Britannica
Pipe scale
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
M...
Wikipedia
Ecosystem of contributors create and
manage a living encyclopedia
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
San...
Viki
Ecosystem of enthusiasts
add subtitles to video content
Viki’s software
powers the subtitle creation,
editing, and confirmation process,
reminiscent
of the open-source tools
used...
Quirky briefly tried to move
manufacturing into the
ecosystem
Quirky briefly tried to move manufacturing into
the ecosyste...
THE ECOSYSTEM
IS ALSO THE NEW
SUPPLY CHAIN
New coordination platforms enable a distributed
ecosystem to work together
Sour...
THE NETWORK EFFECT
IS THE NEW DRIVER
FOR SCALE
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey ...
Pipe Scale :
Businesses scale by scaling
internal resources and
optimizing operations
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright ...
Platform Scale :
Businesses scale by scaling and
optimizing external interactions
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 20...
Platform Scale
Businesses scale through
network effects
Feedback loops
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van Alstyne
...
THE NETWORK EFFECT
IS THE NEW DRIVER
FOR SCALE
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey ...
Scale is achieved by
leveraging
interactions in the
ecosystem
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Chou...
DATA IS
THE NEW DOLLAR
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marshall Van ...
Pipe Scale :
Today’s organizations are
optimized to absorb dollars
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul...
Pipe scale:
Sales professionals measured on
dollars absorbed
$
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Cho...
Platform Scale :
Tomorrow’s organizations should be
optimized to absorb data
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sa...
Platform scale:
Measure monetizable data
absorbed, in addition to dollars
$
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
San...
More data
absorbed lead to
more monetization
opportunities
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudar...
Helped it create a larger potential job market
LinkedIn absorbs more data
from its users than Monster ever did
Source: PLA...
Toyota, GM, and Ford moving to data-
absorbing business models
Car-as-a-platform
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 201...
Helps predict need
for after-sales service
Emerging cars stream
data about usage
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 201...
Helps insurance
companies personalize
their premiums
Emerging cars stream
data about usage
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyr...
DATA IS
THE NEW DOLLAR
Organizations must shift from
a culture of dollar absorption to
a culture of data absorption
Source...
Like what you’re
reading?
click here to enter the
book giveaway
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT IS
THE
NEW HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudar...
Community management isn’t
merely marketing 2.0
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey...
Pipe Scale :
Communities need to be
managed like audiences
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudar...
Platform Scale :
Communities need to be managed like
distributed employees
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sang...
Community management requires:
Structuring and managing incentives for
participants
1
Enabling the learning and developmen...
Managing community incentives and
governance is as important as managing
internal employee conduct and
compliance
Source: ...
Josh Riedel
(Employee #1 at Instagram)
Engineer Designer Community 

Manager
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sa...
Hotels invest heavily in training and managing
incentives for their staff
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sange...
Platforms like Airbnb must invest
in community management and
development
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sange...
For on-demand
labor platforms,
Community
Management
is the new HR
management
COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT IS
THE NEW HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
A community must be scaled in a platform
business, in much the ...
LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT IS
THE NEW INVENTORY
CONTROL
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffr...
Pipe Scale :
Idle supply and unfulfilled
demand are undesirable
scenarios
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sange...
Platform Scale :
Interaction failure is
an undesirable scenario
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Ch...
Producers create value but
do not see relevant demand
Interaction Failure
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sange...
Consumers are not matched with
relevant supply
Interaction Failure
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul...
Matching supply and demand efficiently is the
only way that a platform
can hold the two sides together
Source: PLATFORM TH...
Liquidity
Demand is reliably served with
supply
Supply is liquidated with demand
efficiently
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Facebook created a social network within
closed college campuses
High Liquidity
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015...
High overlap of users who already knew
each other within a campus
High Liquidity
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 201...
Liquidity
Enhancing
Techniques
Uber’s surge pricing
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geof...
LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT IS
THE NEW INVENTORY
CONTROL
Ensure enough overlap between supply and demand to
guarantee fulfilled d...
CURATION AND REPUTATION
ARE THE
NEW QUALITY CONTROL
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geof...
Pipe Scale :
Control quality through
hierarchies, gatekeepers, and
contracts
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sa...
Platform Scale :
Control quality through curation and
reputation management
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
San...
The Platform Challenge:
Controlling quality in an open and
participative environment
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright ©...
The Platform Challenge:
Controlling quality
with minimum friction
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul ...
The Platform Challenge:
Controlling quality through processes
that scale non-linearly
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright ...
Platform Curation Mechanisms
Initial screening of producers to ensure a
minimum quality threshold
Uber, Sittercity
Determine producers (‘or consumers’) reputation
through social signals
Airbnb ratings Amazon ratingsYelp ratings
Determine quality of
production
Voting on Quora
Voting on YouTube
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul ...
Quality = (Editorial moderation, Algorithmic
judgment, Social signals)
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
CURATION AND REPUTATION
ARE THE
NEW QUALITY CONTROL
Balance open participation with curation
and reputation management
Sou...
USER JOURNEYS ARE THE NEW
SALES FUNNELS
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker ...
Pipe Scale :
Lead customers
through sales funnels.
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoff...
Pipe scale:
AARRR framework
AARRR!
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
M...
Platform Scale :
Nudge users along journeys
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Par...
The new, new retail
From tracking in-store footfalls
To measuring engagement across
multiple touch points
In a world of multi-device,
multi-channel journeys, the browse
and buy experiences are decoupled
Source: PLATFORM THINKING...
A data platform serves as an integration layer
that connects multiple touch points with the
user
Unify view of the user
So...
Data-enabled connectivity binds users’ immediate
experience with their overall journey with the
business.
Source: PLATFORM...
USER JOURNEYS ARE THE NEW
SALES FUNNELS
In a networked world,
purchase paths are no longer linear
Source: PLATFORM THINKIN...
DISTRIBUTION IS
THE NEW DESTINATION
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
...
Pipe Scale :
Define destinations for
consumers to meet your
business
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Pa...
Platform Scale :
Meet consumers by distributing your
business across their journey
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2...
Retail outlets
enabled pipe scale
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Ma...
Mass media
enabled pipe scale
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
Marsha...
Always-on connectivity
enables platform scale
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey P...
Multi-point connectivity,
Sometimes simultaneously
Rise of the second screen
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sa...
DISTRIBUTION IS
THE NEW DESTINATION
Identify new ways to distribute
your experience into the context of the user
Source: P...
BEHAVIOR DESIGN IS THE NEW
LOYALTY PROGRAM
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Park...
Pipe Scale :
Achieve customer retention
and stickiness through loyalty
programs and lock-ins
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Cop...
Platform Scale :
Invest in behavior design to create
lasting customer relationships
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © ...
In a world of pipes, predatory lock-ins lured
customers into long-term relationships
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright ©...
In a world of platforms, creating
habits ensures users stick around of
their own accord
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyrigh...
Show me what’s new from my network
Facebook’s news feed
creates a daily habit:
Show me the latest deals
Groupon turns
marketplaces
into daily habits:
To create new behaviors, reward desirable actions
and discourage undesirable ones
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 20...
Airbnb creates
a desirable new
behavior through
community and
data-driven governance
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Along with behavior design,
network effects also create stickiness
Both sides constantly attract each other back to the pl...
BEHAVIOR DESIGN IS THE NEW
LOYALTY PROGRAM
Achieving lock-in in an opt-in world
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015...
DATA SCIENCE IS
THE NEW BUSINESS PROCESS
OPTIMIZATION
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Ge...
Pipe Scale :
Improve the repeatability and
efficiency of internal processes
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
San...
Platform Scale :
Improve the repeatability and
efficiency of ecosystem interactions
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © ...
Pipe scale:
Scale through process re-engineering and
optimization
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul ...
Platform scale:
Scale interaction efficiency through
data science
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul ...
Process engineers and managers helped improve
internal processes and make them more efficient
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Co...
As value creation moves to ecosystem
interactions, the focus of efficiency shifts to
orchestrating efficient interactions ...
DATA SCIENCE IS
THE NEW BUSINESS PROCESS
OPTIMIZATION
Data science improves the platform’s ability to
orchestrate interact...
SOCIAL FEEDBACK IS THE NEW
SALES COMMISSION
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Par...
Pipe Scale :
Design inorganic incentives like
sales commissions to encourage
employees toward specific actions
Source: PLA...
Platform Scale :
Design social feedback to encourage
producers on a platform
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sa...
Readers share Buzzfeed and Upworthy articles
because of the social feedback that results from
such an action.
Instagram
users share their creations
for
social feedback
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary...
Threadless
designers work for social
feedback and monetary
rewards.
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parke...
SOCIAL FEEDBACK IS THE NEW
SALES COMMISSION
Understanding currency of interactions
is critical to success in a world of pl...
ALGORITHMS ARE THE
NEW DECISION-MAKERS
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker a...
Pipe Scale :
Managers and editors perform
gatekeeping and resource
allocation roles
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © ...
Platform Scale :
Algorithms leverage employee and
ecosystem inputs to perform
gatekeeping and resource allocation
roles
So...
Algorithms are increasingly taking over
managerial functions of resource allocation
and decision-making
Source: PLATFORM T...
On platforms, algorithms are the arbiters
of both resource allocation and
reputation assignment
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
...
Uber’s algorithms
dispatch vehicles to
travelers while
maintaining a
driver/passenger
rating system
Source: PLATFORM THINK...
A traditional taxi service would have leveraged
a layer of middle managers to perform a similar function
Source: PLATFORM ...
Algorithms
also replace
traditional
gatekeepers
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey...
Publishing:
From editors
to algorithms
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker a...
Funding:
From gatekeepers
to communities
ALGORITHMS ARE THE
NEW DECISION-MAKERS
Self-policing communities and the
algorithms that nudge them along
Source: PLATFORM...
REAL-TIME CUSTOMIZATION IS
THE NEW MARKET RESEARCH
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoff...
Pipe Scale :
Relies on slow market research
and segmentation
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choud...
Platform Scale :
Relies on real-time customization to
serve the most relevant content from
producers to interested consume...
The Facebook newsfeed
A highly customized gossip column
that rearranges itself in real time
based on user preferences and
...
However,
Beware the
Filter Bubble!
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker and
M...
Platforms must ensure that they balance
relevance with serendipity
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul...
REAL-TIME CUSTOMIZATION IS
THE NEW MARKET RESEARCH
Platforms rely on real-time customization
to serve the most relevant co...
PLUG AND PLAY
IS THE NEW BUSINESS
DEVELOPMENT
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey P...
Pipe Scale :
Business development based on
contractual integration
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul...
Platform Scale :
APIs enable plug-and-play business
development
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Ch...
The API is the contract and
the integration interface
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Ge...
Prioritize acquisition targets based on
how well they are integrated with your
existing API
Pipe scale:
Nokia, BlackBerry, and traditional carriers
sourced their apps contractually
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyrig...
Platform scale:
The iPhone’s app store introduced business
development on steroids
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2...
PLUG AND PLAY
IS THE NEW BUSINESS
DEVELOPMENT
Because APIs are changing the world
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 20...
THE INVISIBLE HAND
IS THE NEW IRON FIST
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Parker ...
Pipe Scale :
Relies on hierarchical control
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet Paul Choudary,
Geoffrey Par...
Platform Scale :
Relies on opt-in, behavior
design and gradual nudges
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
Copyright © 2015
Sangeet P...
Hierarchies are based on
rules and compliance
A unidirectional flow of
information from the top down
Source: PLATFORM THIN...
This iron fist
is giving way to
the invisible hand
The invisible hand – typically taking the form of
algorithmic decisions – nudges producers to continue
creating value on t...
THE INVISIBLE HAND
IS THE NEW IRON FIST
We are moving from a world of command
and control to a self-serve world where user...
1. The ecosystem is the new warehouse
2. The ecosystem is also the new supply chain
3. The network effect is the new drive...
PLATFORM SCALE IMPERATIVE
The management of platforms must be designed around the
goal of enabling interactions between pr...
And now,
click here
to get the whole book
Source: PLATFORM THINKING
THE PLATFORM
MANIFESTO
Thank You
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The Platform Manifesto - 16 principles for digital transformation

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The Platform Manifesto is a collection of principles that succinctly defines how different aspects of business transform in a world of digital platforms.

Veröffentlicht in: Marketing, Technologie
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  • what happens with centralized platforms in decentralized, customer owned data driven future? Will blockchain destroy all ecosystems?
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  • Njce! Thanks for sharing.
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  • Just because the dual-sided business model developed faster through the Internet, over the last decade, doesn't mean that a 'new revolution' was launched. Ever since your grandparents were children, every retail shop or retail chain has operated as a 'platform', because they sold the products of their suppliers to the people who were attracted to shop there. They 'grew the pie' of the relationships between suppliers and end-buyers. That's an ecosystem, right there, in every retail shop or retail chain location you can find down the street. They might not be a click-and-mortar retail outlet, or an 'online ecosystem', but the model is exactly the same. For instance, the 'platform-versus-partners' competition has existed since the first white-label product appeared on the retail shelves, decades ago. I could go into more details, but here is not the right place for this.
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  • Thanks for sharing your intelligent and clear research, analysis, tutorial..altogether.... It's rich input enabling us to add some little stones on the long road.
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  • You will be your own boss, making sales online from home. You choose what product you want to sell. You will get a comission for each sale (each website places their own comission rate). For example: You sold a product that costs $297, you get paid 30% comissions, which will be $89. What would you think, if you sold 10 of these products per DAY? This is real. I will show you a step by step strategy, on how to bring this into life. Sign up here goo.gl/wuqdSM and we will send an email with training. 100% free, and you won`t have to invest anything. I am also trying to work on this strategy and i`m having good results.
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The Platform Manifesto - 16 principles for digital transformation

  1. THE PLATFORM MANIFESTO SANGEET PAUL CHOUDARY Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne Adapted from the Amazon bestseller, Platform Scale
  2. The times they are a’changin’ Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  3. used to work like PIPES Traditional business models Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  4. Value created upstream,
 delivered downstream
 PRODUCTION ASSEMBLY DISTRIBUTION Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  5. Emerging business models work like PLATFORMS Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  6. APPS DEVELOPERS USERS Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  7. LISTINGS HOSTS TRAVELERS Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  8. VIDEOS VIDEO CREATORS VIDEO VIEWERS Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  9. EBOOKS WRITERS READERS Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  10. PRODUCERS CONSUMERS VALUE PLATFORM Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  11. “ Uber, the world’s largest taxi company, owns no vehicles. Facebook, the world’s most popular media owner, creates no content. Alibaba, the most valuable retailer, has no inventory. And Airbnb, the world’s largest accommodation provider, owns no real estate. Something interesting is happening. - Techcrunch, March 2015
  12. Pipe Scale (n): Business scale powered by the ability to coordinate internal labor and resources toward efficient value creation and toward delivery of the created value to an aggregated consumer base. Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  13. Platform Scale (n): Business scale powered by the ability to leverage and orchestrate a global connected ecosystem of producers and consumers toward efficient value creation and exchange. The management of platform scale involves the design and optimization of value-exchange interactions between producers and consumers. Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  14. Business principles change in a world of platform scale Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  15. We need a new mental map to navigate a changing world Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  16. The manifesto explains the shift in business principles while acknowledging that value creation and delivery are still centered on a business’s ability to aggregate. Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  17. 1. The ecosystem is the new warehouse 2. The ecosystem is also the new supply chain 3. The network effect is the new driver for scale 4. Data is the new dollar 5. Community management is the new human 
 resource management 6. Liquidity management is the new inventory control 7. Curation and repetition are the new quality control 8. User journeys are the new sales funnels 9. Distribution is the new destination  10. Behavior design is the new loyalty program 11. Data science is the new business process optimization 12. Social feedback is the new sales commission  13. Algorithms are the new decision makers 14. Real-time customization is the new market research 15. Plug-and-play is the new business development  16. The invisible hand is the new iron fist  Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne THE PLATFORM MANIFESTO
  18. Too busy to read all the slides? Source: PLATFORM THINKING Download the deck
  19. Better still, click here to get the whole book Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  20. THE ECOSYSTEM IS THE NEW WAREHOUSE Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  21. Pipe Scale : Traditionally, businesses relied on internal labor and owned resources to scale value creation Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  22. Platform Scale : Leverage an external ecosystem of users and partners connected to the business over the Internet Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  23. Amazon From warehouse to ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  24. Started as a traditional online store Moved to marketplace Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  25. Leverages warehouses distributed across an ecosystem of partner merchants Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  26. FROM: Warehouse-powered store Liquidate inventory TO: Ecosystem-powered marketplace Govern ecosystem interactions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  27. COMPETING WITH HOTELS using an ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  28. Traditional media differentiates on ownership of content Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  29. YouTube and Soundcloud unlock an ecosystem of content creators Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  30. Huffington Post started in- house content Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  31. Eventually scaling on an ecosystem model Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  32. THE ECOSYSTEM IS THE NEW WAREHOUSE Ecosystems, not resources, 
 determine competitive advantage Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  33. THE ECOSYSTEM IS ALSO THE NEW SUPPLY CHAIN Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  34. Scale is achieved through the efficient organization of ecosystems and processes towards 
 value creation
  35. Pipe Scale : Organize resources and labor around internal and controlled processes Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  36. Platform Scale : Organize ecosystem resources and labor through a centralized platform coordinating actions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  37. Traditional software creation model follows linear supply chain Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  38. Open-source software organizes an ecosystem towards creation and updation of software
  39. Encyclopedia Britannica Pipe scale Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  40. Wikipedia Ecosystem of contributors create and manage a living encyclopedia Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  41. Viki Ecosystem of enthusiasts add subtitles to video content
  42. Viki’s software powers the subtitle creation, editing, and confirmation process, reminiscent of the open-source tools used by Wikipedia Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  43. Quirky briefly tried to move manufacturing into the ecosystem Quirky briefly tried to move manufacturing into the ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  44. THE ECOSYSTEM IS ALSO THE NEW SUPPLY CHAIN New coordination platforms enable a distributed ecosystem to work together Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  45. THE NETWORK EFFECT IS THE NEW DRIVER FOR SCALE Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  46. Pipe Scale : Businesses scale by scaling internal resources and optimizing operations Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  47. Platform Scale : Businesses scale by scaling and optimizing external interactions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  48. Platform Scale Businesses scale through network effects
  49. Feedback loops Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne Virtuous loop where more production attracts more consumption and vice versa
  50. THE NETWORK EFFECT IS THE NEW DRIVER FOR SCALE Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne Scale is achieved by leveraging interactions in the ecosystem
  51. Scale is achieved by leveraging interactions in the ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  52. DATA IS THE NEW DOLLAR Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  53. Pipe Scale : Today’s organizations are optimized to absorb dollars Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  54. Pipe scale: Sales professionals measured on dollars absorbed $ Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  55. Platform Scale : Tomorrow’s organizations should be optimized to absorb data Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  56. Platform scale: Measure monetizable data absorbed, in addition to dollars $ Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  57. More data absorbed lead to more monetization opportunities Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  58. Helped it create a larger potential job market LinkedIn absorbs more data from its users than Monster ever did Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  59. Toyota, GM, and Ford moving to data- absorbing business models Car-as-a-platform Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  60. Helps predict need for after-sales service Emerging cars stream data about usage Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  61. Helps insurance companies personalize their premiums Emerging cars stream data about usage Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  62. DATA IS THE NEW DOLLAR Organizations must shift from a culture of dollar absorption to a culture of data absorption Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  63. Like what you’re reading? click here to enter the book giveaway Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  64. COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT IS THE NEW HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  65. Community management isn’t merely marketing 2.0 Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  66. Pipe Scale : Communities need to be managed like audiences Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  67. Platform Scale : Communities need to be managed like distributed employees Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  68. Community management requires: Structuring and managing incentives for participants 1 Enabling the learning and development of producers 2 Creating other support infrastructure that HR would provide internally 3 Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  69. Managing community incentives and governance is as important as managing internal employee conduct and compliance Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  70. Josh Riedel (Employee #1 at Instagram) Engineer Designer Community 
 Manager Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  71. Hotels invest heavily in training and managing incentives for their staff Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  72. Platforms like Airbnb must invest in community management and development Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  73. For on-demand labor platforms, Community Management is the new HR management
  74. COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT IS THE NEW HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT A community must be scaled in a platform business, in much the same way that a workforce of employees is scaled within an organization Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  75. LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT IS THE NEW INVENTORY CONTROL Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  76. Pipe Scale : Idle supply and unfulfilled demand are undesirable scenarios Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  77. Platform Scale : Interaction failure is an undesirable scenario Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  78. Producers create value but do not see relevant demand Interaction Failure Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  79. Consumers are not matched with relevant supply Interaction Failure Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  80. Matching supply and demand efficiently is the only way that a platform can hold the two sides together Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  81. Liquidity Demand is reliably served with supply Supply is liquidated with demand efficiently Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  82. Facebook created a social network within closed college campuses High Liquidity Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  83. High overlap of users who already knew each other within a campus High Liquidity Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  84. Liquidity Enhancing Techniques Uber’s surge pricing Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  85. LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT IS THE NEW INVENTORY CONTROL Ensure enough overlap between supply and demand to guarantee fulfilled demand or liquidated supply Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  86. CURATION AND REPUTATION ARE THE NEW QUALITY CONTROL Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  87. Pipe Scale : Control quality through hierarchies, gatekeepers, and contracts Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  88. Platform Scale : Control quality through curation and reputation management Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  89. The Platform Challenge: Controlling quality in an open and participative environment Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  90. The Platform Challenge: Controlling quality with minimum friction Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  91. The Platform Challenge: Controlling quality through processes that scale non-linearly Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  92. Platform Curation Mechanisms Initial screening of producers to ensure a minimum quality threshold Uber, Sittercity
  93. Determine producers (‘or consumers’) reputation through social signals Airbnb ratings Amazon ratingsYelp ratings
  94. Determine quality of production Voting on Quora Voting on YouTube Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  95. Quality = (Editorial moderation, Algorithmic judgment, Social signals) Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  96. CURATION AND REPUTATION ARE THE NEW QUALITY CONTROL Balance open participation with curation and reputation management Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  97. USER JOURNEYS ARE THE NEW SALES FUNNELS Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  98. Pipe Scale : Lead customers through sales funnels. Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  99. Pipe scale: AARRR framework AARRR! Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  100. Platform Scale : Nudge users along journeys Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  101. The new, new retail From tracking in-store footfalls To measuring engagement across multiple touch points
  102. In a world of multi-device, multi-channel journeys, the browse and buy experiences are decoupled Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  103. A data platform serves as an integration layer that connects multiple touch points with the user Unify view of the user Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  104. Data-enabled connectivity binds users’ immediate experience with their overall journey with the business. Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  105. USER JOURNEYS ARE THE NEW SALES FUNNELS In a networked world, purchase paths are no longer linear Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  106. DISTRIBUTION IS THE NEW DESTINATION Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  107. Pipe Scale : Define destinations for consumers to meet your business Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  108. Platform Scale : Meet consumers by distributing your business across their journey Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  109. Retail outlets enabled pipe scale Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  110. Mass media enabled pipe scale Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  111. Always-on connectivity enables platform scale Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  112. Multi-point connectivity, Sometimes simultaneously Rise of the second screen Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  113. DISTRIBUTION IS THE NEW DESTINATION Identify new ways to distribute your experience into the context of the user Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  114. BEHAVIOR DESIGN IS THE NEW LOYALTY PROGRAM Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  115. Pipe Scale : Achieve customer retention and stickiness through loyalty programs and lock-ins Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  116. Platform Scale : Invest in behavior design to create lasting customer relationships Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  117. In a world of pipes, predatory lock-ins lured customers into long-term relationships Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  118. In a world of platforms, creating habits ensures users stick around of their own accord Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  119. Show me what’s new from my network Facebook’s news feed creates a daily habit:
  120. Show me the latest deals Groupon turns marketplaces into daily habits:
  121. To create new behaviors, reward desirable actions and discourage undesirable ones Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  122. Airbnb creates a desirable new behavior through community and data-driven governance Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  123. Along with behavior design, network effects also create stickiness Both sides constantly attract each other back to the platform Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  124. BEHAVIOR DESIGN IS THE NEW LOYALTY PROGRAM Achieving lock-in in an opt-in world Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  125. DATA SCIENCE IS THE NEW BUSINESS PROCESS OPTIMIZATION Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  126. Pipe Scale : Improve the repeatability and efficiency of internal processes Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  127. Platform Scale : Improve the repeatability and efficiency of ecosystem interactions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  128. Pipe scale: Scale through process re-engineering and optimization Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  129. Platform scale: Scale interaction efficiency through data science Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  130. Process engineers and managers helped improve internal processes and make them more efficient Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  131. As value creation moves to ecosystem interactions, the focus of efficiency shifts to orchestrating efficient interactions in the ecosystem.
  132. DATA SCIENCE IS THE NEW BUSINESS PROCESS OPTIMIZATION Data science improves the platform’s ability to orchestrate interactions in the ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  133. SOCIAL FEEDBACK IS THE NEW SALES COMMISSION Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  134. Pipe Scale : Design inorganic incentives like sales commissions to encourage employees toward specific actions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  135. Platform Scale : Design social feedback to encourage producers on a platform Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  136. Readers share Buzzfeed and Upworthy articles because of the social feedback that results from such an action.
  137. Instagram users share their creations for social feedback Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  138. Threadless designers work for social feedback and monetary rewards. Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  139. SOCIAL FEEDBACK IS THE NEW SALES COMMISSION Understanding currency of interactions is critical to success in a world of platforms Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  140. ALGORITHMS ARE THE NEW DECISION-MAKERS Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  141. Pipe Scale : Managers and editors perform gatekeeping and resource allocation roles Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  142. Platform Scale : Algorithms leverage employee and ecosystem inputs to perform gatekeeping and resource allocation roles Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  143. Algorithms are increasingly taking over managerial functions of resource allocation and decision-making Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  144. On platforms, algorithms are the arbiters of both resource allocation and reputation assignment Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  145. Uber’s algorithms dispatch vehicles to travelers while maintaining a driver/passenger rating system Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  146. A traditional taxi service would have leveraged a layer of middle managers to perform a similar function Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  147. Algorithms also replace traditional gatekeepers Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  148. Publishing: From editors to algorithms Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  149. Funding: From gatekeepers to communities
  150. ALGORITHMS ARE THE NEW DECISION-MAKERS Self-policing communities and the algorithms that nudge them along Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  151. REAL-TIME CUSTOMIZATION IS THE NEW MARKET RESEARCH Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  152. Pipe Scale : Relies on slow market research and segmentation Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  153. Platform Scale : Relies on real-time customization to serve the most relevant content from producers to interested consumers Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  154. The Facebook newsfeed A highly customized gossip column that rearranges itself in real time based on user preferences and actions Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  155. However, Beware the Filter Bubble! Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  156. Platforms must ensure that they balance relevance with serendipity Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  157. REAL-TIME CUSTOMIZATION IS THE NEW MARKET RESEARCH Platforms rely on real-time customization to serve the most relevant content from producers to interested consumers Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  158. PLUG AND PLAY IS THE NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  159. Pipe Scale : Business development based on contractual integration Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  160. Platform Scale : APIs enable plug-and-play business development Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  161. The API is the contract and the integration interface Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  162. Prioritize acquisition targets based on how well they are integrated with your existing API
  163. Pipe scale: Nokia, BlackBerry, and traditional carriers sourced their apps contractually Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  164. Platform scale: The iPhone’s app store introduced business development on steroids Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  165. PLUG AND PLAY IS THE NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Because APIs are changing the world Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  166. THE INVISIBLE HAND IS THE NEW IRON FIST Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  167. Pipe Scale : Relies on hierarchical control Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  168. Platform Scale : Relies on opt-in, behavior design and gradual nudges Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  169. Hierarchies are based on rules and compliance A unidirectional flow of information from the top down Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  170. This iron fist is giving way to the invisible hand
  171. The invisible hand – typically taking the form of algorithmic decisions – nudges producers to continue creating value on the platform Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  172. THE INVISIBLE HAND IS THE NEW IRON FIST We are moving from a world of command and control to a self-serve world where user participation is encouraged through the invisible hand of data, algorithms and APIs Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne
  173. 1. The ecosystem is the new warehouse 2. The ecosystem is also the new supply chain 3. The network effect is the new driver for scale 4. Data is the new dollar 5. Community management is the new human 
 resource management 6. Liquidity management is the new inventory control 7. Curation and repetition are the new quality control 8. User journeys are the new sales funnels 9. Distribution is the new destination  10. Behavior design is the new loyalty program 11. Data science is the new business process optimization 12. Social feedback is the new sales commission  13. Algorithms are the new decision makers 14. Real-time customization is the new market research 15. Plug-and-play is the new business development  16. The invisible hand is the new iron fist  Source: PLATFORM THINKING Copyright © 2015 Sangeet Paul Choudary, Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne THE PLATFORM MANIFESTO
  174. PLATFORM SCALE IMPERATIVE The management of platforms must be designed around the goal of enabling interactions between producers and consumers in a platform’s ecosystem Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  175. And now, click here to get the whole book Source: PLATFORM THINKING
  176. THE PLATFORM MANIFESTO Thank You

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