2. Health is defined as “Health is a state of complete
physical, mental and social well being and not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity.”
Health education is a process that informs,
motivates, and helps people to adopt and maintain
healthy practices and lifestyles, advocates
environmental changes as needed to facilitate these
goals and conducts professional training and research
to the same end
A community pharmacy is a healthcare facility that
provides pharmaceutical services to the community
and dispenses medicines and typically involves a
3. The WHO mainly includes three Dimensions of
Health Physical, Mental and the Social. Many
more can be included.
1) Physical health/ Physical Dimensions
2) Mental health/ Mental Dimensions
3) Social health / Social Dimensions
4) Spiritual health/ Spiritual Dimensions
5)Emotional health/ Emotional Dimensions
6) Vocational health / Vocational Dimensions
4. It is the perfect functioning of the body i.e. a
state in which every cell and every organ is
functioning at optimum capacity and in perfect
harmony with the rest of body. The signs of
physical health are:
1) Good complexion, clear skin, bright eyes
2) Lustrous hair with a body clothed with firm
flesh, not too fat
3) Sweet breath, sound sleep
4) Smooth, easy, coordinated body movements
5. 5) Good appetite, regular activity of bowel and
6) All the organs of the body are of
unexceptional size and function normally
7) All special senses are intact
8) The resting pulse rate, blood pressure, and
exercise tolerance are at normal range for the
individuals age and sex.
6. It is defined as a state of balance between the
individual and the surrounding world. i.e. self
confidence, self control and has respect for others.
Following are the mental disease
Psychosis: Marked impairment in the behaviour with
serious inability to think
Schizophrenia: Disturbed thinking and emotional
withdrawal from the society.
Depression: Characterized by unhappiness,
uninterested, hopelessness etc.
7. Social health
It is defined as quantity & quality of an
individual’s interpersonal tie's and the extent of
involvement with the community. It implies
harmony and integration within the individual,
between each individual and other member of
society and between individuals and the world in
which they live.
According to medical science soul & body are 2
diff. things &Spiritual health is connecting link
between them. It includes integrity, principles and
ethics, the purpose in life, commitment to some
8. Emotional Dimensions
There is definite difference between mental
and emotional dimensions of health. Mental
health can be seen as “knowing” or
“cognition” while emotional health reflects
This dimension of health concern with
vocational aspects of life. The capacity or
limitation of an individual in relation to his
working to achieve the desired targets.
9. Health does not exist in isolation. It can be influenced
by many factors. These factors lie within the individual
and in the society.
These factors interact and can promote or deteriorate
the health of an individual or community.
“Factors influencing the health are known as
Determinants of health.”
10. Some such factors that may determine the health status of
an individual are as follows;
1. Biological( Heredity) Determinant
a. Internal environment
b. External environment
3. Life Style
4. Socio-economic conditions
5. Health and family welfare Services
6. Political system
8. Other: Occupation, economic status etc.
11. Biological Determinant (Heredity)
The genetic makeup of an individual is unique
and it cannot be changed.
Genes play a very important role in health and
development of child.
A number of diseases are of genetic origin E.g.
Mental retardation, Diabetes. Hemophilia etc.
occurs in the next generation which affects the
Health of a person depends on the Internal
environment and External environment.
Internal environment: refers to the coordinated,
harmonious functions of every component
(system) of the body, which is known as
homeostasis in the body.
It refers to all the things in the surrounding of
the individual to which he is exposed for e.g. air,
water, climate etc.
Environment has direct impact on the physical,
mental and social well-being of those living in it.
13. Life Style:
It is the way people live.
It reflects the social values, attitudes and
activities of an individual.
It is composed of cultural and behavioral patterns
and lifelong personal habits like smoking,
Health requires healthy lifestyles. Many diseases
are associated with lifestyles. E.g. Obesity, heart
diseases, Diabetes etc.
14. Socio-economic conditions
Health status is significantly determined by the
socioeconomic levels which are primarily
determined by economic status, education,
occupation, family size, quality of life affect the
health status of an individual in many way.
15. Political system:
The health is also related to country’s political
A political system oriented towards social
development promotes good health.
The poor people living in slums, lacking good hygienic
conditions are the targets of disease agents.
The people in rural areas who do not have access to
health services should be taken into consideration
while framing the policies by the political parties
because it ultimately affects the health status of
16. Health and family welfare Services
The term health services cover a wide spectrum of
personal and community services for Treatment of
disease, prevention of illness and promotion of
The purpose of health Services is to improve the
health status of population.
e.g. Immunization, general screening programmes for
Education greatly affects health care status.
Illiteracy coincides with poverty, malnutrition, ill
health, and high infant mortality.
Ex. In Kerala the mortality factor is low, as highest
female literacy rate of about 66%; as compared to
about 25% of the country as a whole.
18. Other factors
Other factors are derived from health related
e.g. food and agricultural, industry, social welfare,
rural development, adoption, gender etc.
19. Health indicators are the variables which helps;
a. To measure the health status of the community
b. To compare health status of one country with
c. To assess healthcare needs and evaluation of health
service activities and programmes.
d. To measure the extent to which the objectives and
targets of a programme are being attained.
21. Characteristics of ideal health indicators
It should be Valid.
It should be reliable.
It should be sensitive.
It should be Specific.
It should be feasible.
It should be relevant.
23. 1.Mortality indicator:
The important mortality indicators are as follows.
• Crude death rate: It is defined as number of deaths
per 1000 population per year in a given community.
• Life expectancy: Life expectancy at birth is defined as
average no. of years that will be lived by those born
alive in to population.
Disease specific mortality: These are the rates due to
Ex. mortality rate due to cancer, cardiovascular
24. • Child mortality rate: No. of deaths at age 1 to 4 years in a
given year per 1000 children in that age group at the
midpoint of the year concern.
• Maternal mortality rate: It indicates proportion of deaths
among women of reproductive age.
• Infant mortality indicator: It is the ratio of deaths under
one year of age in a given year to the total no. of birth in the
same year, usually expressed as rather per 1000 live birth.
It correlates with inadequate MCH (Mother & Child Health)
services, malnutrition, low immunization coverage and
25. 2. Morbidity indicator:
The indicator gives information regarding the disease
condition in the community.
The description of the mortality rate do not reveal the
burden of ill health in a community, so the
morbidity(proportion of disease to health in a
community) indicators are used to supplement mortality
data to describe health status of population.
The important morbidity indicators are incidence and
prevalence rate, notification rate, OPD attendance rate,
hospital admission rate, duration of stay in the
26. 3. Disability rate:
Disability rates are related to illness and injury, it
can be use to supplement mortality and morbidity
Between two extremities of mortality and
morbidity rate there are person who remains
disable for sometime or for life long on recovery of
It is divided into two types; Event type indicators
and person type indicators.
27. 3. Disability rate:
Event type Indicators –
• Number of days of restricted activity
• Bed disability days
• Work-loss days within a specified period
Person type Indicators –
• Limitation of mobility Ex. Confined to bed,
confined to house, special aid in getting around.
• Limitation of activity Ex. Limitation to perform the
basic activities of daily living (ADL) Ex. Eating,
washing, dressing, etc.
28. 4. Nutritional status indicator:
Nutritional Status is a positive health indicator.
Anthropometric measurements of pre-school
children & at school entrance age.
i. Weight – measures acute malnutrition
ii. Height – measures chronic malnutrition
iii. Mid-arm circumference - measures chronic
29. 5. Health care delivery indicator:
These indicators reflect the equity of distribution
of health resources in different parts of the
country and provision of healthcare services.
a. Doctor: Population ratio
b. Doctor: Nurse ratio
c. Population: Hospital bed ratio
30. 6. Environmental indicator:
These reflect the quality of physical and biological
environment in which diseases occurs and in which
It includes indicator related to pollution of air and
water, radiations, solid waste, noise, exposure to
toxic substances in food and drink etc.
31. 7. Socio-economic indicator:
It is indirect measure of health status. It includes;
• Rate of increase in population
• Level of unemployment
• Family size
• Literacy rate
• Dependency ratio
32. 8. Utilization rates:
It indicates the extent to which healthcare facilities are
utilized by the population in a year.
It gives some indication of the care needed by a population,
and therefore, the health status of the population.
1. Proportion of infants who are fully immunized
2. Proportion of pregnant women who receive ANC care or
have institutional deliveries
3. Percentage of population who adopt family planning
4. Bed occupancy ratio
5. Average length of stay
6. Bed-turn over ratio, etc.
33. 9. Social and mental health indicators:
It includes the incidents of suicides, homicides,
alcohol or drug abuse, smoking, road traffic
accidents, use of tranquilizer etc.
These indicators provide guide to social action for
improving health of people.
34. 10. Quality Of Life indicators:
• It includes physical, mental and social wellbeing.
• Healthy body will house a healthy soul.
• Availability of safe drinking water, clean environment,
fulfillment of medical needs influences the QOL.
• This indicator reflects the extent of fulfillment and
availability of basic needs of human life in the
surrounding population or a society.
• These indicators provide guide to social action for
improving health of people.
35. Role of Pharmacist:
• Understand medical and health needs.
• Pharmaceutical care.
• Rational use of medicines.
• Identification & reporting of ADR.
• Detection of irrational combinations of drugs.
• Preventive health behavior.