1.1 Definition of Global IoT
The Global Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices,
mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique
identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or
1.2 Internet of Things
Anyone who says that the Internet has fundamentally changed society may be right,
but at the same time, the greatest transformation actually still lies ahead of us. Several new
technologies are now converging in a way that means the Internet is on the brink of a
substantial expansion as objects large and small get connected and assume their own web
Following on from the Internet of computers, when our servers and personal computers
were connected to a global network, and the Internet of mobile telephones, when it was the
turn of telephones and other mobile units, the next phase of development is the Internet of
things, when more or less anything will be connected and managed in the virtual world.
This revolution will be the Net’s largest enlargement ever and will have sweeping effects
on every industry — and all of our everyday lives.
Smart connectivity with existing networks and context-aware computation using network
resources is an indispensable part of IoT. With the growing presence of Wi-Fi and 4G-LTE
wireless Internet access, the evolution towards ubiquitous information and communication
networks is already evident. However, for the Internet of Things vision to successfully
emerge, the computing paradigm will need to go beyond traditional mobile computing
scenarios that use smart phones and portables, and evolve into connecting everyday existing
objects and embedding intelligence into our environment. For technology to disappear from
the consciousness of the user, the Internet of Things demands:a shared understanding of
the situation of its users and their appliances, software architectures and pervasive
communication networks to process and convey the contextual information to where it is
relevant, and the analytics tools in the Internet of Things
1.3 DigitalTransformation :
Digital Transformation is the use of new, fast and frequently changing digital
technology to solve problems. One of the examples of digital transformation is cloud
computing. It reduces reliance on user owned hardware and increases reliance on
subscription based cloud service.
The top three reasons digital transformation is so important are: Acceleration of
Change – The pace of digital change is rising exponentially, making it very difficult to
maintain a position of industry leadership, and requiring an acceleration of
new digital solutions brought to market.
ARCHITECTURE OF GLOBAL IoT TECHNOLOGY
2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF LAYERS :
Architecture of internet Of Things contains basically 4 layers:
2.1.1 Application Layer
2.1.2 Gateway and the network layer
2.1.3 Sensor layer
2.1.4 Management Service layer
2.2 ELEMENTSIN IoT TECHNOLOGY:
There are three IoT components which enables seamless:
Made up of sensors, actuators and embedded communication hardware
On demand storage and computing tools for data analytics
Novel easy to understand visualization and interpretation tools
which can be widely accessed on different platforms and which can be designed
for different applications
ESSENTIALTECHNOLOGIESINVOLVED IN IoT
3.1 RFID TECHNOLOGY:
RFID technology is a major breakthrough in the embedded communication paradigm
which enables design of microchips for wireless data communication. They help in the
automatic identification of anything they are attached to acting as an electronic bar code. The
passive RFID tags are not battery powered and they use the power of the reader’s interrogation
signal to communicate the ID to the RFID reader. This has resulted in many applications
particularly in retail and supply chain management. The applications can be found in
transportation (replacement of tickets, registration stickers) and access control applications as
well. The passive tags are currently being used in many bank cards and road toll tags which are
among the first global deployments. Active RFID readers have their own battery supply and
can instantiate the communication. Of the several applications, the main application of active
RFID tags is in port containers for monitoring cargo.
3.2 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY:
Recent technological advances in low power integrated circuits and wireless communications
have made available efficient, low cost, low power miniature devices for use in remote sensing
applications. The combination of these factors has improved the viability of utilizing a sensor
network consisting of a large number of intelligent sensors, enabling the collection, processing,
analysis and dissemination of valuable information, gathered in a variety of environments.
Active RFID is nearly the same as the lower end WSN nodes with limited processing capability
and storage. The scientific challenges that must be overcome in order to realize the enormous
potential of WSNs are substantial and multidisciplinary in nature. Sensor data are shared
among sensor nodes and sent to a distributed or centralized system for analytics. The
components that make up the WSN monitoring network include:
(a) WSN hardware—Typically a node (WSN core hardware) contains sensor interfaces,
processing units, transceiver units and power supply. Almost always, they comprise of
multiple A/D converters for sensor interfacing and more modern sensor nodes have the
ability to communicate using one frequency band making them more versatile.
(b) WSN communication stack—The nodes are expected to be deployed in an ad-hoc
manner for most applications. Designing an appropriate topology, routing and MAC
layer is critical for the scalability and longevity of the deployed network. Nodes in a
WSN need to communicate among themselves to transmit data in single or multi- hop
to a base station. Node drop outs, and consequent degraded network lifetimes, are
(c) WSN Middleware—A mechanism to combine cyber infrastructure with a Service
Oriented Architecture (SOA) and sensor networks to provide access to heterogeneous
sensor resources in a deployment independent manner. This is based on the idea of
isolating resources that can be used by several applications. A platform-independent
middleware for developing sensor applications is required, such as an Open Sensor
(d) Secure Data aggregation—An efficient and secure data aggregation method is required
for extending the lifetime of the network as well as ensuring reliable data collected
from sensors. Node failures are a common characteristic of WSNs, the network
topology should have the capability to heal itself. Ensuring security is critical as the
system is automatically linked to actuators and protecting the systems from intruders
becomes very important.
3.3 SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
Sensors science and engineering is relevant to virtually all aspects of life including
safety, security, surveillance, monitoring, and awareness in general. Sensors are central to
industrial applications being used for process control, monitoring, and safety. Sensors are also
central to medicine being used for diagnostics, monitoring, critical care, and public health.
3.4 CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud Computing is the use of hardware and software to deliver a service over a
network (typically the Internet). With cloud computing, users can access files and use
applications from any device that can access the Internet. An example of a Cloud
Computing provider is Google's Gmail.
3.5 ENERGYHARVESTING TECHNOLOGY
4E is the Energy Efficient End-Use Equipment Technology Collaboration Programme,
established by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008 to support governments in co-
ordinating effective energy efficiency policies. Twelve countries have joined together under
the 4E platform to exchange technical and policy information focused on increasing the
production and trade in efficient end-use equipment. However 4E is more than a forum for
sharing information – it pools resources and expertise on a wide a range of projects designed
to meet the policy needs of participating governments. Participants find that is not only an
efficient use of available funds, but results in outcomes that are far more comprehensive and
authoritative than can be achieved by individual jurisdictions.
3.6 ADVANCED INTERNETPROTOCOL
Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications fully examines all the core
concepts underlying advanced Internet protocols, explaining both their current applications and
their applicability to the design and deployment of the next-generation networks. The book
begins with an introduction to Internet working technologies, architectures, and protocols and
then progressively builds to discussions of new and emerging advanced Internet protocols and
UPDATION WITH IoT TECHNOLOGY
4.1 SENSOR CLOUD RELATION
4.3 BUSINESS ANALYTICS
There are several application domains which will be impacted by the emerging Internet
of Things. The applications can be classified based on the type of network availability,
coverage, scale, heterogeneity, repeatability, user involvement and impact.
We categorize the applications into four application domains:
(1) Personal and Home
There is a huge crossover in applications and the use of data between domains. For instance,
the Personal and Home IoT produces electricity usage data in the house and makes it available
to the electricity (utility) company which can in turn optimize the supply and demand in the
Utility IoT. The internet enables sharing of data between different service providers in a
seamless manner creating multiple business opportunities.
4.5 DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION:
Digital transformation strategy is the bridges to build. Companies across the globe are
digitally transforming as they are challenged to improve business processes and develop new
capabilities and business models. In this economic reality where entire industries are disrupted,
actionable intelligence is the new currency.
Digital transformation is an actively discussed topic these days, but this was also true in
the late 1990s and again in the mid-2000s. We started to computerize processes almost 30 years
ago, and we have already implemented digital activities in our organizations
DIGITAL TRANSFORMATIONWITHIoT TECHNOLOGY
5.1 IoT as INTERNETOF TRANSFORMATION:
The Internet of Things or IoT is one of the key digital transformation technologies. In fact,
it’s not just one technology as many keep saying but a series of technological and other
components that is really vast.
If we look at digital transformation technologies as (sets of) technologies which enable, drive
and accelerate digital transformation, business creation/change opportunities and
improvements in the ways we work, live, entertain ourselves and connect, the Internet of
Things is the most impactful and vast of them all. This is certainly the case in the Industrial
Internet of Things ‘segment’.
The sheer number of devices and connections which are projected to join the Internet of
Things (IoT) is staggering. Yet, it’s not that much about the devices of course, although they
are an indicator and the larger IoT projects get, including the number of devices, the more
mature digital transformation benefits of the IoT become, making it the Internet of
Transformation in correlation with other technologies and the transformational goals per use
5.2 The Internet of Things: a matter of data and business in transformation
With the addition of sensing and data transmitting devices to networks of connectivity and
value comes an avalanche of data. With the growth of the Internet of Things we already have
more data in specific industries and applications (e.g. life sciences) than we can humanly
While devices and connectivity are of course all important, whether it’s in the Industrial
Internet of Things or the Consumer Internet of Things where the device obviously has an
additional dimension, in the end the Internet of Things is an umbrella term. It covers many
things, and at the same time is part of a bigger ecosystem of technologies and value. Data,
why we capture it using IoT and how we turn it into knowledge, matters a lot.
It’s the ways in which we analyze and use this data to enhance what we do across all areas of
society that makes the Internet of Things so powerful. It’s the way we combine data and
intelligence to power innovative and transformational smart services with data exchange
models and business model innovation. It’s clear that big data analysis, the cloud and other
related technologies to enable this move from data to knowledge to outcome are all key
digital transformation technologies.
GLOBAL IoT MARKET
The IoT market considers software solution, service, platform, application area and regions to
arrive at the global market size of the IoT market during the forecast period.
6.1 By Software Solution
Real- time Streaming Analytics
Remote monitoring system
Network bandwidth management
6.2 By Platform
6.3 By Service
Deployment and integration
Support and maintenance
6.4 By Application Area
Building and home automation
Smart energy and utilities
Smart mobility and transportation
The thought of always being tracked and your data being recorded does bring a fear to a
consumers mind, but we have to move away from it to see the benefits that this great technology
is going to bring to us. The above examples were about a 'connected you', making your life
seamless, but it brings with it higher benefits like connected cities, better commerce and an
As often happens, history is repeating itself. Just as in the early days when Cisco’s tagline was
“The Science of Networking Networks,” IoT is at a stage where disparate networks and a
multitude of sensors must come together and inter operate under a common set of standards.
This effort will require businesses, governments, standards organizations, and academia to
work together toward a common goal. Next, for IoT to gain acceptance among the general
populace, service providers and others must deliver applications that bring tangible value to
peoples’ lives. IoT must not represent the advancement of technology for technology’s sake;
the industry needs to demonstrate value in human terms.
In conclusion, IoT represents the next evolution of the Internet. Given that humans advance
and evolve by turning data into information, knowledge, and wisdom, IoT has the potential to
change the world as we know it today—for the better. How quickly we get there is up to us.
7.1 IoT 2.0
All components and layers of an Internet of Things project or solution are important. Today
most people focus on the devices, the connections and the volumes. Enter what we could call
Internet of Things 2.0 and where we see all digital transformation technologies meet
eachother, depending on use case, scope, etc. on the road to an Internet of Transformation.
As said, the Internet of Things is such a vast reality that it has become an umbrella term for
many underlying use cases, technologies and other aspects.
It’s why we started to distinguish between the Consumer Internet of Things and the Industrial
Internet of Things. It’s also why some prefer terms such as the Internet of Everything, and in
an industrial context, simply the Industrial Internet.
Regardless of how we call it, the Internet of Things 2.0 reality is about an Internet of
Transformation that is put in the context of related technologies, processes, people, benefits,
outcomes and massive real-life opportunities, rather than just the technology and device
It’s about how we move to a hyper-connected world with goals in mind and roadmaps to
achieve these goals clearly defined. And in that roadmap will be several digital
transformation technologies. We already see how the convergence of IoT, AI and big data
analytics is transformational on a technological level. We also see how executives realize that
digital transformation is sheer impossible in many industries and use cases without the IoT.
According to the 2017-2018 edition of the IoT Barometer 2017/2018 a whopping 66 percent
of executives says so: no digital transformation without IoT for them.
Internet of Things 2.0 in the end leads to an even more hyper-connected world where
eventually the term Internet of Things will disappear or be used like we use the term Internet
today: as a given, a new normal, a bit like electricity. That’s when it will be the Internet of
Transformation although no one will really call it like that.
Internet of Things 2.0 moves from devices and data to actionable intelligence and purposeful
action and transformation. The focus will be on the possibilities of hyper-connectivity, less
from the connectivity perspective as such but more about how we can improve business, life
and society, using the insights gained, thanks to the hyper connectivity of which the Internet
of Things is a crucial additional component. IoT is not just transforming technologies,
industries and the various digital transformation goals, it is also radically transforming and –
yes – disrupting existing channels in IT and OT with far-reaching consequences in traditional
go-to-market approaches. It is also transforming the nature of work, changing the role or even
existence of the middleman, the list is endless.
In order to connect the dots and realize the benefits of this hyper-connected world it’s
important to see the Internet of Things puzzle, the various pieces of that puzzle, why we want
to complete it to start with, and what is needed to put the puzzle in a safe, valuable and
As usual, this requires a high-level understanding, an understanding of how the Internet of
Things fits in the scope of digital transformation and various related digital transformation
technologies, insights regarding the Internet of Things beyond the “number of connected
devices level” and a holistic view of people, purpose, process and actionable information.
The Internet of Things is about to change entire industries (look at what’s happening
with Industry 4.0) and already transforms organizations in the true sense of the word and on
all levels, ranging from customer experience to the transformation of business models and
real innovation as we speak. Don’t look too much at consumer applications to find how.
Sectors such as life sciences, building management, manufacturing, healthcare and more
which are tackled across our site are far more impressive – for now.