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NEC5-18- Brief Summary

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NEC5-18- Brief Summary

  1. 1. Strategic Outlook for Autonomous Heavy-duty Trucks NEC5-18 February 2015 Autonomous Truck Capabilities to First Appear in the Form of Truck Platooning by 2022 BRIEF SUMMARY
  2. 2. 2NEC5-18 Contents Section Slide Executive Summary 3 Research, Scope, Objectives, Background, and Methodology 19 Definitions and Segmentation 26 Mega Trends and Industry Convergence Implications 29 Introduction and Key Trends 32 Special Focus—Truck Platooning 43 Supporting Technologies Overview 47 Human Factors Associated with Automated Vehicles 57 Cost of Autonomous Commercial Vehicles 63 Market Drivers, Restraints, and Global Penetration Forecast 70 Autonomous Driving Technologies Roadmap 76 Regulatory and Societal Environment 87 OEM Implications 93 Conclusions and Future Outlook 102 Appendix 106
  3. 3. 3 Executive Summary
  4. 4. 4NEC5-18 Summary of Key Findings Autonomous trucks and associated enabling technologies will be a major trend in the trucking industry over the forecast period. Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous trucks are expected to enter the mass market as early as 2025, when global production will start slowly and reach an estimated 7,970 units. As autonomous enabling technologies reach maturity and scalability, Frost & Sullivan projects a global production total of 182,031 units by 2035. Level 4 fully autonomous trucks are not expected before 2035. The technology to produce an autonomous truck is available today, but it would drive the cost of a tractor up by an estimated $20,000 to $25,000. Many regions of the world are highly price sensitive and will not adopt these technologies unless mandated by the government. Investments in a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to- infrastructure (V2I) —together known as V2X—communication network are also needed for autonomous truck safety in on-road applications. Long-haul applications are expected to be optimal for autonomous trucks because they provide the ideal platform—long miles driven, lifecycle, and driver environment—for return on investment (ROI) within 3 years. Autonomous vehicles are already used in hazardous environments for defense, agriculture, and mining. 4 5 1 2 3 Japanese (Hino) and European (Daimler, Volvo) original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have taken the lead in autonomous truck research. Daimler in 2014 unveiled the world’s first autonomous truck demonstration, while Volvo and Hino have been major participants in, respectively, the Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTRE) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) truck platooning projects. Competition is intensifying as many OEMs in the trucking industry vie to be the first to market with autonomous enabling technologies that would provide a strong brand differentiation advantage. Government regulations and insurance liability issues involving autonomous trucks are the biggest hurdles for on-road applications, specifically in areas such as hours of service (HOS) rules, cybersecurity, and network communication (e.g., dedicated short-range communication [DSRC], V2X). New and updated regulations that support autonomous trucks are vital to the viability of these vehicles. Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Summary of Key Findings, Western Europe and North America, 2014–2025
  5. 5. 5NEC5-18 Top Market Trends Driving Autonomous Technologies in Trucks With autonomous driving technology development receiving widespread OEM focus, the future of the market is dependent on the support of government policies and early consumer adoption. Impact HighLow Certainty Economic Recovery Enabling Fleets to Invest in Advanced Technologies Infrastructure and Communication Network Development Shortage of Trained Drivers and Technicians OEM Strategy for Brand Differentiation Fleet and Social Acceptance The potential of heavy-duty autonomous driving technologies is expected to drive the trucking industry into a period of dynamic change, influenced heavily by these top market trends. The individual effects of these trends will determine the level of autonomy achieved in trucks by 2025. Rising Demand for Connectivity and Downtime from Potential Young Drivers Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Top Trends, Western Europe and North America, 2014–2025 High Low Source: Frost & Sullivan Declining Cost of Autonomous Driving Technologies Gradually Favorable Legislative Framework Integration of Safety Systems OEM Focus on Developing Smart and Connected Trucks Availability and Maturity of Autonomous Driving Technologies Fuel Price Volatility
  6. 6. 6NEC5-18 How OEMs Will Differentiate Their Brand in the Future All major OEM R&D focal points indicate automated mobility as a strategic priority and a key brand differentiator. POWERTRAIN EFFICIENCY SERVICE & MAINTENANCE ADVANCED SAFETY SUSTAINABILITY & ENVIRONMENT AUTOMATED MOBILITY QUALITY & RELIABILITY COMFORT & CONVENIENCE COST OF OWNERSHIP CONNECTIVITY & SMART HEALTH & WELLNESS PRE 2000 TODAY FUTURE Source: Frost & Sullivan
  7. 7. 7NEC5-18 Autonomous Commercial Vehicle Incremental Cost Analysis While the cost of ingredient technologies will vary between 2014 and 2025, the total incremental cost for the autonomous driving technology module in heavy-duty trucks will not decline by more than 10%. 6% 41% 39% 6% 8% 2025 Telematics/Connectivity HMI Algorithms/IT Driveline Sensors Key: HMI = human-machine interface; IT = information technology. Source: Frost & Sullivan Cost ~$20,000 Cost ~$18,000 2014: ~$2,000 2025: ~$1,000 Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Incremental Cost Analysis, Western Europe and North America, 2014 and 2025 Sensors 2014: ~$10,000 2025: ~$7,500 Driveline 2014: ~$1,000 2025: ~$1,000 HMI 2014: ~$5,000 2025: ~$7,000 Algorithms/IT 2014: ~$2,000 2025: ~$1,500 Connectivity 10% 50% 25% 5% 10% 2014 Telematics/Connectivity HMI Algorithms/IT Driveline
  8. 8. 8NEC5-18 Automated Driving Benchmark Truck OEMs have the capability to create semi- or highly automated vehicles today. The biggest challenge is taking the driver out of the loop and providing a robust business case for fleet adoption. Level of Automation Level 1 Level 2 Truck Platooning Level 3 Level 4 Enabling Technology None Electric power steering (EPS), electric braking systems (EBS), electronic throttle control, adaptive cruise control (ACC), advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) V2X, DSRC, integrated safety systems (ISS), cameras, sensors, ACC Intersection assist, redundancy backup for connectivity, self-driving capability until driver takes over control Multiple redundancies (hardware) and artificial intelligence (software) Incremental Cost $0 $5,000–$10,000 $5,000–$10,000 $20,000–$25,000 $30,000 + Year Expected Today ~2015–2020 ~2020–2025 ~2025–2030 ~ 2035 + Distance/ Duration of Automation None Low Moderate Moderate-High High Driver Involvement Very High High Moderate Moderate-Low None Vocation Application (Long-haul, Regional, Vocational) All Long-haul Regional Vocational Long-haul Regional Vocational Long-haul Regional Vocational Long-haul Regional Vocational Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Levels of Automated Driving, Western Europe and North America, 2014 Source: Frost & SullivanHigh Medium-High Medium Low
  9. 9. 9NEC5-18 Value Proposition of Automated Commercial Vehicles Automated driving paves the way for the automotive industry to address 3 key goals: save lives, save the environment, and reduce human effort. Parameter Present (Level 1 and 2 Automation) Future (Level 3 and 4 Automation) Fleet Benefit Little to none in terms of productivity Improvements to fuel efficiency, productivity, driver satisfaction Traffic Deaths ~33,000 (2014 US) <20,000 (US by 2025) Fuel Economy Benefit Little to none from ADAS ~3% due to efficient driving ~10% potential from platooning Key Stakeholder OEM, Tier I suppliers Mobility integrator, IT companies, insurance companies Cost ~$5,000 to $10,000 ~$20,000 to $25,000 Driver Solution Drivers will still need all standard training and certification while adhering to all regulations (e.g., Compliance, Safety, Accountability [CSA], HOS); will help in improving safety of vehicles Possible solution to global driver shortage, reduced driver stress, improved work conditions; will revolutionize on-road driving environment Functional Safety Systems ACCS, ACC, BSD, CMS, DIWS, ESC, LDW, EOBR, DDWS, ISS Fail-operational multiple redundancies (sensors, cameras, software), artificial intelligence, V2X, automated controls Activities Allowed Talking on the phone, using the HMI, eating Sleeping, reading, using the Internet, completing office work Software Architecture Automotive Open System Architecture (AUTOSAR) AUTOSAR with timing specification, Dedicated OS for automated driving Note: A full list of abbreviations can be found in the Appendix. Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Parametric Analysis of Ecosystem, Western Europe and North America, 2014
  10. 10. 10NEC5-18 Penetration Phases by Vocation On-road applications have many challenges ahead of them such as regulatory policies, technology adoption, and mass market acceptance. On-highway and refuse applications show the highest market applicability. Application Vocation Short Term (1–4 years) Medium Term (5–8 years) Long Term (9–11 years) Future (2035) Market Applicability Construction On-highway Regional Bus & Coach Refuse Source: Frost & Sullivan; Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Penetration Phases, Europe and North America, 2014–2025 and 2035 High Medium-High Medium LowVocations with success potential during the forecast period Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High
  11. 11. 11NEC5-18 Penetration Phases by Vocation (continued) Severe-duty applications have the potential to become the big beneficiary of fully automated vehicles due to the nature of their operational environments, human hazards, and the use of dedicated routes. Vehicle Vocation Short Term (1–4 years) Medium Term (5–8 years) Long Term (9–11 years) Future (2035) Market Applicability Mega Factories Port/Harbor Agriculture Defense Off-highway / Geophysical Source: Frost & Sullivan; Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Penetration Phases, Europe and North America, 2014–2025 and 2035 High Medium-High Medium LowVocations with success potential during the forecast period Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High
  12. 12. 12NEC5-18 Automated Commercial Vehicles by Application Automated trucks will be used in all applications and operating environments to improve productivity, cost efficiency, and safety. 20252014 2020 2035 OperationalEnvironment Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Commercial Vehicle Application Areas, Europe and North America, 2014–2035 OpenRestrictiveSemi-Restrictive 2030 Time Agriculture Refuse Construction Bus & Coach • Automated bus rapid transit • Semi-autonomous coach buses Regional • Autonomous snow plow trucks • Dedicated route freight delivery On-highway Off-highway Defense • Drones • Driverless trucks for logistics, transport, and hazard detection • Semi- or fully automated tractors, combines, and harvesters Stable RisingDeclining • Semi- or fully autonomous material hauling trucks • Semi- autonomous city garbage truck pickup • Semi- or fully autonomous dump and material handling trucks • Semi-autonomous trucks • Truck platooning • Road train with 1 primary driver leading convoy of driverless trucks Harbor/Port • Semi- or fully autonomous multi- modal freight transfer Mega Factories • Semi- or fully autonomous goods transfer trucks and vehicles
  13. 13. 13NEC5-18 Regulatory Changes Necessary for Accelerating Autonomous Trucks Regulatory changes and legislative framework regarding autonomous trucks are vital for their success. Source: Frost & Sullivan Regulation Current Status (2014) Future Status (2025) Significance Driver Hours (HOS)  Maximum 11-hour driving limit after 10- consecutive-hour rest period  Must enter work hours into a logbook  Customized ruling for drivers in level 3 or above trucks to be able to log more hours consecutively while driving in autonomous mode Emission  Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas 2014 standards  Euro VI standards  Continued efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while making trucks run more efficiently and effectively Safety  Mandates for stability control systems  Proposed mandates for forward collision mitigation, braking, and lane departure warning  Every new truck will be required to have advanced safety systems (e.g., sensors, cameras, electronic controls, stability) installed, enabling the proliferation of autonomous driving technologies Cybersecurity  None  Cybersecurity regulations will be new to the trucking industry. With the increasingly threat of cyber attacks, autonomous vehicles will need protection Communication Network  Proposed mandate for DSRC for passenger vehicles  Trucking mandates for DSRC communication and implementation of V2X communication networks, which will be crucial for the safe operation of autonomous vehicles Liability  None for autonomous vehicles; testing is still required  Insurance and automotive industries, government, and society will need to come to an understanding of the risks and safety concerns regarding autonomous vehicles on the road Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market : Regulatory Analysis, Western Europe and North America, 2014 and 2025 Moderate ImportantUnimportant
  14. 14. 14NEC5-18 Key Implications on Human Factors Autonomous driving technologies could significantly affect the trucking industry, especially regarding driver shortages, driver performance, and driver safety. Driver-related Fuel Efficiency • Automated vehicle technologies can enhance fuel efficiency (~3%) through improvements to driver behavior. • The concept of platooning has shown meaningful fuel cost savings with a reasonable, incremental increase to a truck's price, and can be leveraged by long-haul fleets for significant cost savings. Driver Wages • A challenge lies in packaging and presenting a compelling value proposition for these trucks to fleets. • If a driver still must be in the truck and be paid full salary, it would defeat the purpose for a fleet to pay a significant price premium for these vehicles. Recruiting Drivers • The proliferation of level 2 and 3 autonomous driving technology is expected to still require a driver to have a commercial driver’s license. • Autonomous commercial vehicles have the potential to change the image of truck driving, attracting young drivers. Driver Performance • Driver performance regarding fuel efficiency, safety, fatigue, and regulatory compliance is expected to improve. • Driver and vehicle productivity will be enhanced through automated communication with shippers, receivers, fleet hubs, and service and maintenance infrastructure. Productivity • In the future, connectivity technologies will link trucks to freight and freight to trucks in ways that will change the dynamics of freight logistics. • This technology will reduce empty miles considerably and maximize fleet uptime, equipment use rates, and freight efficiency. Retaining Drivers • Driver health, wellness, and wellbeing (HWW) has quickly become a focal point for all major OEMs and fleets. • Autonomous technologies will help to lighten the workload for older drivers. Driver Safety • The main reason for autonomous vehicles is to improve highway safety while reducing the number and severity of traffic accidents, primarily caused by human error and driver fatigue. • As more of these trucks operate on highways, enabled by V2X communications, safety will likely improve. Source: Frost & Sullivan Level 4 Automation • Level 4 autonomous driving vehicles that replace the driver open new possibilities for dealing with driver shortages or driver-related overhead expenses. • These vehicles have the potential to reshape and revolutionize trucking.
  15. 15. 15NEC5-18 Type Subtypes Examples Hardware Standard installation, optional installation OEM one-time fee for complete autonomous driving technology installation, retrofitted autonomous driving solution, subscription fee through service-centric usage On-road Shared mobility, mobility-on-demand V2V platooning-style road trains with trucks and passenger vehicles, truck sharing, truck rentals, on-demand truck service Freight Freight movement, logistics and organization Long-haul driver relief, co-pilot, truck platooning, advanced fleet and resource management, unrestricted environment goods transfer, multimodal freight transfer, truck driver pull and retention solution Zero- occupancy Runs Unmanned short trips, hazardous environments, unmanned dedicated routes Restricted and semi-restricted environment goods transfer (mining and agriculture), automated operations on dedicated routes (refuse), defense applications in hazardous environments, vehicle return to trusted business/ location/co-worker, vehicle access from alternative coordinates One to Many Public fleets for unrestricted access Autonomous buses, autonomous shuttles Note: Business models are not exclusive to each other. Taxonomy of Future Automated Driving Business Models Besides the obvious ownership-based model, a new range of service-centric business models can evolve to leverage autonomous trucks. Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Future Automated Business Models, Western Europe and North America, 2014
  16. 16. 16NEC5-18 Autonomous Truck Outlook Autonomous-enabling technologies exist and will require significant OEM support to reach scalability by the 2025, when level 3 autonomous trucks are expected to be introduced. 2014 2025 Autonomous Driving Technologies • The market is in the introduction stage as many individual advanced technologies that can enable autonomous driving are entering. • Available technology can produce a fully autonomous truck; testing and demonstrations are underway. • The architecture and foundation for autonomous driving technologies in trucks will reach scalability. • Real-time dynamic navigation, integrated safety systems, and critical event reporting will witness increasing adoption. • Level 3 trucks are expected to be introduced. OEM Implications • Most major OEMs have autonomous driving technologies in their brand and product strategies. • The autonomous truck goal provides an opportunity for OEMs to vertically integrate their supply chain. • Truck OEMs will strive to be the first to offer level 3 autonomous driving capabilities and begin differentiating themselves through their autonomous technologies. • Truck OEMs are expected to begin offering proprietary, top-down integrated system (e.g., safety, communication, powertrain, automation) packages in all new trucks Driver Implications • The focus on comfort and convenience is on the rise as driver HWW becomes an important dynamic in trucking. • ACC, driver warning systems, and driver assist systems are gaining traction in the market. • Driver shortages and HOS rules are major challenges. • ACC is expected to reach 39,189 units by 2020 (latest available forecast). • Truck driving as a profession is expected to be less stressful as autonomous driving technologies and ADAS systems are increasingly implemented • Technologies such as LDW and driver drowsiness warning systems (DDWS) are expected to be integrated with ISS for the next-generation collision mitigation system, offering fleets better ROI through packaging of several technologies. Government Regulations • Safety system and wireless communication regulations for trucks are still in their infancy. • The government and insurance companies are closely monitoring autonomous truck capabilities. • No autonomous truck enabling regulations are in place. • HOS rules regarding logged driver hours when trucks are being operated in autonomous driving mode will be updated. • Implementation of safety and wireless communication regulations/incentives will drive adoption of autonomous-enabling technologies and eventual penetration of autonomous trucks. Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Outlook, Western Europe and North America, 2014 and 2025
  17. 17. 17 Research Scope, Objectives, Background, and Methodology
  18. 18. 18NEC5-18 Research Scope Autonomous Heavy-duty TrucksVehicle Type 2015–2025Forecast Period 2014–2025, with an outlook to 2035Study Period 2014Base Year Primarily North America and Western EuropeGeographical Scope Source: Frost & Sullivan
  19. 19. 19NEC5-18 Research Aims and Objectives Aim The aim of this study is to research, analyze, and forecast the key market factors and dynamics affecting the major groups—OEMs, Tier I suppliers, fleets, IT companies, insurance companies—in the autonomous heavy-duty truck market. Objectives • To provide a strategic overview of the autonomous heavy-duty truck market, including analysis of key market trends, business models, technology trends, and penetration rates. • To examine the feasibility of autonomous vehicles in the trucking industry and their effect on daily operations • To understand societal concerns, and environmental and financial implications • To analyze competitive factors, competitor strategies, and product portfolios and capabilities • To develop an actionable set of recommendations for OEMs, Tier I suppliers, and fleets to use in this market. Source: Frost & Sullivan
  20. 20. 20NEC5-18 Key Questions this Study Will Answer What are the strategic approaches of OEMs and Tier I suppliers to the potential application of autonomous driving technologies in the trucking industry? How will autonomous driving technologies and vehicles affect the role of drivers? Which advanced technologies will be used, and how much will it cost, to produce a heavy-duty autonomous vehicle? When will semi-autonomous (level 3) and fully autonomous (level 4) vehicles enter the market? Source: Frost & Sullivan What trends (e.g., regulatory, economic, and operational) are affecting the market? Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Key Questions This Study Will Answer, Western Europe and North America, 2014
  21. 21. 21NEC5-18 Research Background This study is an original research service that also expands on content drawn from ongoing research in the areas of Class 4-8 original equipment and aftermarket trends, including: • NA53—Strategic Analysis of the Global Platform Strategies of Major HD OEMs • NCD5—Strategic Outlook of North American Heavy-duty Truck Dealership Focused Revenue Streams and Growth Opportunities • NE32—Strategic Outlook of North American Class 6-8 Truck Safety Systems Market • NAAF—Strategic Analysis of Engine Downsizing Trends of North American Heavy-duty Truck Manufacturers • N6A8—Strategic Analysis of the North American Heavy-duty (Class 4-8 Truck) Repair Industry • ND7A—2014 Outlook of the Global Commercial Vehicle Industry • N617—Strategic Analysis of the Class 4-8 Truck Powertrain Systems Aftermarket • N838—Strategic Dashboard for Commercial Vehicle Telematics in Europe and North America—2011 Edition • NCBE—Prognostics in the European and North American Trucking Industry—Big Data is Creating all the Difference The study is supplemented by ongoing interactions with vehicle manufacturers, Tier I suppliers, dealerships, financial companies, and banks.
  22. 22. 22NEC5-18 Volvo/MACK Knorr Bremse (Bendix) TomTom Navistar Meritor Qualcomm Daimler WABCO Google PACCAR Eaton QNX Hino Delphi Valeo Volkswagen Allison Peloton Technology Research Methodology Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Partial List of Industry Participants, Western Europe and North America, 2014 Research Methodology: Frost & Sullivan’s research services are based on secondary and primary research data. Secondary Research: Information extracted from studies and project material in the Frost & Sullivan database, as well as information gathered from technical papers, specialized magazines, seminars, and Internet research. Primary Research: More than 25 interviews were conducted over the phone by senior consultants/industry analysts with OEMs, regulatory authorities, and distributors. Primary research accounted for 80% of the total research.
  23. 23. 23NEC5-18 OEM Groups Compared in this Study Group OEMs Volvo Volvo, Mack, UD Trucks Navistar International Volkswagen MAN, Scania PACCAR Kenworth, Peterbilt, DAF Daimler Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner, Mitsubishi Fuso Fiat/IVECO IVECO The OEM groups compared in this study are: Source: Frost & Sullivan
  24. 24. 24 Definitions and Segmentation
  25. 25. 25NEC5-18 Automated Driving Definitions This study will follow National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) definitions of automated driving levels. Level of Automation Monitoring roadway Active control Responsibility for safe operation Driver/ occupant availability Level 0— No Automation D D D Yes Level 1— Function-specific Automation D D and V D Yes Level 2— Combined Function Automation D V D Yes Level 3— Limited Self-driving Automation V V V Yes Level 4— Full Self-driving Automation V V V No D = Driver V = Vehicle Automation Source: NHTSA; Frost & Sullivan; Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Levels of Automation Aligned with NHTSA Definition, US, 2014
  26. 26. 26NEC5-18 Automated Driving Definitions (continued) Driver availability in the vehicle is the boundary between automated and autonomous modes. Level of Autonomy Type of Automated Driving Definition Assisted (Level 1) The driver is responsible for motion control while the vehicle provides advisory information and supportive actions when appropriate. Assistance systems include BSD, lane-keeping assist (LKA), ACC, and autonomous emergency braking (AEBS). Automated Semi-automated (Level 2) ADAS functions take some control of the vehicle under specific circumstances and at the driver’s discretion. It combines longitudinal (for speeding up or slowing down) and lateral (for additional steering torque overlay or counter-steering) control based on driving conditions. Highly Automated (Level 3) All aspects of vehicle control are automated. The driver can choose to control the vehicle and override a specific set of commands. In some conditions, the driver will still be given a request, through a suitable HMI, to resume control of the vehicle. Autonomous Fully Automated (Level 4) The vehicle is capable of driving itself, in all traffic conditions, without the physical presence of a human driver. These vehicles need to have redundancy in critical systems, such as steering, braking, and powertrain, so they can be fail-operational. Cooperative Vehicles are fitted with wireless V2X communication modules that can share information with other vehicles and with infrastructure. These vehicles coordinate their movement with the driving environment and other vehicles to optimize safety and efficiency. Source: Frost & Sullivan Autonomous Heavy-duty Truck Market: Classification and Definition, Western Europe and North America, 2014 Research parameters regarding the study’s definition of an autonomous truck
  27. 27. 27NEC5-18 Market Engineering Methodology One of Frost & Sullivan’s core deliverables is its Market Engineering studies. They are based on our proprietary Market Engineering Methodology. This approach, developed across the 50 years of experience assessing global markets, applies engineering rigor to the often nebulous art of market forecasting and interpretation. A detailed description of the methodology can be found here. Source: Frost & Sullivan
  28. 28. 28NEC5-18 List of Abbreviations • ACCS: Active Chassis Control Systems • ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control • AEBS: Autonomous Emergency Braking System • BASIC: Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories • BSD: Blind Spot Detection • CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate • CMS: Collision Mitigation System • CSA: Compliance, Safety and Accountability • DIWS: Driver Information and Warning Systems • DDWS: Driver Drowsiness Warning Systems • EOBR: Electronic Onboard Recorder • ESC: Electronic Stability Control • FMCSA: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration • GVWR: Gross Vehicle Weight Ratio • HOS: Hours Of Service • ISS: Integrated Safety Systems • LDW: Lane Departure Warning Systems • LKA: Lane-keeping Assist • OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer • RSC: Rollover Stability Control • ROI: Return On Investment • SwRI: Southwest Research Institute • TBSA: Telematics-based Safety Applications • TCO: Total Cost of Ownership • TPMS: Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems • V2I: Vehicle to Infrastructure • V2V: Vehicle to Vehicle • V2X: V2I + V2V