Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Constraints in mushroom
cultivation
K.A.D.S Thilakarathna
11/AG/034
EG788
Assignment –
Constraints of Mushroom Cultivation
• This assignment for the course Alternative Commercial Enterprises, was ...
Outline
Introduction
Importance of mushroom
Mushroom Cultivation in Sri lanka
Constraints
Conclusion
References
Introduction - Mushroom
• “Mushroom is a macro fungus with a distinctive fruiting body, which
can be either epigeous or hy...
• The structure that we call a mushroom is in reality only the fruiting body of
the fungus.
• The vegetative part of the f...
Importance of mushroom
• Nutritional value
Protein content, 3-7% when fresh and 25- 40% when dry. Contain all essential am...
Mushroom Cultivation in Sri lanka
• With move of Sri Lankan labor out of agriculture, arising climate changes,
diminishing...
• Mushroom cultivation in Sri Lanka is a popular cottage industry having oyster
mushrooms as the most preferred variety.
•...
Constraints of Mushroom Cultivation
Constraints
Environmental
Cultural
Pest and diseases
Marketing and
sales
Environmental constraints
• Light
Farmer knew about the required different lighting required in different stages of the cu...
Environmental constraints
• Water relations
Oyster and mushroom cultivation that was done in this farm required 80-95% rel...
Cultural Constraints
• Capital Outlay
The main constraint is the requirement of the significant capital for the building o...
Cultural Constraints
• No proper storage
Although mushroom is very perishable good the famer does not have proper storage ...
• Lack of labour
This is major constraint for this farmer for the expansion of his business. Not only
skilled labor but al...
Pest and Diseases
• Rodent attack – This is a major pest attack for the farmer. As recently about 100 mushroom
bags of thi...
• Other pests that threat Oyster Mushroom cultivation
• Besides the harms that were resulted from the infestations of thes...
Disease attack
• Fungal Diseases –
Moulds:
 Due to improper pasteurization
 contaminated spawn
 Commonly found moulds a...
• Fungal Diseases –
Yellow blotch
Yellow depressed spot on caps becomes brown and orange
Affected fruits give off Foul s...
Marketing and sales Constraints
• No proper established market
This is another major constraint that mushroom farmers face...
References
• Mushworld(2004), Mushroom grower’s handbook
• Quimio T.H, Chang S.T and Royse D.J Tchnical(1990), Guidelines ...
Constraints in mushroom cultivation
Constraints in mushroom cultivation
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Constraints in mushroom cultivation

This presentation includes major Constraints in mushroom cultivation.

  • Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

Constraints in mushroom cultivation

  1. 1. Constraints in mushroom cultivation K.A.D.S Thilakarathna 11/AG/034 EG788
  2. 2. Assignment – Constraints of Mushroom Cultivation • This assignment for the course Alternative Commercial Enterprises, was done associated with a Small scale mushroom farm located in Ruwanwella divisional secretariat division in Kegalla district, Sri lanka. • The constraints that the particular famer faces was thoroughly examined and it may also have helped the farmer to identify unknown threats to his cultivation.
  3. 3. Outline Introduction Importance of mushroom Mushroom Cultivation in Sri lanka Constraints Conclusion References
  4. 4. Introduction - Mushroom • “Mushroom is a macro fungus with a distinctive fruiting body, which can be either epigeous or hypogeous and large enough to be seen with naked eye and to be picked by hand”(Chang and Miles, 1992). • Fungi are diverse and essential to the health of many ecosystems. They break down organic material from waste and in turn are able to provide other organisms with essential nutrients. • Mushrooms are critical to the health of Earth because they recycle tremendous amounts of waste.
  5. 5. • The structure that we call a mushroom is in reality only the fruiting body of the fungus. • The vegetative part of the fungus, called the mycelium, comprises a system of branching threads and cord-like strands that branch out through soil, compost, wood log or other lignocellulosic material on which the fungus may be growing. Parts of a typical mushroom
  6. 6. Importance of mushroom • Nutritional value Protein content, 3-7% when fresh and 25- 40% when dry. Contain all essential amino acids, amides and lysine. • Medicinal value Consumption of mushrooms slows down the spread and effect of cancer, heart disease, HIV/AIDS (by boosting immune system). • Income generation and Employment creation. • For bioremediation To absorb and digest dangerous substances like oil, pesticides and industrial waste, in places where they threaten the environment.
  7. 7. Mushroom Cultivation in Sri lanka • With move of Sri Lankan labor out of agriculture, arising climate changes, diminishing arable land and many other problems , Sri Lanka has to face a risk of food security. • So attention is increasing towards the food that can be grown in low space using less fertilizer and other inputs that give much nutrients and energy. • Mushroom which is also referred to as “Vegan meat”, stays at the top in this topic due to its high nutrient and energy level, not to forget with its unique delicious taste.
  8. 8. • Mushroom cultivation in Sri Lanka is a popular cottage industry having oyster mushrooms as the most preferred variety. • In Sri Lanka the main ingredient frequently used in the mushroom cultivation process is sawdust.
  9. 9. Constraints of Mushroom Cultivation Constraints Environmental Cultural Pest and diseases Marketing and sales
  10. 10. Environmental constraints • Light Farmer knew about the required different lighting required in different stages of the cultivation. But he was not practically adhering to them. He had a dark room but he was not covered it well. Farmer did not believe that lighting had much effect to the harvest • Temperature There was no control or monitoring of the temperature in the mushroom house or incubation room. Watering once a day was the only method used to control temperature. Part of the dark room was not dark
  11. 11. Environmental constraints • Water relations Oyster and mushroom cultivation that was done in this farm required 80-95% relative humidity in the mushroom growing houses. For that department of Agriculture, Sri lanka has recommended to spray water as a mist to the growing bags at least 2 times a day. But this farmer only put water by a hose on to the mushroom bags once a day. This may have been the reason to the deterioration of some bags. • CO2 There was no consideration about the optimum CO2 consideration in the cultivation. This would have a effect on the yield.
  12. 12. Cultural Constraints • Capital Outlay The main constraint is the requirement of the significant capital for the building of the permanent mushroom house and buying equipment. Although the DOA provide equipment at a 50% subsidized rate the process take a large time and the farmer had received it after about one year. • Obtaining the spawn The spawn they use was up to satisfactory level. But they had to travel about 100Kms to Rathlamana, Sri lanka to purchase them which increased their cost of production. Digital Scale and Impulse sealer obtained through subsidized scheme.
  13. 13. Cultural Constraints • No proper storage Although mushroom is very perishable good the famer does not have proper storage to keep them until they take them to the market. • Retardation of the harvest in some times Farmer had to experience some reductions in the harvest due to some unknown reasos.This fluctuation as a major constraint as the famer’s family was depending on it. This could be seen in may ways as reduction in the size of the cap, thin stipe and etc. Farmer stored the mushroom plucked in a open cardboard box.
  14. 14. • Lack of labour This is major constraint for this farmer for the expansion of his business. Not only skilled labor but also the unskilled labour was difficult to find. • Difficult to supply water As mushroom require significant amount of water, farmer had to incur larger cost to supply water to the cultivation and assuring the cleanliness is another problem for the farmer. • Inadequate government support Although government provide support through subsidized equipments and free lables, the extension officers contribution to enhance the knowledge about the cultivation is regarded as in adequate. And this was identified by constraint by the formers for expantion and for the continuation of the cultivation.
  15. 15. Pest and Diseases • Rodent attack – This is a major pest attack for the farmer. As recently about 100 mushroom bags of this farmer were destroyed by them. The rodents managed to come through a hole in the insect proof net. • Mite attack – This was a prevailing attack at the farm at the present. Farmer had applied Sulfur. He had to suffer major reduction in yield in this season. Pest attacks
  16. 16. • Other pests that threat Oyster Mushroom cultivation • Besides the harms that were resulted from the infestations of these incest's like the reduction in the harvest, farmers suffer from the inability to treat the infestation in the beginning as they have lack of knowledge about how to identify at the initial stages. Adult cecidMale adult Coboldia fuscipesFemale adult sciarid and eggs Adult phorid
  17. 17. Disease attack • Fungal Diseases – Moulds:  Due to improper pasteurization  contaminated spawn  Commonly found moulds are green mould and blue mould Management:  Sprinkle agri lime powder over infected area to check its spread.  Watering after harvest Growing Bags affected with mold
  18. 18. • Fungal Diseases – Yellow blotch Yellow depressed spot on caps becomes brown and orange Affected fruits give off Foul smell under high humid and high temperature Bacterial rot In this case rotting starts from the center of the fruit body and spreads towards periphery
  19. 19. Marketing and sales Constraints • No proper established market This is another major constraint that mushroom farmers face. Due to this the farmers face many difficulties in selling their harvest and sometimes have to experience post harvest losses. • High competition in market In some seasons farmers have to face high competition from the fellow farmers. Due to the high perishability of mushrooms and lack of storage facilities with the farmers sometimes had to sell their harvest at a lower price. • Threat from imported mushroom Farmers had to face this problem when trying to expand their business. The canned process mushroom products posed a threat.
  20. 20. References • Mushworld(2004), Mushroom grower’s handbook • Quimio T.H, Chang S.T and Royse D.J Tchnical(1990), Guidelines for mushroom in the tropics • https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/plants/fruit-and-vegetables/specialty-crops/pests-and-diseases-of- mushrooms Cited on 2017.02.15

×