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Smart Cities Reference Architecture

358 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

BIS-IEC International Conference on Smart City Standardization
“Smart standards – Smarter Cities”
Varanasi, India, 2018-12-10

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie

Smart Cities Reference Architecture

  1. 1. Smart Cities Reference Architecture BIS-IEC International Conference on Smart City Standardization “Smart standards – Smarter Cities” Varanasi, India, 2018-12-10 Alexander Samarin
  2. 2. • Digital transformation of business & IT & systems – methodologist, architect, practitioner – from a programmer to a systems architect – have created production systems that work without me – systems of various sizes: company, corporate, canton, city, country, continent, community • Some of my professional roles – “cleaning lady” (usually in an IT department) – “peacemaker” (between the IT and business) – “swiss knife” (for solving any problem) – “patterns detective” (seeing commonalities in “unique” cases) – “assembler” (making unique things from commodities) – “barriers breaker” (there is always a bigger system) 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 2 About me
  3. 3. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 3 The context
  4. 4. Active Assisted Living for people with disabilities and the elderly 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 4 System domains of interest IoT Smart Manufacturing Smart Homes AAL Smart Cities Smart Energy Digital Healthcare Digital Country Digital Economy Digital Legislation Internet of Things Digital Government Infrastructure for Global Digital Financial Market (BFi)
  5. 5. • Unpredictable and unlimited growth and development • Each city is different; all cities have some commonalities • Digital data and information in huge volumes • Contradictory demands for security and privacy • Many diverse stakeholders • Software-intensive • Distributed and decentralised • Great influence on our society • Ability to interact with the physical world • Mixture of socio-technical, cyber-physical, real-time, software intensive and information systems 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 5 Smart City complexity
  6. 6. • Smart Cities make the world easier for the – citizens – society – business – governments • Being “smart” means being able to achieve some goals in a sustainable way (i.e. without destroying “good things”) – interoperability, safety, security, privacy, reliability and resilience by design and by default – simplicity – short time to market – low cost of creation and operations 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 6 Why, What and How is a Smart City? (1)
  7. 7. • Smartness is an emergent characteristic of a system – achieved by digital technologies – explicitly architected and engineered to reduce complexity – gradually built up through digital transformation – permanently demonstrating value delivery – combining diversity and uniformity – coordinating and cooperating between all the stakeholders • A Smart City is a huge digital repeatable system to be built – cheaper – faster – better – more legally – more interoperable – more innovative 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 7 Why, What and How is a Smart City? (2)
  8. 8. • Digital system is a system which designs the life cycles of its primary artefacts on the primacy of digital description of those artefacts • Digital description is explicit, formal, computer-readable and computer-executable (aka “digital twin”) • For a man-made object, a digital twin comes first • For a nature-made object, a digital twin comes second 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 8 About Digital Systems Becoming digital
  9. 9. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 9 Many descriptions of a house House design (digital) v1 Built house (physical) v1 Built house (physical) v2 Built house (digital) Time House design (digital) v2 Implement Monitor Improve Model Improve
  10. 10. • India plans to build 100 Smart Cities; their IT infrastructure will comprise the “repeated” use of a standard and tailorable (i.e. repeatable) digital platform • Smart Cities will be built by a “coherent ecosystem” – start-ups – local IT companies – international IT giants 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 10 Digital repeatable systems
  11. 11. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 11 The essential patterns: Platform-Enabled Agile Solutions • A platform is a coherent complex of services for a particular domain • The platform must standardise and simplify core elements of future system. • New opportunities should be explored using agile principles • The platform frees up resource to focus on new opportunities • Successful agile innovations are rapidly scaled up when incorporated into the platform • This requires coordination at an overall level
  12. 12. The essential patterns: Reference Architecture (1) 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 12 A unique A common B unique B common T unique T common Let us 1) Build common understanding 2) Isolate common parts 3) Find how to integrate unique and common parts 4) Develop common parts once and with high quality as a platform 5) Have an individual version of the common platform at each Smart City 6) Cooperate and coordinate among Smart Cities Together Smart Cities will gain a lot in quality, time and cost
  13. 13. The essential patterns: Reference Architecture (2) 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 13 A unique A common B unique B common T unique T common Reference architecture
  14. 14. Reference architecture Reference modelCommon platform S2 …S1 S3 Common platform in City B S2 … B2B1 Common platform in City A A2 …S1 Common platform in City T S2 …T1 T3 Cooperation and coordination Telecommunication providers Industries Academic and research institutes Financial organisations Standards Development Organizations IT companies (start-ups, local, global) The essential patterns: Reference Architecture (3) 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 14 Common parts Unique parts
  15. 15. • N is the total cost of a Smart City implementation (construction) • 70 % - common, 30 % - unique • Total cost for 100 Smart Cities WITHOUT standardisation – N * 100 • Total cost for 100 Smart Cities WITH standardisation – N * 100 * 0.3 (unique parts) + N * 1 * 0.7 (common parts) * 3 (complexity factor) = N * (30 + 2.1) = N * 32.1 • Cost difference is (N*100) / (N*32.1) ≈ 3 times! • Maintenance and evolution will be much cheaper as well 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 15 Simple calculations
  16. 16. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 16 4 levels of systems architecting 2. Reference architecture 1.Reference model 4. Implementation A2 3. Solution architecture B 3. Solution architecture A 4. Implementation A1 build and test field feedback design and engineer architect extract essentials constraints and opportunities constraints and opportunities design and engineer Problem space Solution space Various needs - stakeholders - system - domain architect extract See the definitions at the end of this slide deck Outside scope of international standardisation
  17. 17. • Explain to any stakeholder how future implementations (which are based on the reference architecture) can address his/her concerns and change his/her personal, professional and social life for the better – explicitly link needs (or high-level requirements) with the principles of the reference architecture • Provide a common approach for architecting systems – different people in similar situations find similar solutions or propose innovations • Help stakeholders, programmes and projects to collaborate and coordinate their efforts – common agreements (i.e. standards) on various system elements (e.g. services, interfaces, data, etc.), common vision, etc. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 17 Purpose of reference architecture
  18. 18. Geometrical views of buildings are viewed side by side ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 architecture description View (system-of-interest dependent) vs viewpoint (system-of-interest independent) Multiple viewpoints are mandatory Architectural views are often originated by different people — thus they must be aligned to be used together 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 18 Each architecture model consists of architecture artefacts (e.g. applications, servers, etc.) and relationships between them
  19. 19. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 19 The IEC System Resource Group (SRG) The SRG helps the IEC Systems Committees to fulfil their mission - find opportunities for standardisation
  20. 20. • We found many models for Smart Cities, which those models can’t be used together • Three fundamental deliverables – Smart Cities Reference Architecture Methodology (SCRAM) to align various models (as a System Reference Document) – Smart Cities Reference Architecture (SCRA) to provide a commonly agreed architectural description of Smart Cities (as an International Standard) – SCRA Tailoring Guidelines to help various cities to implement their Smart City programmes and projects by collecting knowledge and exchange experience (as a dynamic and interactive digital environment – similar to “Wikipedia”) 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 20 The IEC System Committee Smart Cities
  21. 21. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 21 SCRAM vs SCRA SCRAM viewpoints SCRAM is a set of rules SCRA is an idealized result SCRAM model-types SCRAM artifact-types SCRA views SCRAM models SCRAM artifactsframe frame frame
  22. 22. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 22 Role of the SCRA Tailoring Guidelines SCRA Tailored solution architecture for a particular Smart City SCRA Tailoring Guidelines
  23. 23. • Value viewpoint – stakeholders, high-level requirements, mission, vision, UC • Big picture viewpoint – illustrative, essential characteristics, architecture principles • Capability map viewpoint – level 1 decomposition, level 2 decomposition • System Target Operating Model (STOM) engineering viewpoint – function map, service map, process map, data flows, organigramme • Operating viewpoint • Performance viewpoint • Implementation viewpoint • Security, safety, risk, privacy and resilience viewpoint • Standards viewpoint 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 23 SCRAM in one page: some viewpoints and model-types
  24. 24. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 24 Value view: models and artefacts dependency in SCRAM in SCRA
  25. 25. • Stakeholders, their roles and their concerns 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 25 Value view: stakeholders’ concerns analysis
  26. 26. • List of high-level requirements – Adequate water supply – Assured electricity supply – Sanitation, including solid waste management – Efficient urban mobility and public transport – Affordable housing, including for the poor – Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation – Good governance and citizen participation – Sustainable environment – Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly – Affordable healthcare for everyone – Modern education for children and adults – Attractive for business 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 27 Value view: high-level requirements (example)
  27. 27. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 28 Capability map view: level 1 visualisation (example) Leading capabilities ProcurementFinance Legal Media PMO ICT … Supporting capabilities Facilities&buildingsmanagement Energymanagement Watermanagement Wastemanagement Publicsafetyandsecuritymanagement Environment(nature)management Transportationmanagement Healthcaremanagement Educationmanagement Socialeventsmanagement Economicdevelopmentmanagement Culture&entertainmentmanagement Geomatics Census Registries Urban info Enabling capabilities Core capabilities Management Operations Governance Emergent characteristics by design Tourismmanagement Security Short time to market Low cost for operations Interoperability Resilience Privacy Safety
  28. 28. § 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 29 STOM engineering view: operational patterns (example) Data analysis Data enrichment Decision selection Action activation Continuous monitoring Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) pattern Coordination, Event Streams, Analytics, Rules (CESAR) pattern Sensor A Sensor B Sensor C Situation prediction Case (e.g. incident) coordination Rules application Actions execution Case (e.g. incident) data flow-of-control flow-of-data flow-of-events
  29. 29. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 30 Security, safety, risk, privacy and resilience view (example)
  30. 30. • Strategy – top manager • Business – manager – process owner – super-user – user • Project – manager – business analyst • IT – manager – enterprise IT architect – solution architect – developer – operator 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 31 SCRA is not about IT implementation IEC SyC Smart Cities BIS Smart Cities IT Infrastructure
  31. 31. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 32 Common digital platform (reference) Solution α Solution β City Procurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  32. 32. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 33 Common digital platform (real) Solution α Solution β City Procurement Finance Legal PMO ICT Geomatics Census Governance Management Operations Water Waste Energy Zones Public safety Environment Tourism Culture Transport Process management API management Security management IoT management Analytics & reporting Universal Event management Software factory Data persistence
  33. 33. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 34 From a problem to the solution ? Problem ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Architectural and technological governance Architecture & design Coherent ecosystem ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Common digital platform ! Solution Already available Already available
  34. 34. • Digital and smart are two sides of the same coin • Synergy between uniformity and diversity is mandatory • A lot of good methodologies, technologies and tools are available for a successful digital transformation • For large-scale efforts a common approach is needed • Must know how value is delivered through all the processes • Large-scale digital repeatable systems need standards – not hard standards, but standards with a transparent, clear and open ecosystem for any potential participant • If reference architecture is used correctly then India will get an export version of Smart Cities. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 35 Conclusions
  35. 35. • E-mail: alexandre.samarine@gmail.com • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 36 Questions? 2018-12-10
  36. 36. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 37 The essential patterns: Reference Architecture How to build many Smart Cities in a smart way: 1) build a common understanding 2) isolate the common parts 3) find how to integrate unique and common parts 4) develop common parts once, and with high quality, as a platform 5) have a version of the common platform for each Smart City 6) cooperate and coordinate among Smart Cities If Smart City programmes work together, there will be gains in quality, time and money
  37. 37. 2018-12-10 Smart Cities Reference Architecture 38

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