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Vitamins

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Vitamins

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This is a simple powerpoint presentation about vitamins. Done by year 1 medical students at the University of Science and Technology, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. (2007/2008)

This is a simple powerpoint presentation about vitamins. Done by year 1 medical students at the University of Science and Technology, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. (2007/2008)

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Vitamins

  1. 1. Vitamins Benefits and essentials
  2. 2. What are Vitamins? • It is an organic compound, required in small amounts by an organism to obtain cellular functions. • It is called vitamin, when it can not be synthesized in sufficient quantities by the organism, and must therefore be supplied by the diet.
  3. 3. History of Vitamins • In ancient Egypt: Feeding of patients with liver to prevent night blindness (now known as vitamin A deficiency) • In 1749, the prevention of scurvy by citrus foods, was first discovered by the Scottish surgeon James Lind. • In the Orient: Beriberi was common (a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B1), because of polished white rice.
  4. 4. The discovery of Vitamins and their sources Year of discovery Vitamin Source 1909 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil (a fish) 1912 Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Rice bran 1912 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Lemons 1918 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil 1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Eggs 1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil 1926 Vitamin B12 (Siano Cobalamin) Liver 1929 Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Luzerne 1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Liver 1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Liver 1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Rice bran 1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Liver 1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Liver
  5. 5. In Humans: How do these Vitamins dissolve? • Vitamins are classified as either: 1) water- soluble (can dissolve in water solutions) – these are readily excreted from the body. There are 9 water soluble vitamins. 2) fat-soluble (can dissolve in lipid solutions)- these are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fat)- There are 4 types of fat soluble vitamins.
  6. 6. Vitamin Chemical Solubility Rec. Diet. Deficiency Upper Overdose Name name Allowances diseases Intake level disease Vitamin A Retinol, Fat 900µg Night blindness 3000µg Hyper carotenoids keratomalacia vitaminosis A Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg Beriberi N/D Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosis N/D Vitamin B3 Niacin, Water 16 mg Pellagra 35.0mg Liver damage niacinamide Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Water 5 mg Paresthesia N/D acid Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Water 1.3-1.7 mg Anemia 100 mg Nerve damage pyridoxamine Vitamin B7 Biotin Water 30µg Dermatitis, N/D enteritis Vitamin B9 Folic acid, Water 400µg Birth defects 1,000µg Proprioception folinic acid , nerve damage Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalami Water 2.4µg Megaloblastic N/D ne anemia Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg Vitamin D Ergocalciferol, Fat 5µg-10µg Rickets, 50µg Hypervitaminoi Cholecalciferol osteomalacia sD Vitamin E Tocopherols, Fat 15 mg Hemolytic 1,000 mg Possible heart tocotrienols anemia problems Vitamin K Phylloquinone, Fat 120µg Bleeding N/D Increased menaquinones diathesis coagulation
  7. 7. Vitamins as supplement • Many researchers have claimed that vitamin supplementation do not only provide no real health benefits, but could also be the source of increased mortality. • In some cases, dietary supplementation could have unwanted effects, especially with other dietary supplements and medicines.
  8. 8. No wonder that an apple a day keeps the doctor away! Thank you!

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