Complete Lecture on Css presentation

Salman Memon
Salman MemonSoftware Developer um Retailistan Pvt Ltd
Css
1
TOPIC ‘s TO BE COVERED
• CSS Introduction
• CSS Syntax – Selectors
• CSS Inclusion - Associating Styles
• Setting Backgrounds using CSS
• Setting Fonts using CSS
• Manipulating Text using CSS
• CSS – Images
• CSS – Links
• CSS – Box Model
2
CSS INTRODUCTION
What is CSS …?
3
CSS INTRODUCTION
• Cascading Style Sheets, fondly referred to as CSS, is a simple design language intended to
simplify the process of making web pages presentable.
• CSS handles the look and feel part of a web page. Using CSS, you can control the color of the
text, the style of fonts, the spacing between paragraphs, how columns are sized and laid out,
what background images or colors are used, as well as a variety of other effects.
• CSS is easy to learn and understand but it provides powerful control over the presentation of
an HTML document. Most commonly, CSS is combined with the markup languages HTML or
XHTML.
4
CSS INTRODUCTION (Advantages of CSS)
• CSS SAVE TIME
• You can write CSS once and then reuse same sheet in multiple HTML pages. You can define a
style for each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want.
• PAGES LOAD FASTER
• If you are using CSS, you do not need to write HTML tag attributes every time. Just write one
CSS rule of a tag and apply to all the occurrences of that tag. So less code means faster
download times.
• EASY MAINTENANCE
• To make a global change, simply change the style, and all elements in all the web pages will
be updated automatically.
5
CSS INTRODUCTION (Advantages of CSS)
• SUPERIOR STYLES TO HTML
• CSS has a much wider array of attributes than HTML so you can give far better look to your
HTML page in comparison of HTML attributes.
• MULTIPLE DEVICE COMPATIBILITY
• Style sheets allow content to be optimized for more than one type of device. By using the
same HTML document, different versions of a website can be presented for handheld devices
such as PDAs and cell phones or for printing.
• GLOBAL WEB STANDARDS
• Now HTML attributes are being deprecated and it is being recommended to use CSS. So its a
good idea to start using CSS in all the HTML pages to make them compatible to future
browsers.
6
CSS INTRODUCTION (Who Creates and Maintains CSS)
• CSS is created and maintained through a group of people within the W3C called the CSS Working
Group. The CSS Working Group creates documents called specifications. When a specification has
been discussed and officially ratified by W3C members, it becomes a recommendation.
• These ratified specifications are called recommendations because the W3C has no control over
the actual implementation of the language. Independent companies and organizations create that
software.
• NOTE: The World Wide Web Association, or W3C is a group that makes recommendations about
how the Internet works and how it should evolve.
7
CSS INTRODUCTION (CSS Versions)
• Cascading Style Sheets, level 1 (CSS1) was came out of W3C as a recommendation in December
1996. This version describes the CSS language as well as a simple visual formatting model for all
the HTML tags.
• CSS2 was became a W3C recommendation in May 1998 and builds on CSS1. This version adds
support for media-specific style sheets e.g. printers and aural devices, downloadable fonts,
element positioning and tables.
8
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS
9
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS
• A CSS comprises of style rules that are interpreted by the browser and then applied to the
corresponding elements in your document. A style rule is made of three parts:
• SELECTOR:
• A selector is an HTML tag at which style will be applied. This could be any tag like <h1> or
<table> etc.
• PROPERTY:
• A property is a type of attribute of HTML tag. Put simply, all the HTML attributes are
converted into CSS properties. They could be color or border etc.
• VALUE:
• Values are assigned to properties. For example color property can have value either red or
#F1F1F1 etc.
10
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Syntax)
• You can put CSS Style Rule Syntax as follows:
selector { property: value }
• Example:
• You can define a table border as follows:
table{ border :1px solid #C00; }
11
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Type Selectors)
• This is the same selector we have seen above. Again one more example to
give a color to all level 1 headings :
h1 {
color: #36CFFF;
}
12
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Universal Selectors)
• Rather than selecting elements of a specific type, the universal selector quite simply matches
the name of any element type
* {
color: #36CFFF;
}
• This rule renders the content of every element in our document in black.
13
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Descendant Selectors)
• Suppose you want to apply a style rule to a particular element only when it lies inside a
particular element. As given in the following example, style rule will apply to <em> element
only when it lies inside <ul> tag.
ul em{
color: #36CFFF;
}
14
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Class Selectors)
• You can define style rules based on the class attribute of the elements. All the
elements having that class will be formatted according to the defined rule.
.black {
color: #36CFFF;
}
H1.black {
color: green;
}
15
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Class Selectors)
• This rule renders the content in black for only <h1> elements with class attribute set to black.
• You can apply more than one class selectors to given element.
<p class= "center bold“ >This para will be styled by the classes center and bold. </p>
16
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (ID Selectors)
• This rule renders the content in black for every element with id attribute set to black in
our document. You can make it a bit more particular.
#black {color: #36CFFF;}
h1#black {color: #36CFFF;}
• The true power of id selectors is when they are used as the ground work for
descendant selectors
#black h2 {color: #36CFFF;}
• In this example all level 2 headings will be displayed in black color only when those
headings will lie with in tags having id attribute set to black.
17
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Child Selectors)
• You have seen descendant selectors. There is one more type of selectors which is very similar
to descendants but have different functionality
Body> p {color: #36CFFF; }
• This rule will render all the paragraphs in black if they are direct child of <body> element.
Other paragraphs put inside other elements like <div> or <td> etc. would not have any effect
of this rule.
18
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Multiple Style Rules)
• You may need to define multiple style rules for a single element. You can define
these rules to combine multiple properties and corresponding values into a single
block as defined
h1{
color: #36CFFF;
font-weight: normal;
letter-spacing: .4em;
text-transform: #36cff;
}
19
CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Grouping Selectors)
• You can apply a style to many selectors if you like. Just separate the selectors with a comma.
h1 , h2 , h3 {
color: #36CFFF;
font-weight: normal;
letter-spacing: .4em;
text-transform: #36cff;
}
• You can combine various class selectors together as shown below:
#content, #footer , #supplement {
position: absolute;
left: 510px;
width: 200px ;
}
20
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES
21
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (embedded css)
• There are four ways to associate styles with your HTML document. Most
commonly used methods are inline CSS and External CSS.
• You can put your CSS rules into an HTML document using the <style> element.
This tag is placed inside <head>...</head> tags. Rules defined using this
syntax will be applied to all the elements available in the document
<head>
<style type="text/css" media="all"> h1{ color: #36C; } </style>
</head>
22
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (Inline CSS )
• You can use style attribute of any HTML element to define style rules. These
rules will be applied to that element only. Here is the generic syntax:
<h1 style ="color:#36C;"> This is inline CSS </h1>
23
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES ( External CSS )
• The <link> element can be used to include an external stylesheet file in your HTML
document.
• An external style sheet is a separate text file with .css extension. You define all the Style rules
within this text file and then you can include this file in any HTML document using <link>
element.
• Consider a simple style sheet file with a name mystyle.css having the following rules:
h1 , h2 , h3 {
color: #36CFFF;
font-weight: normal;
letter-spacing: .4em;
text-transform: #36cff;
}
• Now you can include this file mystyle.css in any HTML document as follows:
• <head> <link type="text/css" href="mystyle.css" media="all" /> </head>
24
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (Imported CSS )
• Imported CSS - @import Rule:
• @import is used to import an external stylesheet in a manner similar to the <link> element.
Here is the generic syntax of @import rule.
<head> <@import "URL"; </head>
• Here URL is the URL of the style sheet file having style rules. You can use another syntax as
well:
<head> <@import url("URL"); </head>
• EXAMPLE:
• Following is the example showing you how to import a style sheet file into HTML document:
<head> @import "mystyle.css"; </head>
25
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (CSS Rules Overriding)
• We have discussed four ways to include style sheet rules in a an HTML
document. Here is the rule to override any Style Sheet Rule.
• Any inline style sheet takes highest priority. So it will override any rule defined
in <style>...</style> tags or rules defined in any external style sheet file.
• Any rule defined in <style>...</style> tags will override rules defined in any
external style sheet file.
• Any rule defined in external style sheet file takes lowest priority and rules
defined in this file will be applied only when above two rules are not
applicable.
26
CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (CSS Comments)
• Many times you may need to put additional comments in your style sheet
blocks. So it is very easy to comment any part in style sheet. You simple put
your comments inside /*.....this is a comment in style sheet.....*/.
• You can use /* ....*/ to comment multi-line blocks in similar way you do in C
and C++ programming languages.
27
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
28
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
• The background-color property is used to set the background color of an element.
• The background-image property is used to set the background image of an element.
• The background-repeat property is used to control the repetition of an image in the
background
• The background-position property is used to control the position of an image in the
background.
• The background-attachment property is used to control the scrolling of an image in
the background.
• The background property is used as shorthand to specify a number of other
background properties.
29
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
• BACKGROUND COLOR
<p style="background-color:yellow;"> This text has a yellow background color. </p>
• BACKGROUND IMAGE
<table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif);">
<tr><td> This table has background image set. </td></tr>
</table>
30
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
• BACKGROUND IMAGE
• By default background-repeat property will have repeat value.
<table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-repeat: repeat;">
<tr><td> This table has background image which repeats multiple times.
</td></tr>
</table>
31
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
• BACKGROUND IMAGE POSITION
<table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-position:100px;">
<tr><td>
Background image positioned 100 pixels away from the left.
</td></tr>
</table>
<table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif);
background-position:100px 200px;">
<tr><td>
This table has background image positioned 100 pixels away from the left and 200
pixels from the top.
</td></tr>
</table>
32
SETTING BACKGROUNDS
• BACKGROUND ATTACHMENT
• Background attachment determines whether a background image is fixed or
scrolls with the rest of the page.
<p style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-attachment:fixed;">
This parapgraph has fixed background image.
</p>
<p style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-attachment:scroll;">
This parapgraph has scrolling background image. </p>
33
SETTING FONTS
34
SETTING FONTS
• The font-family property is used to change the face of a font.
• The font-style property is used to make a font italic or oblique.
• The font-variant property is used to create a small-caps effect.
• The font-weight property is used to increase or decrease how bold or light a
font appears.
• The font-size property is used to increase or decrease the size of a font.
• The font property is used as shorthand to specify a number of other font
properties.
35
SETTING FONTS
• FONT FAMILY:
• how to set the font family of an element. Possible value could be any font family name.
<p style="font-family:georgia,garamond,serif;">
text is rendered in either georgia, garamond, or the default serif font depending
on which font you have at your system.
</p>
• FONT WEIGHT:
• The font-weight property provides the functionality to specify how bold a font is. Possible
values could be normal, bold, bolder, lighter, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900.
<p style="font-weight:bold;"> This font is bold. </p>
<p style="font-weight:bolder;"> This font is bolder. </p>
<p style="font-weight:900;"> This font is 900 weight. </p>
36
SETTING FONTS
• FONT SIZE:
• The font- size property is used to control the size of fonts. Possible values could be xx-small,
x-small, small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large, smaller, larger, size in pixels or in %
<p style="font-size:20px;"> This font size is 20 pixels </p>
<p style="font-size:small;"> This font size is small </p>
<p style="font-size:large;"> This font size is large </p>
• SHORTHAND PROPERTY:
• You can use the font property to set all the font properties at once.
<p style="font:italic small-caps bold 15px georgia;"> Applying all the properties on the text at once. </p>
37
MANIPULATING TEXT
38
MANIPULATING TEXT
• The color property is used to set the color of a text.
• The direction property is used to set the text direction.
• The letter-spacing property is used to add or subtract space between
the letters that make up a word.
• The word-spacing property is used to add or subtract space between
the words of a sentence.
• The text-align property is used to align the text of a document.
39
MANIPULATING TEXT
• TEXT DIRECTION:
• Possible values are ltr or rtl.
<p style="direction:rtl;"> This text will be renedered from right to left </p>
• SPACE B/W CHARACTERS:
• Possible values are ltr or rtl.
<p style="letter-spacing:5px;"> This text is having space between letters. </p>
• SPACE B/W WORDS:
• Possible values are ltr or rtl.
<p style="word-spacing:5px;"> This text is having space between words. </p>
40
MANIPULATING TEXT
• TEXT ALIGNMENT:
• Possible values are left, right, center, justify..
<p style="text-align:right;"> This will be right aligned. </p>
<p style="text-align:center;"> This will be center aligned. </p>
<p style="text-align:left;"> This will be left aligned. </p>
• WHITE SPACE B/W TEXT:
• Possible values are normal, pre, nowrap
<p style="white-space:pre;">
This text has a line break and the white-space pre setting tells the browser to honor it just
like the HTML pre tag.</p>
41
CSS – IMAGES
42
CSS – IMAGES
• The border property is used to set the width of an image border.
• The height property is used to set the height of an image.
• The width property is used to set the width of an image.
43
CSS – IMAGES
• IMAGE BORDER:
• This property can have a value in length or in %.
• A width of zero pixels means no border.
<img style="border:0px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br />
<img style="border:3px dashed red;" src="/images/css.gif" />
• IMAGE HEIGHT & WIDTH:
• <img style="border:1px solid red; height:100px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br />
• <img style="border:1px solid red; height:50%;“ />
• <img style="border:1px solid red; width:100px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br />
• <img style="border:1px solid red; width:100%;" src="/images/css.gif" />
44
CSS – LINKS
45
CSS – LINKS
• We will revisit same properties when we will discuss Pseudo-Classes
of CSS
• The :link Signifies unvisited hyperlinks.
• The :visited Signifies visited hyperlinks.
• The :hover Signifies an element that currently has the user's mouse pointer
hovering over it.
• The :active Signifies an element on which the user is currently clicking.
46
CSS – LINKS
• Remember a:hover MUST come after a:link and a:visited in the CSS definition
in order to be effective. Also, a:active MUST come after a:hover in the CSS
definition as follows.
<style type="text/css">
a:link {color: #000000}
a:visited {color: #006600}
a:hover {color: #FFCC00}
a:active {color: #FF00CC}
</style>
47
CSS – BOX MODEL
48
CSS – BOX MODEL (Border)
• The border properties allow you to specify how the border of the box
representing an element should look. There are three properties of a border
you can change
• The border-color Specifies the color of a border.
• The border-style Specifies whether a border should be solid, dashed line,
double line, or one of the other possible values.
• The border-width Specifies the width of a border.
49
CSS – BOX MODEL (Border)
<style type="text/css">
p.example1{
border:1px solid;
border-bottom-color:#009900; /* Green */
border-top-color:#FF0000; /* Red */
border-left-color:#330000; /* Black */
border-right-color:#0000CC; /* Blue */
}
p.example2{
border:1px solid;
border-color:#009900; /* Green */
}
</style>
<p class="example1"> This example is showing all borders in different colors. </p>
<p class="example2"> This example is showing all borders in green color only. </p>
50
CSS – BOX MODEL (Border)
• BORDER-STYLE:
• The border-style property allows you to select one of the following styles of border:
• none: No border. (Equivalent of border-width:0;)
• solid: Border is a single solid line.
• dotted: Border is a series of dots.
• dashed: Border is a series of short lines.
• double: Border is two solid lines.
• groove: Border looks as though it is carved into the page.
• ridge: Border looks the opposite of groove.
• inset: Border makes the box look like it is embedded in the page.
• outset: Border makes the box look like it is coming out of the canvas.
• hidden: Same as none, except in terms of border-conflict resolution for table
elements.
51
CSS – BOX MODEL (Border)
• You can individually change the style of the bottom, left, top, and right
borders of an element using following properties:
• border-bottom-style changes the style of bottom border.
• border-top-style changes the style of top border.
• border-left-style changes the style of left border.
• border-right-style changes the style of right border.
<p style="border-width:4px; border-style:none;"> This is a border with none width. </p>
<p style="border-width:4px; border-style:solid;"> This is a solid border. </p>
<p style="border-width:4px; border-style:dashed;"> This is a dahsed border. </p>
52
CSS – BOX MODEL (Border)
• BORDER PROPERTIES USING SHORTHAND
• The border property allows you to specify color, style, and width of lines in
one property:
• You can use all the three properties into a single property. This is the most
frequently used property to set border around any element.
• <p style="border:4px solid red;"> This example is showing shorthand property for border.
</p>
53
CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin)
• The margin property defines the space around an HTML element. It is
possible to use negative values to overlap content.
• The values of the margin property are not inherited by child elements.
Remember that the adjacent vertical margins (top and bottom margins) will
collapse into each other so that the distance between the blocks is not the
sum of the margins, but only the greater of the two margins or the same size
as one margin if both are equal.
• There are following four properties to set an element margin.
• The margin A shorthand property for setting the margin properties in one declaration.
• The margin-bottom Specifies the bottom margin of an element.
• The margin-top Specifies the top margin of an element.
• The margin-left Specifies the left margin of an element.
• The margin-right Specifies the right margin of an element.
54
CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin)
• MARGIN PROPERTY:
• The margin property allows you set all of the properties for the four margins
in one declaration. Here is the syntax to set margin around a paragraph:
<style type="text/css"> p {margin: 15px} all four margins will be 15px
• p {margin: 10px 2%}
• top and bottom margin will be 10px, left and right margin will be 2% of the
total width of the document.
• p {margin: 10px 2% -10px} top margin will be 10px, left and right margin will
be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom margin will be -10px
• p {margin: 10px 2% -10px auto}
• top margin will be 10px, right margin will be 2% of the total width of the
document, bottom margin will be -10px, left margin will be set by the browser
55
CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin)
• MARGIN-BOTTOM PROPERTY :
• The margin-bottom property allows you set bottom margin of an element. It
can have a value in length, % or auto.
<p style="margin-bottom: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified bottom margin
</p>
• MARGIN-TOP PROPERTY :
<p style="margin-top: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified top margin
</p>
56
CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin)
• MARGIN-LEFT PROPERTY :
• The margin-left property allows you set left margin of an element. It can have
a value in length, % or auto.
<p style="margin-left: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified left margin
</p>
• MARGIN-RIGHT PROPERTY :
<p style="margin-right: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified right margin
</p>
57
CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings)
• The padding property allows you to specify how much space should appear
between the content of an element and its border:
• There are following five CSS properties which can be used to control lists:
• The value of this attribute should be either a length, a percentage, or the
word inherit. If the value is inherit it will have the same padding as its parent
element. If a percentage is used, the percentage is of the containing box.
• You can also set different values for the padding on each side of the box using
the following properties:
• The padding-bottom Specifies the bottom padding of an element.
• The padding-top Specifies the top padding of an element.
• The padding-left Specifies the left padding of an element.
• The padding-right Specifies the right padding of an element.
• The padding Serves as shorthand for the preceding properties.
58
CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings)
• PADDING-BOTTON PROPERTY:
• The padding-bottom property sets the bottom padding (space) of an element. This can take a
value in terms of length of %.
• <p style="padding-bottom: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
• This is a paragraph with a specified bottom padding
• </p>
• PADDING-TOP PROPERTY:
<p style="padding-top: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified top padding
</p>
59
CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings)
• PADDING-LEFT PROPERTY:
• The padding-left property sets the left padding (space) of an element. This
can take a value in terms of length of %.
<p style="padding-left: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified left padding
</p>
• PADDING-RIGHT PROPERTY:
<p style="padding-right: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
This is a paragraph with a specified right padding
</p>
60
CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings)
• PADDING PROPERTY:
• The padding property sets the left, right, top and bottom padding (space) of an element. This can take a value
in terms of length of %.
<p style="padding: 15px; border:1px solid black;">
all four padding will be 15px
</p>
<p style="padding:10px 2%; border:1px solid black
top and bottom padding will be 10px, left and right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document.
</p>
<p style="padding: 10px 2% 10px; border:1px solid black;">
top padding will be 10px, left and right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom padding will be 10px
</p>
<p style="padding: 10px 2% 10px 10px; border:1px solid black;">
top padding will be 10px, right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom padding and top padding will be
10px
</p>
61
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Complete Lecture on Css presentation

  • 2. TOPIC ‘s TO BE COVERED • CSS Introduction • CSS Syntax – Selectors • CSS Inclusion - Associating Styles • Setting Backgrounds using CSS • Setting Fonts using CSS • Manipulating Text using CSS • CSS – Images • CSS – Links • CSS – Box Model 2
  • 4. CSS INTRODUCTION • Cascading Style Sheets, fondly referred to as CSS, is a simple design language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable. • CSS handles the look and feel part of a web page. Using CSS, you can control the color of the text, the style of fonts, the spacing between paragraphs, how columns are sized and laid out, what background images or colors are used, as well as a variety of other effects. • CSS is easy to learn and understand but it provides powerful control over the presentation of an HTML document. Most commonly, CSS is combined with the markup languages HTML or XHTML. 4
  • 5. CSS INTRODUCTION (Advantages of CSS) • CSS SAVE TIME • You can write CSS once and then reuse same sheet in multiple HTML pages. You can define a style for each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want. • PAGES LOAD FASTER • If you are using CSS, you do not need to write HTML tag attributes every time. Just write one CSS rule of a tag and apply to all the occurrences of that tag. So less code means faster download times. • EASY MAINTENANCE • To make a global change, simply change the style, and all elements in all the web pages will be updated automatically. 5
  • 6. CSS INTRODUCTION (Advantages of CSS) • SUPERIOR STYLES TO HTML • CSS has a much wider array of attributes than HTML so you can give far better look to your HTML page in comparison of HTML attributes. • MULTIPLE DEVICE COMPATIBILITY • Style sheets allow content to be optimized for more than one type of device. By using the same HTML document, different versions of a website can be presented for handheld devices such as PDAs and cell phones or for printing. • GLOBAL WEB STANDARDS • Now HTML attributes are being deprecated and it is being recommended to use CSS. So its a good idea to start using CSS in all the HTML pages to make them compatible to future browsers. 6
  • 7. CSS INTRODUCTION (Who Creates and Maintains CSS) • CSS is created and maintained through a group of people within the W3C called the CSS Working Group. The CSS Working Group creates documents called specifications. When a specification has been discussed and officially ratified by W3C members, it becomes a recommendation. • These ratified specifications are called recommendations because the W3C has no control over the actual implementation of the language. Independent companies and organizations create that software. • NOTE: The World Wide Web Association, or W3C is a group that makes recommendations about how the Internet works and how it should evolve. 7
  • 8. CSS INTRODUCTION (CSS Versions) • Cascading Style Sheets, level 1 (CSS1) was came out of W3C as a recommendation in December 1996. This version describes the CSS language as well as a simple visual formatting model for all the HTML tags. • CSS2 was became a W3C recommendation in May 1998 and builds on CSS1. This version adds support for media-specific style sheets e.g. printers and aural devices, downloadable fonts, element positioning and tables. 8
  • 9. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS 9
  • 10. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS • A CSS comprises of style rules that are interpreted by the browser and then applied to the corresponding elements in your document. A style rule is made of three parts: • SELECTOR: • A selector is an HTML tag at which style will be applied. This could be any tag like <h1> or <table> etc. • PROPERTY: • A property is a type of attribute of HTML tag. Put simply, all the HTML attributes are converted into CSS properties. They could be color or border etc. • VALUE: • Values are assigned to properties. For example color property can have value either red or #F1F1F1 etc. 10
  • 11. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Syntax) • You can put CSS Style Rule Syntax as follows: selector { property: value } • Example: • You can define a table border as follows: table{ border :1px solid #C00; } 11
  • 12. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Type Selectors) • This is the same selector we have seen above. Again one more example to give a color to all level 1 headings : h1 { color: #36CFFF; } 12
  • 13. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Universal Selectors) • Rather than selecting elements of a specific type, the universal selector quite simply matches the name of any element type * { color: #36CFFF; } • This rule renders the content of every element in our document in black. 13
  • 14. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Descendant Selectors) • Suppose you want to apply a style rule to a particular element only when it lies inside a particular element. As given in the following example, style rule will apply to <em> element only when it lies inside <ul> tag. ul em{ color: #36CFFF; } 14
  • 15. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Class Selectors) • You can define style rules based on the class attribute of the elements. All the elements having that class will be formatted according to the defined rule. .black { color: #36CFFF; } H1.black { color: green; } 15
  • 16. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Class Selectors) • This rule renders the content in black for only <h1> elements with class attribute set to black. • You can apply more than one class selectors to given element. <p class= "center bold“ >This para will be styled by the classes center and bold. </p> 16
  • 17. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (ID Selectors) • This rule renders the content in black for every element with id attribute set to black in our document. You can make it a bit more particular. #black {color: #36CFFF;} h1#black {color: #36CFFF;} • The true power of id selectors is when they are used as the ground work for descendant selectors #black h2 {color: #36CFFF;} • In this example all level 2 headings will be displayed in black color only when those headings will lie with in tags having id attribute set to black. 17
  • 18. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Child Selectors) • You have seen descendant selectors. There is one more type of selectors which is very similar to descendants but have different functionality Body> p {color: #36CFFF; } • This rule will render all the paragraphs in black if they are direct child of <body> element. Other paragraphs put inside other elements like <div> or <td> etc. would not have any effect of this rule. 18
  • 19. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Multiple Style Rules) • You may need to define multiple style rules for a single element. You can define these rules to combine multiple properties and corresponding values into a single block as defined h1{ color: #36CFFF; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; text-transform: #36cff; } 19
  • 20. CSS SYNTAX – SELECTORS (Grouping Selectors) • You can apply a style to many selectors if you like. Just separate the selectors with a comma. h1 , h2 , h3 { color: #36CFFF; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; text-transform: #36cff; } • You can combine various class selectors together as shown below: #content, #footer , #supplement { position: absolute; left: 510px; width: 200px ; } 20
  • 21. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES 21
  • 22. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (embedded css) • There are four ways to associate styles with your HTML document. Most commonly used methods are inline CSS and External CSS. • You can put your CSS rules into an HTML document using the <style> element. This tag is placed inside <head>...</head> tags. Rules defined using this syntax will be applied to all the elements available in the document <head> <style type="text/css" media="all"> h1{ color: #36C; } </style> </head> 22
  • 23. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (Inline CSS ) • You can use style attribute of any HTML element to define style rules. These rules will be applied to that element only. Here is the generic syntax: <h1 style ="color:#36C;"> This is inline CSS </h1> 23
  • 24. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES ( External CSS ) • The <link> element can be used to include an external stylesheet file in your HTML document. • An external style sheet is a separate text file with .css extension. You define all the Style rules within this text file and then you can include this file in any HTML document using <link> element. • Consider a simple style sheet file with a name mystyle.css having the following rules: h1 , h2 , h3 { color: #36CFFF; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: .4em; text-transform: #36cff; } • Now you can include this file mystyle.css in any HTML document as follows: • <head> <link type="text/css" href="mystyle.css" media="all" /> </head> 24
  • 25. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (Imported CSS ) • Imported CSS - @import Rule: • @import is used to import an external stylesheet in a manner similar to the <link> element. Here is the generic syntax of @import rule. <head> <@import "URL"; </head> • Here URL is the URL of the style sheet file having style rules. You can use another syntax as well: <head> <@import url("URL"); </head> • EXAMPLE: • Following is the example showing you how to import a style sheet file into HTML document: <head> @import "mystyle.css"; </head> 25
  • 26. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (CSS Rules Overriding) • We have discussed four ways to include style sheet rules in a an HTML document. Here is the rule to override any Style Sheet Rule. • Any inline style sheet takes highest priority. So it will override any rule defined in <style>...</style> tags or rules defined in any external style sheet file. • Any rule defined in <style>...</style> tags will override rules defined in any external style sheet file. • Any rule defined in external style sheet file takes lowest priority and rules defined in this file will be applied only when above two rules are not applicable. 26
  • 27. CSS INCLUSION – ASSOIATING STYLES (CSS Comments) • Many times you may need to put additional comments in your style sheet blocks. So it is very easy to comment any part in style sheet. You simple put your comments inside /*.....this is a comment in style sheet.....*/. • You can use /* ....*/ to comment multi-line blocks in similar way you do in C and C++ programming languages. 27
  • 29. SETTING BACKGROUNDS • The background-color property is used to set the background color of an element. • The background-image property is used to set the background image of an element. • The background-repeat property is used to control the repetition of an image in the background • The background-position property is used to control the position of an image in the background. • The background-attachment property is used to control the scrolling of an image in the background. • The background property is used as shorthand to specify a number of other background properties. 29
  • 30. SETTING BACKGROUNDS • BACKGROUND COLOR <p style="background-color:yellow;"> This text has a yellow background color. </p> • BACKGROUND IMAGE <table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif);"> <tr><td> This table has background image set. </td></tr> </table> 30
  • 31. SETTING BACKGROUNDS • BACKGROUND IMAGE • By default background-repeat property will have repeat value. <table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-repeat: repeat;"> <tr><td> This table has background image which repeats multiple times. </td></tr> </table> 31
  • 32. SETTING BACKGROUNDS • BACKGROUND IMAGE POSITION <table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-position:100px;"> <tr><td> Background image positioned 100 pixels away from the left. </td></tr> </table> <table style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-position:100px 200px;"> <tr><td> This table has background image positioned 100 pixels away from the left and 200 pixels from the top. </td></tr> </table> 32
  • 33. SETTING BACKGROUNDS • BACKGROUND ATTACHMENT • Background attachment determines whether a background image is fixed or scrolls with the rest of the page. <p style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-attachment:fixed;"> This parapgraph has fixed background image. </p> <p style="background-image:url(/images/pattern1.gif); background-attachment:scroll;"> This parapgraph has scrolling background image. </p> 33
  • 35. SETTING FONTS • The font-family property is used to change the face of a font. • The font-style property is used to make a font italic or oblique. • The font-variant property is used to create a small-caps effect. • The font-weight property is used to increase or decrease how bold or light a font appears. • The font-size property is used to increase or decrease the size of a font. • The font property is used as shorthand to specify a number of other font properties. 35
  • 36. SETTING FONTS • FONT FAMILY: • how to set the font family of an element. Possible value could be any font family name. <p style="font-family:georgia,garamond,serif;"> text is rendered in either georgia, garamond, or the default serif font depending on which font you have at your system. </p> • FONT WEIGHT: • The font-weight property provides the functionality to specify how bold a font is. Possible values could be normal, bold, bolder, lighter, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900. <p style="font-weight:bold;"> This font is bold. </p> <p style="font-weight:bolder;"> This font is bolder. </p> <p style="font-weight:900;"> This font is 900 weight. </p> 36
  • 37. SETTING FONTS • FONT SIZE: • The font- size property is used to control the size of fonts. Possible values could be xx-small, x-small, small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large, smaller, larger, size in pixels or in % <p style="font-size:20px;"> This font size is 20 pixels </p> <p style="font-size:small;"> This font size is small </p> <p style="font-size:large;"> This font size is large </p> • SHORTHAND PROPERTY: • You can use the font property to set all the font properties at once. <p style="font:italic small-caps bold 15px georgia;"> Applying all the properties on the text at once. </p> 37
  • 39. MANIPULATING TEXT • The color property is used to set the color of a text. • The direction property is used to set the text direction. • The letter-spacing property is used to add or subtract space between the letters that make up a word. • The word-spacing property is used to add or subtract space between the words of a sentence. • The text-align property is used to align the text of a document. 39
  • 40. MANIPULATING TEXT • TEXT DIRECTION: • Possible values are ltr or rtl. <p style="direction:rtl;"> This text will be renedered from right to left </p> • SPACE B/W CHARACTERS: • Possible values are ltr or rtl. <p style="letter-spacing:5px;"> This text is having space between letters. </p> • SPACE B/W WORDS: • Possible values are ltr or rtl. <p style="word-spacing:5px;"> This text is having space between words. </p> 40
  • 41. MANIPULATING TEXT • TEXT ALIGNMENT: • Possible values are left, right, center, justify.. <p style="text-align:right;"> This will be right aligned. </p> <p style="text-align:center;"> This will be center aligned. </p> <p style="text-align:left;"> This will be left aligned. </p> • WHITE SPACE B/W TEXT: • Possible values are normal, pre, nowrap <p style="white-space:pre;"> This text has a line break and the white-space pre setting tells the browser to honor it just like the HTML pre tag.</p> 41
  • 43. CSS – IMAGES • The border property is used to set the width of an image border. • The height property is used to set the height of an image. • The width property is used to set the width of an image. 43
  • 44. CSS – IMAGES • IMAGE BORDER: • This property can have a value in length or in %. • A width of zero pixels means no border. <img style="border:0px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br /> <img style="border:3px dashed red;" src="/images/css.gif" /> • IMAGE HEIGHT & WIDTH: • <img style="border:1px solid red; height:100px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br /> • <img style="border:1px solid red; height:50%;“ /> • <img style="border:1px solid red; width:100px;" src="/images/css.gif" /> <br /> • <img style="border:1px solid red; width:100%;" src="/images/css.gif" /> 44
  • 46. CSS – LINKS • We will revisit same properties when we will discuss Pseudo-Classes of CSS • The :link Signifies unvisited hyperlinks. • The :visited Signifies visited hyperlinks. • The :hover Signifies an element that currently has the user's mouse pointer hovering over it. • The :active Signifies an element on which the user is currently clicking. 46
  • 47. CSS – LINKS • Remember a:hover MUST come after a:link and a:visited in the CSS definition in order to be effective. Also, a:active MUST come after a:hover in the CSS definition as follows. <style type="text/css"> a:link {color: #000000} a:visited {color: #006600} a:hover {color: #FFCC00} a:active {color: #FF00CC} </style> 47
  • 48. CSS – BOX MODEL 48
  • 49. CSS – BOX MODEL (Border) • The border properties allow you to specify how the border of the box representing an element should look. There are three properties of a border you can change • The border-color Specifies the color of a border. • The border-style Specifies whether a border should be solid, dashed line, double line, or one of the other possible values. • The border-width Specifies the width of a border. 49
  • 50. CSS – BOX MODEL (Border) <style type="text/css"> p.example1{ border:1px solid; border-bottom-color:#009900; /* Green */ border-top-color:#FF0000; /* Red */ border-left-color:#330000; /* Black */ border-right-color:#0000CC; /* Blue */ } p.example2{ border:1px solid; border-color:#009900; /* Green */ } </style> <p class="example1"> This example is showing all borders in different colors. </p> <p class="example2"> This example is showing all borders in green color only. </p> 50
  • 51. CSS – BOX MODEL (Border) • BORDER-STYLE: • The border-style property allows you to select one of the following styles of border: • none: No border. (Equivalent of border-width:0;) • solid: Border is a single solid line. • dotted: Border is a series of dots. • dashed: Border is a series of short lines. • double: Border is two solid lines. • groove: Border looks as though it is carved into the page. • ridge: Border looks the opposite of groove. • inset: Border makes the box look like it is embedded in the page. • outset: Border makes the box look like it is coming out of the canvas. • hidden: Same as none, except in terms of border-conflict resolution for table elements. 51
  • 52. CSS – BOX MODEL (Border) • You can individually change the style of the bottom, left, top, and right borders of an element using following properties: • border-bottom-style changes the style of bottom border. • border-top-style changes the style of top border. • border-left-style changes the style of left border. • border-right-style changes the style of right border. <p style="border-width:4px; border-style:none;"> This is a border with none width. </p> <p style="border-width:4px; border-style:solid;"> This is a solid border. </p> <p style="border-width:4px; border-style:dashed;"> This is a dahsed border. </p> 52
  • 53. CSS – BOX MODEL (Border) • BORDER PROPERTIES USING SHORTHAND • The border property allows you to specify color, style, and width of lines in one property: • You can use all the three properties into a single property. This is the most frequently used property to set border around any element. • <p style="border:4px solid red;"> This example is showing shorthand property for border. </p> 53
  • 54. CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin) • The margin property defines the space around an HTML element. It is possible to use negative values to overlap content. • The values of the margin property are not inherited by child elements. Remember that the adjacent vertical margins (top and bottom margins) will collapse into each other so that the distance between the blocks is not the sum of the margins, but only the greater of the two margins or the same size as one margin if both are equal. • There are following four properties to set an element margin. • The margin A shorthand property for setting the margin properties in one declaration. • The margin-bottom Specifies the bottom margin of an element. • The margin-top Specifies the top margin of an element. • The margin-left Specifies the left margin of an element. • The margin-right Specifies the right margin of an element. 54
  • 55. CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin) • MARGIN PROPERTY: • The margin property allows you set all of the properties for the four margins in one declaration. Here is the syntax to set margin around a paragraph: <style type="text/css"> p {margin: 15px} all four margins will be 15px • p {margin: 10px 2%} • top and bottom margin will be 10px, left and right margin will be 2% of the total width of the document. • p {margin: 10px 2% -10px} top margin will be 10px, left and right margin will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom margin will be -10px • p {margin: 10px 2% -10px auto} • top margin will be 10px, right margin will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom margin will be -10px, left margin will be set by the browser 55
  • 56. CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin) • MARGIN-BOTTOM PROPERTY : • The margin-bottom property allows you set bottom margin of an element. It can have a value in length, % or auto. <p style="margin-bottom: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified bottom margin </p> • MARGIN-TOP PROPERTY : <p style="margin-top: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified top margin </p> 56
  • 57. CSS – BOX MODEL (Margin) • MARGIN-LEFT PROPERTY : • The margin-left property allows you set left margin of an element. It can have a value in length, % or auto. <p style="margin-left: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified left margin </p> • MARGIN-RIGHT PROPERTY : <p style="margin-right: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified right margin </p> 57
  • 58. CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings) • The padding property allows you to specify how much space should appear between the content of an element and its border: • There are following five CSS properties which can be used to control lists: • The value of this attribute should be either a length, a percentage, or the word inherit. If the value is inherit it will have the same padding as its parent element. If a percentage is used, the percentage is of the containing box. • You can also set different values for the padding on each side of the box using the following properties: • The padding-bottom Specifies the bottom padding of an element. • The padding-top Specifies the top padding of an element. • The padding-left Specifies the left padding of an element. • The padding-right Specifies the right padding of an element. • The padding Serves as shorthand for the preceding properties. 58
  • 59. CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings) • PADDING-BOTTON PROPERTY: • The padding-bottom property sets the bottom padding (space) of an element. This can take a value in terms of length of %. • <p style="padding-bottom: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> • This is a paragraph with a specified bottom padding • </p> • PADDING-TOP PROPERTY: <p style="padding-top: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified top padding </p> 59
  • 60. CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings) • PADDING-LEFT PROPERTY: • The padding-left property sets the left padding (space) of an element. This can take a value in terms of length of %. <p style="padding-left: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified left padding </p> • PADDING-RIGHT PROPERTY: <p style="padding-right: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> This is a paragraph with a specified right padding </p> 60
  • 61. CSS – BOX MODEL (Paddings) • PADDING PROPERTY: • The padding property sets the left, right, top and bottom padding (space) of an element. This can take a value in terms of length of %. <p style="padding: 15px; border:1px solid black;"> all four padding will be 15px </p> <p style="padding:10px 2%; border:1px solid black top and bottom padding will be 10px, left and right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document. </p> <p style="padding: 10px 2% 10px; border:1px solid black;"> top padding will be 10px, left and right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom padding will be 10px </p> <p style="padding: 10px 2% 10px 10px; border:1px solid black;"> top padding will be 10px, right padding will be 2% of the total width of the document, bottom padding and top padding will be 10px </p> 61