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Geotechnical engineering, civil engineering

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it was may be used for civil as well as geo-technical engineering students.most of them i copied from internet.
thank you.

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
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Geotechnical engineering, civil engineering

  2. 2.  ?  ?  ?  ?  Geotechnical engineering can be defined as a branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of the earth's materials.  The knowledge of theoretical geotechnical engineering, assuming the soil to be an ideal elastic isotropic and homogeneous material, helps in predicting the behaviour of the soil in the field.
  3. 3. WHAT IT IS INCLUDES ? It includes investigating existing subsurface conditions and materials. determining their physical/mechanical and chemical properties that are relevant to the project considered and assessing the risks posed by site conditions. designing earthworks and structure foundations and monitoring site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.
  4. 4. HISTORY : 1) Knowledge of the use of soil extends into prehistoric times, when man started constructing dwellings for living and roads for transportation. 2) Humans have historically used soil as a material for flood control, irrigation purposes, burial sites, building foundations and as construction material for buildings. 3) Classical geotechnical mechanics began in 1773 with Charles Coulomb's introduction of mechanics to soil problems.
  5. 5.  APPLICATIONS : The civil engineer has many diverse important encounters with soil. some of the applications are prescribed below. 1) FOUNDATION DESIGNING Foundation is a very important element of all civil engineering structures. All civil engineering structures like buildings, dams, bridges, retaining walls, walls, canals, tunnels or pillars are founded in or on the surface of the earth. it is necessary to understand the bearing capacity of the soil, effect of ground water and vibration.
  6. 6. 2) PAVEMENT DESIGN : pavement: Cover with a material such as stone or concrete to make suitable for vehicle traffic Pavement can be either flexible or rigid, and its performance depends upon the subsoil on which it rests. the thickness of pavement and its component parts depends upon certain characteristics of the subsoil, which should be determined before the design is made.
  7. 7. 3) Design of earth-retaining structures and under ground : 1) The design and construction of underground and earth-retaining structures constitute an important phase of engineering. 2) The underground structures include tunnels, underground buildings, drainage structures and pipelines. A thorough knowledge of geotechnical engineering is essential to design gravity-retaining walls, tunnels, underground buildings, etc. subjected to soil loadings.
  8. 8. Design of embankments and excavations : 1) When the surface of the soil structure is not horizontal, the component of gravity tends to move the soil downward, and may disturb the stability of the earth structure. 2) The possibility of seeping groundwater reducing the soil strength while excavating must also be taken into account. Sometimes, it is required to drain the subsoil water to increase the soil strength and to reduce the seepage forces. 3) Deep excavation requires lateral braces and sheet walls to prevent caving in.
  9. 9. Design of earth dams : 1) The construction of an earth dam requires a very thorough knowledge of geotechnical engineering. 2) As soil is used as the only construction material in an earth dam, which may be either homogeneous or of composite section. 3) its design involves the determination of the physical properties of soil such as the index properties, such as density, plasticity characteristics and specific gravity, particle size distribution and gradation of the soil etc.,
  10. 10. Investigations on geo-technical engineering can include assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rock falls.
  11. 11.  Failures without considering geo-technical engineering. One of he example is: 1) Shrinkage of roads , buildings and other civil engineering structures.
  12. 12.  Conclusion : By knowing about the geo-technical engineering we can improve the durability of any civil engineering structures.
  13. 13. THANK YOU
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