Technology Transfer Scientist um Zydus Health care Ltd
Gesundheit & Medizin
These are the tests performed between QA and QC and provides for the authorization of approved raw materials for manufacturing based on actual laboratory testing generally called as IPQC such as physical, chemical, microbiologic and biologic tests.
In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) For Parenteral or Sterile Dosage Forms
In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) For Parenteral or Sterile Dosage Forms
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In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) For Parenteral
or Sterile Dosage Forms
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In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) For Parenteral
or Sterile Dosage Forms
Mr. Sagar Kishor Savale
M. Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
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It is a route of administration other than the oral route, this route of administration
bypasses the alimentary canal.
It includes, I.V., I. M., Subcutaneous route for parenteral administration.
Types of Parenteral
1. Based on types of packaging
a) Single dose units: ampoules, infusions and prefilled disposable syringes.
b) Multiple dose units: multiple dose vials.
2. Based on the production and control
a) Small volume parenterals: volume < 100 ml,
b) Large volume parenterals: volume ≥ 100 ml,
In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for Sterile Dosage Form
Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so
that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.
Quality Control: The procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured
product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the
requirements of the client or customer.
IPQC means controlling the procedures involved in manufacturing of the dosage forms
starting from raw materials purchase to dispatch of the quality product in ideal packaging.
It monitors all the features of the product that may affect its quality and prevents errors
These are the tests performed between QA and QC and provides for the authorization of
approved raw materials for manufacturing based on actual laboratory testing generally
called as IPQC such as physical, chemical, microbiologic and biologic tests.
IPQC is concerned with providing accurate, specific & definite descriptions of the
procedures to be employed, from, the receipt of raw materials to the release of the finished
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1. Leakage Test (visual inspection, bubble test, dye tests and vacuum ionization test)
Leakage test is employed to test the package integrity. Package integrity reflects its ability to
keep the product in and to keep potential contamination out”. It is because leakage occurs when
a discontinuity exists in the wall of a package that can allow the passage of gas under pressure
or concentration differential existing across the wall. Leakage test can be done by dye bath test.
Dye Bath Test
The test container is immersed in a dye bath. Vacuum and pressure is applied for some time.
The container is removed from the dye bath and washed. The container is then inspected for
the presence of dye either visually or by means of UV spectroscopy. The dye used may be of
blue, green, yellowish-green color. The dye test can be optimized by use of a surfactant and or
a low viscosity fluid in the dye solution to increase the capillary migration through the pores.
The dye test is widely accepted in industry and is approved in drug use. The test is inexpensive
and is requires no special equipment required for visual dye detection. However, the test is
qualitative, destructive and slow. The test is used for ampoules and vials.
2. Clarity Test
Clarity testing is carried out to check the particulate matter in the sample. In this test transparent
particles or white particles observed against the black background and the black or dark
particles observed against the white background.
Checking the bulk solution, before filling for drug content, pH, color, clarity and completeness
The pH of a formulation must be considered from following standpoint:
The effect on the body when the solution is administered
The effect on stability of the product
The effect on container-closure system
pH is measured by using a pH meter .
pH meter is initially calibrated with respective buffer capsule then the pH of the
preparation is measured.
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4. Particulate matter in injections
The preparations intended for parenteral use should be free from particulate matter and should
be clear when inspected visually. Two methods are described by USP according to the filled
volume of the product to be tested. For large volume parenterals (LVP's), a filtration followed
by microscopical examination procedure is used. For small volume parenterals (SVP's) a light
obscuration based sensor containing electronic liquid borne particle counter system is used.
The USP standards are met if the LVP's under test contain NMT 50 particles per ml of 10μ m,
and NMT 5 particles per ml of 25μm in an effective linear dimensional fashion. The USP
standards are met if the SVP's under test contain NMT 10,000 particles per container of 10 μm,
and NMT 1000 particles per container of 25μm in an effective spherical diameter.
Table 1: Limits for particle number as per IP, BP, EP and JP
Volume of solution Particle
size ≥ 10
Small volume injections
(< 100 ml)
Large volume injections
(> 100 ml)
12 per ml 2 per ml
5. Sterility Test
Sterility can be defined as the freedom from the presence of viable microorganisms.
It is done for detecting the presence of viable forms of bacteria, fungi and yeast in
The test for Sterility must be carried out under strict aseptic conditions in order to avoid
accidental contamination of the product during test.
All glassware's required for the test must be Sterile.
Sterility testing attempts to reveal the presence or absence of viable microorganisms in
a sample number of containers taken from batch of product.
Based on results obtained from testing the sample a decision is made as to the sterility
of the batch.
Major factors of importance in sterility testing:
The environment in which the test is conducted
The quality of the culture conditions provided
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The test method
The sample size
The sampling procedure
Environmental conditions avoid accidental contamination of the product during the test.
The test is carried out under aseptic conditions regular microbiological monitoring
should be carried out.
Appropriate conditions for the growth of any surviving organism should be provided
by the culture media selection.
Factors affecting growth of bacteria:
Culture media used for sterility testing:
1. Fluid thioglycolate medium
2. Soybean casein digest medium
1. Fluid thioglycolate medium (FTM):
FTM provides both aerobic and anaerobic environments within the same medium.
FTM is an excellent medium for the detection of bacterial contamination.
Thioglycolate has the advantage of neutralizing the bacteriostatic properties of
L-cysteine, trypticase peptone, dextrose, yeast extract, sodium chloride, sodium
thioglycolate, resazurin, agar, purified water, final pH 7.1
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Specific role of some ingredients primarily intended for the culture of anaerobic
Incubation of the media: 14 days at 30 -35°C
2. Soybean casein digest medium:
Soya-bean casein digest medium primarily intended for the culture of both fungi and
aerobic bacteria specific role of some ingredients.
Incubation of the media: 14 days at 20 -25°C
Trypticase soya broth, trypticase peptone, phytone peptone, sodium chloride, dipotassium
phosphate, dextrose, purified water, final pH 7.3
Sterility test methods
 Direct inoculation method
 Membrane filtration method
 Membrane filtration methods
Selection of filters for membrane filtration:
Pore size of 0.45µ effectiveness established in the retention of microorganism’s appropriate
composition the size of filter discs is about 50 mm in diameter
The procedure of membrane filtration
Sterilization of filtration system and membrane filtration of examined solution under
Filtration of the sample through a membrane filter having the nominal size of 0.45µ
and a diameter of 47mm.
After filtration the membrane is removed aseptically from the metallic holder and
divided into two halves.
The first half is transferred into 100 ml of culture media meant for fungi and
incubated at 20˚ to 25 ˚c for not less than seven days.
The other half is transferred into 100ml of fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated
at 30 to 35 ˚c for not less than 7 days.
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Advantages of membrane filtration over direct inoculation method Greater sensitivity
The entire contents can be tested providing an advantage in the sterility testing of
LVP and increasing the ability to detect contamination.
The antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial solutes in the product sample can be
eliminated by rinsing prior transferring the filter into test tubes of media
Thereby minimizing the incidence of false-negative test results.
Organisms present in an oleaginous product can be separated from the product during
filtration and cultured in a more desirable aqueous medium.
This method cannot differentiate the extent of contamination between units if present
because all product contents are combined and filtered through a single filter and
cultured in single test tube.
There exists a higher probability of inadvertent contamination in manual operations.
Samples size to be taken
 Direct inoculation method
Required quantities of liquid is removed from the test containers with a sterile pipette /
Aseptically transfer the specified volume of the material from each container to vessel
of culture medium
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Mix the liquid with medium but not aerate excessively.
Incubate the inoculated media for not less than 14 days, unless otherwise specified in
the monograph at 300c - 350c in the case of fluid thioglycolate medium and 200c - 250
c for soybean casein digest medium.
When materials examined renders the medium turbid so presence / absence of microbial
growth cannot be determined readily by visual examination transfer suitable portions
of medium to fresh vessels of the same medium between 3 rd. and 7 th day after test is
Continue incubation of the transfer vessel for not less than 7 additional days after
transfer and total of NLT 14 days.
Interpretation of results
At the end of the incubation period the following observations are possible:
No evidence of growth; hence the preparation being examined passes the test for
If there is evidence of growth, retesting is performed using the same number of samples,
volumes to be tested and the media as in the original test. If no evidence of microbial
growth is then found, the preparation being examined passes the test for sterility.
If there is again evidence of the microbial growth then isolate and identify the
organisms. If they are not readily distinguishable from those growing in the containers
of the first test then the preparation being examined fails the test for sterility.
If they are distinguishable from the organisms of the first test then again do the test
using twice the number of samples. The preparation being examined passes the test for
sterility in case there is no evidence of microbial growth. In case there is evidence of
growth of any microorganisms in second re –test, the preparation being examined fails
the tests for sterility.
Test for packaging containers
Powdered glass Test:
Use crushed glass containers in 250-ml conical flask, add 50 ml high purity water, and
cap the flask with borosilicate glass beaker
Place the containers in the autoclave and close it securely hold temperature at
1210c±20c for 30 min., counting from the time this temperature is reached.
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Cool the flask, decant the water from the flask into a clean vessel, and wash the
residual powdered glass with high purity water, add 5 drops methyl red solution,
titrate immediately with 0.02 N sulphuric acid.
Record the volume of 0.02N Sulphuric acid used to neutralize the extract from 10 g of
the prepared specimen of glass.
Water attack at 121°C
Rinse 3 or more containers with high purity water. Fill each container to 90% of its
capacity with high purity water.
Cap all the flasks with borosilicate glass beaker, place in the autoclave at 121 C for 60
Test for plastics
Leakage test: 10 containers are filled with the parenteral fluid and inverted for 24 hrs. And
checked for any leakage.
Transparency: Dilute the preparations and compare the cloudiness with the control that is
Water vapour permeability: Containers stored at 20-25o c at 60±5% Rh for 14 days and
check for water vapour permeability.
Rubber closure tests
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Clarity and color
Labels and labelling
The label states the name of the preparation (in case of a liquid preparation)
The percentage content of drug in a specified volume (in case of dry preparation)
The route of administration
Name of the manufacturer
The lot number
Containers for injection that are intended for use as dialysis, or irrigation solution are
labelled to indicate that the contents are not intended for use by IV infusion.
Injection intended for veterinary use are labelled to that effect the containers are so
labelled that a sufficient area of the container remains uncovered for its full length to
permit inspection of the contents.
6. Pyrogen test
Pyrogen: “Pyro” (Greek = Fire) + “gen” (Greek = beginning).
Fever producing, metabolic by-products of microbial growth and death.
Bacterial pyrogens are called “Endotoxins”. Gram negative bacteria produce more
potent endotoxins than gram + bacteria and fungi.
Endotoxins are heat stable lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present in bacterial cell walls, not
present in cell-free bacterial filtrates.
Stable to at least 175ºC; steam sterilization ineffective.
Water soluble; monomer unit of LPS can be 10,000 Daltons (1.8 nm) so endotoxins can
easily pass through 0.22μm filters.
Sources: Water (main), raw materials, equipment, process environment, people, and
protein expression systems if using gram negative bacteria.
Other Source: Equipment, Containers (Glass, plastic, metal), Solvent and Solute.
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Biological properties of endotoxin
Pyrogen elevate the circulatory levels of inflammatory cytokines which may be
followed by fever, blood coagulation, hypotension
Low doses of Pyrogen: asymptomatic inflammation reaction Moderate doses: fever &
changes in plasma composition
High doses: cardiovascular dysfunction, vasodilation, vasoconstriction, endothelium
dysfunction, multiple organ failure & finally death.
Elimination of pyrogens
1. Dry heat sterilization: For glass wares, metal equipments, powders, waxes, oils, heat stable
C temp - 1 min
C temp - 30 min
C temp - 240 min
2. Ultra filtration
3. Reverse osmosis: RO membrane is composed of cellulose acetate phthalate/ polyamide
5. Adsorption method
6.1. Rabbit Test
This test basically involves the injection Sample solution which is to be tested into a Rabbits
which are used as test animals through ear vein.
The Temperature sensing probe (Clinical Thermometer, Thermosestor or similar probe) into
a rectum cavity of Rabbit at the depth of 7.5 cm, the test solution must be warmed at 37º
prior to injection.
Then Rectal temperature is recorded at 1, 2, 3 hr subsequent to injection.
This test is performed in separate area designed solely for this purpose under environmental
conditions similar to animal house should be free from disturbances that likely to excite
Initially this test is performed on 3 Rabbits but if required results are not obtained this test
is repeated on 5 additional Rabbits with same sample solution administer to initial 3 rabbits.
Prior to 1hr of injecting sample solutions the control temperatures of rabbits are determined.
Use only those rabbits whose control temperature is no vary by more than 1 ºc.
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Table 2: Interpretation of Result (Rabbit Test)
6.2. Bacterial endotoxin test
LAL (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate) test is used to characterize the bacterial endotoxin that
may be present. The USP reference standard contains 10,000 USP endotoxins per vial. The
LAL reagent is used for gel-clot formation. The test is performed using stated amounts of
volumes of products, standard, positive control, negative control of endotoxin. The tubes are
incubated at 37±1ºC FOR 60 ±2 minutes. When the tubes are inverted at 180ºC angle,
formation of firm gel confirms positive reaction. While formation of a viscous gel that doesn't
maintain its integrity or absence of a firm gel confirms negative reaction. The test is invalid if
the standard endotoxin or positive product control doesn't show end point within ± 1. Two fold
dilution from label claim sensitivity of LAL reagent or if the negative control shows gel-clot
The following methods can be used to monitor the endotoxin concentration:
Method A - Gel- clot limit test method
Method B -Semi quantitative gel clot method
Method C - Kinetic turbidimetric method
Method D - Kinetic chromogenic method
Method E - End point chromogenic method
7. Content Uniformity and Weight
Determine the content of the active ingredient of each of 10 containers taken at random. The
preparation under examination complies with the test if the individual values thus obtained are
all between 85 and 115 percent of the average value. The preparation under the examination
fails to comply with the test if more than one individual value is outside the limits 85 to 115
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percent of the average value or if any one individual value is outside the limits 75 to 125 percent
of the average value. If one individual value is outside the limits 85 to 115 percent but within
the limits 75 to 125 percent of the average value, repeat the determination using another 20
containers taken at random. The preparation under examination complies with the test if in the
total sample of 30 containers not more than one individual value is outside the limits 85 to 115
percent and none is outside the limits 75 to 125 percent of the average value.
Table 3: Limits for Uniformity of Weight
More than 40
Powders for eye
Less than 300
Powders for eye
300 mg or
8. Extractable Volume
a) Single Dose Containers
Method I: Where the nominal volume does not exceed 5ml. Use 6 containers, 5 for the tests
and 1 for rinsing the syringe used. Using a syringe with appropriate capacity, rinse the syringe
and withdraw as much as possible the contents of one of the containers reserved for the test
and transfer, without emptying the needle, to a dry graduated cylinder of such capacity that the
total combined volume to be measured occupies not less than 40% of the nominal volume of
the cylinder. Repeat the procedure until the contents of the 5 containers have been transferred
and measure the volume. The average content of the 5 containers is not less than the nominal
volume and not more than 115% of the nominal volume. Alternatively the volume of contents
in milliliter can be calculated as mass in grams divided by the density.
Method II: Where the nominal volume is more than 5ml. Transfer the contents of not less than
3 containers separately to dry graduated cylinders such that the volume to be measured
occupies not less than 40% of the nominal volume of the cylinder and measure the volume
transferred. The contents of each container are not less than the nominal volume and not more
than 110% of the nominal volume.
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9. Volume Filled
Volume in container
An injection container is filled with a volume in slight excess of the labelled size Physical and
Determination of filled volume:
10 mL or more: 1 container
3-10 mL: 3 containers
Less than 3 mL: 5 containers
Other Quality Control Test
pH pH Meter
Viscosity Ostwald viscometers
Osmolality Osmometer (count of the number of particles in a fluid sample)
Conductivity Conductometer (conductivity of vehicle used in sterile
preparation) (Pure Water 0.55mS/cm)
Temperature For Heat
Thermometer, Digital Thermometer (To maintain the constant
temperature during heat sterilization of product)
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Environmental Control Test
Traffic control: A carefully designed arrangement to control traffic. Personnel should be
permitted into aseptic area. Only after following rigidly prescribed procedures.
Surface disinfection: Must be inherently neat, orderly, reliable and alert. Should be in good
Air control (HEPA filters): It is composed of glass fibers and filters. It is 99.97% efficient
removes particles of 0.3 um size and larger. (Velocity is 100+/- 20 ft/min).
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Aseptic area: the area which are used to kill the pathogenic microorganisms.
HEPA filter integrity test
Air flow pattern
Air velocity study
Heat sensitization study
Heat distribution study
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This is also called as the particle count method particle counting may be based on any one
of the following principles; change in
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Physical and Chemical test
These tests are qualitative chemical methods used to conform the actual presence of compound
for example color formation, precipitation.
These tests are the physical methods used to measure accurately the characteristic properties
of drug. For example: Absorbance, refractive index.
Purity tests are designed to estimate the level of all known and significant impurities and
contaminants in the drug substance under evaluation. For example: Tests for clarity of
solutions, Acidity, Alkalinity.
Potency tests are assays that estimate the quantity of an active ingredient in the drug.
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Aqueous vehicle For Sterile Product
Quality Tests Water for Injection
Heavy Metal Test
Other test for Water for Injection
Conductivity Test: Limit (not more than 3 mS).
pH: Limit (5 to 7).
Total Organic Carbon (TOC): Limit not more than 500 PPB (part per billion).
Water for injection
• Not sterilized and
• It is intended to be used
within 24 hours after
• Total solid contents not
more than 1 mg/100 ml
Sterile water for
• It must be pyrogen free
• endotoxin level is not
more than 0.25 USP
• single dose containers
not larger than 1 liter
Bacteriostatic water for
• One or more suitable
• It is packaged in
prefilled syringes or in
• Not more than 30 ml of
• Bacteriostatic agents
such as benzyl alcohol
may cause gasping
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Processing of parenteral preparation
Lay out of Parenteral Manufacturing Area
preparation in final
Evaluation of the
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Grades for Evaluation of Sterile products
Microbial count according to Grade
Microbial count of Viable Micro-organism
Microbial count of Non-Viable Micro-organism
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Lyophilization or freeze drying
Lyophilization or freeze drying is a process in which water is removed from a product after it
is frozen and placed under a vacuum, allowing the ice to change directly from solid to vapour
without passing through a liquid phase.
The process consists of three separate, unique, and interdependent processes;
Primary drying (sublimation), and
Secondary drying (desorption).
The Lyophilization process generally includes the following steps
Dissolving the drug and excipients in a suitable solvent, generally water for injection
Sterilizing the bulk solution by passing it through a 0.22 micron bacteria-retentive
Filling into individual sterile containers and partially stoppering the containers under
Transporting the partially stoppered containers to the lyophilizer and loading into the
chamber under aseptic conditions.
Freezing the solution by placing the partially stoppered containers on cooled shelves
in a freeze-drying chamber or pre-freezing in another chamber.
Applying a vacuum to the chamber and heating the shelves in order to evaporate the
water from the frozen state.
Complete stoppering of the vials usually by hydraulic or screw rod stoppering
mechanisms installed in the lyophilizers.
There are many new parenteral products, including anti-infectives, biotechnology
derived products, and in-vitro diagnostics which are manufactured as lyophilized
Additionally, inspections have disclosed potency, sterility and stability problems
associated with the manufacture and control of lyophilized products.
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Biological indicators (BIs)
Biological indicators (BIs) are the most accepted means of monitoring the sterilization
process because they directly determine whether the most resistant microorganisms
(e.g., Geobacillus or Bacillus species) are present rather than merely determine whether
the physical and chemical conditions necessary for sterilization are met.
Biological indicators (BIs) are used for determination of Bacillus species.
BIs such as, ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorohydrin, ethylene hydroxide and
BIs was determined by Z value and D Value.
Z value is define as Temperature is required to higher death rate.
D value is define as reduction of microbial population by 90 % of the factor 10.
F0 value is define as the time required at temperature to produced lethality is similar to
produce 121ºc at stated time.
D value is 10 factor greater than Z value.
e.g. D value is 121 ºc as the Z value is 10 ºc.
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Injections are sterile solutions, emulsions or suspensions prepared by dissolving emulsifying
or suspending the active ingredients and other additives in water for injection or other suitable
non-aqueous vehicle or in mixture of two, if they are miscible.
Powder for injection or Infusion
Powder for injections are sterile solid substances (including freeze dried material) which are
distributed in their final containers which, when shaken with the prescribed volume of the
appropriate sterile liquid, rapidly form clear and practically particle-free solutions or uniform
These are sterile aqueous solutions or emulsions with water as continuous phase. When a drug
is infused intravenously at a constant rate, a plateau concentration will be reached progressively
in the most frequently most of the cases follows first order kinetics. On starting the infusion,
there is no drug in the body and therefore, no elimination. The amount of drug in the body then
rises, but as the drug concentration increases, so does the rate of elimination. Thus, the rate of
elimination will keep rising until it matches the rate of infusion. The amount of drug in the
body is then constant and is said to have reached a steady state or plateau.
Implants are sterile solid preparations of size and shape for implantation into body tissues so
as to release active ingredient over an extended period of time. An implant is a medical device
manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure,
or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast
to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue. The surface of implants that contact
the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone or apatite depending
on what is the most functional. In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial
pacemaker and cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, such as subcutaneous drug
delivery devices in the form of implantable pills or drug-eluting stents.
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Concentrated Solutions for Injections
Concentrated solutions for injections are sterile solutions that are intended for administration
by injection or by IV infusion only after dilution with suitable dilution with a suitable liquid.
After dilutions these preparations should comply with the requirements of tests for injection or
intravenous infusions as appropriate.
Mr. Sagar Kishor Savale,
M. Pharm (Pharmaceutics),
Mobile No.: +91 9960885333,