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Yun Ju Chung
May 07, 2007
Dept. of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Eng.
National Taiwan University
What is grammar?
Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes
describe grammar as the "rules" of a language.
Do we need to study grammar to learn a language?
If you are serious about learning a foreign language, the
answer is “yes”. Grammar can help you to learn a language
more quickly and more efficiently. It's important to think of
grammar as something that can help you, like a friend.
We watched the All-Star Game. Because we are baseball
We watched the All-Star Game because we are baseball fans.
Without a subject or a verb
Reading more papers.
Read more papers.
A run-on sentence consists of two or more main clauses that
are run together without proper punctuation.
This is an active place, everybody is engaged in something.
This is an active place, and everybody is engaged in
I like to watch TV, see a movie, surf the Internet.
I like to watch TV, see a movie, and surf the Internet.
There are four people live in the same room.
There are four people living in the same room.
We don’t want the same thing happens again.
We don’t want the same thing to happen again.
A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause which says
something different from what is meant because words are
While driving on Greenwood Avenue yesterday afternoon, a
tree began to fall toward Wendy’s car.
While Wendy was driving on Greenwood Avenue yesterday
afternoon, a tree began to fall toward her car.
Subject Agreement with the Verb
The verb should follow the subject
This show that people didn’t learn from the past.
This shows that people didn’t learn from the past.
The climate in both places are mild.
The climate in both places is mild.
A group of senators was calling for an investigation.
One of the many galaxies was proven to be near a black
Subject Agreement with the Verb
Two or more singular subjects joined by or or nor take a
Neither John nor Mary knows what happened.
Neither Mary nor her brothers knows what happened.
Neither Mary nor her brothers know what happened.
Neither her brothers nor Mary knows what happened.
Two or more plural subjects joined by any conjunction
(including and, or, but, or nor) take a plural verb.
Both men and women are allowed to enter.
A compound subject whose parts are joined by and takes a
singular verb in two special instances.
1. When the parts of the subject combine to form a single item.
One and one equals two.
Cookies and cream is my favorite flavor.
2. When the compound subject is modified by the words each
Every boy and girl has to participate.
Subject Agreement with the Verb
Pronouns used as subjects: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who
Pronouns used as objects: me, you, him, her, it, us, them,
Politeness says that the I, we, me or us comes last.
Katy likes Joe and I.
Katy likes Joe and me.
An appositive is a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause which
follows a noun or pronoun and renames or describes the
noun or pronoun.
We visited the home of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Who and Whom
Who are you? (Subject)
Whom did you give it to? (Object of preposition to)
Used alone: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, whose
That computer is hers.
Modify noun: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose
That is her computer.
We could not stand him complaining about everything.
We could not stand his complaining about everything.
Indefinite pronouns are words which replace nouns without
specifying which noun they replace.
Singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either,
everybody, everyone, everything, little, much, neither,
nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone,
Plural: both, few, many, others, several
Singular or Plural: all, any, more, most, none, some
Each of the members has one vote.
A few of the justices were voicing their opposition.
All of the people clap their hands. (All refers to people.)
All of the newspaper was soaked. (All refers to newspaper.)
Advice, confidence, equipment, evidence, garbage,
information, knowledge, machinery, pollution, quality,
software, clothing, company, empathy, history, homework,
importance, music, thinking, stuff, weather, wisdom
He likes you more than me.
He likes you more than I.
Both of them are correct!
He likes you more than he likes me.
He likes you more than I do.
When a pronoun follows than or as in a comparison, make
sure you understand what words are missing and then use
the correct pronoun.
He is taller than her. (i.e., than her is?)
He is taller than she. (i.e., than she is.)
Comparatives and Superlatives
Use words ending in -er or modified by the word more to
compare two items. This is known as the comparative
Use words ending in -est or modified by the word most to
compare three or more items. This is known as the
Fair, pretty, handsome, famous, ready, beautiful, smoothly
Fairer, prettier, handsomest, most famous, more ready, more
beautiful, most smoothly
Double negatives are nonstandard.
I don't want no bananas.
I don't want any bananas.
I want no bananas.
Words like barely, hardly, and scarcely have a negative
sense and should not be used with another negative. In
effect, this creates a double negative.
He couldn't hardly speak.
He could hardly speak.
Thanks for your attention.