Table of Contents
Unit 1: Parts of Speech
Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence
Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs
Unit 4: Perfect & Passive Verbs
Unit 5: Complex Sentences
Unit 6: Overview of City ESOL Program
1. a noun (and its modifiers)
2. a verb (and the words that follow)
an interesting dream
my magically delicious Lucky Charms
the City College book fair
many culturally diverse students
those poisonous red apples on the table
talented and helpful tutors
the drawer next to the bed
were eaten by the boy next door
attend this school
will be in high demand
is always in October
were for Snow White and not for you
has been on my mind all day
have been playing all night long
Combine the noun phrases
and verb phrases to make
A clause is a subject / verb combination. Clauses
can be dependent or independent (More
explanation on this later) First, let’s practice
distinguishing phrases and clauses. Determine
which of the examples are phrases and which are
when I go to the storehe criedthe little kitten sitting in the shade of the
they didn’t understand the instructionsstayed out all night
There are two types of clauses: independent and
dependent. An independent clause, or main
clause, is a subject/verb combination that makes a
complete sentence. A dependent clause cannot
stand alone, and must be attached to an
In the following sentence, which one is the main
Example 1: As soon as I woke up, I made the coffee.
If you said I made the coffee, then you are correct!
A complete sentence includes:
1. Subject (noun)
2. Verb (may need a direct object or complement)
3. Complete Thought/Idea
3. Example 1: Marcel understands the importance of
attending class regularly.
Example 2: Shu, Tony, and Ana studied together
The subject may be
A single noun
A noun phrase
Two or more nouns, noun phrases or pronouns
A gerund (verb + -ing)
An infinitive (To + verb)
College is challenging.
The English Center can help you succeed.
It is open Monday through Friday.
Online tutoring is available on weekends.
Rose, Todd, Humberto, and Jess are all tutors there.
To err is human.
There are different categories of verbs,
some of which require a direct object or
complement to make the sentence
complete. These are called transitive verbs.
(Memory trick: Transitive verbs are like a
train; they need a caboose.) Intransitive
verbs do not require a direct object or
A direct object is the noun that is receiving
the action of the verb.
1.Some verbs must take an object
2. Some verbs may take an object. It’s correct
with or without.
3. Some verbs cannot take an object
*She disappeared the dog.
We analyzed the data.
A complement is a word or words that follow the
verb but aren’t direct objects. Depending on the
verb, some are obligatory.
Example 1: Rufus seems.
Example 1 is not a complete sentence because the
verb requires a complement. The example should
be: Rufus seems extraordinarily sleepy.
Example 2: Rufus walks.
This is a complete sentence. However, we can add
a complement if we want to be more precise. The
example could be: Rufus walks with vigor.
There are three types of phrases that can act as
1. A noun or noun phrase
1. George Michael is a brilliant lyricist.
2. An adjective or adjective phrase
1. George Michael is brilliant.
3. A prepositional phrase
1. George Michael is on tour.
The verb of a sentence must be complete or
include all necessary verb parts.
Example 1: She working in the lab.
This would be incorrect as the progressive requires
the verb to be. It should be: She is working in the
A sentence can consist of more than one verb.
However, parallel structure is important.
Example 1: She works, studies, and is taking care of
The three verbs are not the same form. The
example should be: She works, studies, and takes
care of her children.
1. Choosing a major is an important decision.
2. Because I study a lot.
3. In my college have a cafeteria and several snack
4. It is difficult to study on the weekend.
5. There three things to do to be a successful
6. While I was in my ESOL 30 class.
7. My college has many buildings, so easy to get
Types of Sentences
There are four types of sentences.
1. Simple Sentences
2. Compound Sentences
3. Complex Sentences
4. Compound-Complex Sentences
Roxie is a dog.
Roxie is a dog, and Rufus is her friend.
Rufus loves Roxie because she is adorable.
Rufus loves Roxie because she is adorable, and
she defers to him.
Compound sentences consist of two independent
clauses that are combined with a coordinating
Independent Clause = IC
Coordinating Conjunction = cc
Formula: IC, cc IC.
I like ice cream, and Judy likes cookies.
IC cc IC.,
= more information
I like ice cream, and Judy likes cookies.
I like ice cream, but I don’t like cake.
Neither ice cream nor cookies are good for your
I like ice cream, for it is delicious.
= alternative I could eat ice cream, or I could eat carrots.
= contrast I could carrots, yet I wouldn’t feel happy.
I will eat ice cream, so I can feel happy.
= two negative options
Each of the sentences on the next slide has
a problem with sentence structure. Find
and correct the one sentence-structure
error in each of the sentences.
Correct the Sentence Structure Error
1. In my opinion, speaking in English easier than
writing in English.
2. Is a very interesting point you have raised.
3. My summer internship, for example, it is one
way for me.
4. At present, I am finishing a project, and I also
starting a new one.
5. I felt happy. Because I moved to the U.S.
I felt happy because I moved to the U.S.