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Cord blood banking

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Cord blood banking

  1. 1. 7/29/2014 1
  2. 2. • SACHITA KHADKA • RUPA SHRESTHA • RASHMI GAUTAM • RAMA PARIYAR • RANJANA BC • RADHA THAPA MAGAR • RASHNA MAHARJAN • RACHANA RAI • RUBINA RAI • PRATIVA KHADKA 7/29/2014 2 HOPE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE PCL NURSING 3rd / 3rd BATCH
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  4. 4. UMBILICAL CORD  The part of placenta that delivers nutrients to a fetus.  It help fetus to survive during intrauterine period. 7/29/2014 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION o Cord blood banking involves collecting blood left in newborn’s umbilical cord and placenta and storing it for future medical use . o Cord blood contains potentially lifesaving cells called STEM CELL. 7/29/2014 5
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  7. 7. Stem cell  Stem cell are essentially the building blocks of the human body .  Stem cell is capable of dividing for long periods of time , are unspecialized , but can develop into specialized cells . • The earliest stem cell inside an embryo will eventually give rise to every cell , tissue and organ in the fetus’s body . When it divides , it can make any one of the different cells in human body . 7/29/2014 7
  8. 8. 7/29/2014 8 Stem cell
  9. 9. There are several types of stem cells  Embryonic stem cells  Adult stem cells  Induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC)  Umbilical cord blood stem cell 7/29/2014 9
  10. 10. 7/29/2014 10 Embryonic stem cell Adult stem cell Induced pluripotent stem cells Umbilical cord stem cell
  11. 11. Purposes: o Two main purpose for cord blood storage :  Donate baby’s cord blood to a public cord blood banking for anyone who needs its  To store for baby’s cord blood bank for family’s use . 7/29/2014 11
  12. 12. METHODS There are two types and they are ; 7/29/2014 12
  13. 13. Syringe method: a syringe is used to draw blood from the umbilical cord shortly after the umbilical cord has been cut. The process is similar to drawing blood for a regular blood test . 7/29/2014 13
  14. 14. Syringe method 7/29/2014 14
  15. 15. Bag method: The umbilical cord is elevated to drain the blood into a bag. ( Anti-coagulate already kept in the bag ) 7/29/2014 15
  16. 16. Bag method 7/29/2014 16
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  18. 18.  Most common method of cord blood is bag method 7/29/2014 18
  19. 19. COLLECTION Cord blood is collected right after birth. The collection process is painless and safe for both mother and baby . In fact , it’s so quick and painless that parents caught up in holding and bonding with their baby are often unaware it has even happened . 7/29/2014 19
  20. 20. PROCESS  Clamping and cutting the cord : After the delivery of the baby whether vaginally or by C-section , the cord is clamped and then cut in usual way . 7/29/2014 20
  21. 21. Contd……  Extracting the cord blood : The medical provider then inserts a needle into the umbilical vein on the part of the cord that’s still attached to the placenta . The needle doesn’t go anywhere near the baby . The blood drains into a collection bag . Typically , entire umbilical blood are collected . The entire process takes less than 5 minutes . 7/29/2014 21
  22. 22. Contd……  Off to the bank : The blood is transfer to a cord blood bank , where it is tested , processed , and cryopreserved (preserved by controlled freezing) for long-term storage. Some family cord blood banks now offer to collect a segment of umbilical cord tissue contains stem cells , and researchers are studying their possible . 7/29/2014 22
  23. 23. VALUABLE OF CORD BLOOD  Cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells . Stem cells are the building blocks of the blood and immune system . They have the ability to develop into other types of cells , so they can help to repair tissue , organs , and blood vessels and can be used to treat a host of diseases . 7/29/2014 23
  24. 24. Contd……  Stem cells are also found in bone marrow, human embryos , fetal tissue , hair follicles , baby teeth , fat , circulating blood , and muscle .  Every part of the human body contains some stem cells , but most are not a rich enough source to have be harvest for therapeutic applications. 7/29/2014 24
  25. 25. Contd……  In 2012 , 38 % of Haspanic (spanish people in ancient time )patient and 44% of African American patients undergoing stem cell transplants received cord blood .  More and more adults are receiving cord blood transplants , too , sometimes involving two cord blood donations if a single one doesnot contains enough cells.  As the end of 2012 , more than 33,900 cord blood units had been transfer for transplants worldwise . 7/29/2014 25
  26. 26. TREATED DISEASES Cord blood stem have been used successfully to treat more than 75 different diseases , inculding:  Some cancers  Blood disorders  Immune deficiencies 7/29/2014 26
  27. 27. Contd…… Among theses are ;  Leukemia Aplastic anemia Thalassemia  Hodgkin’s diseases  Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 7/29/2014 27
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  29. 29. Contd……  Cord transplants are also used to treat rare metabolic disorder that would otherwise be fatal for infants . 7/29/2014 29
  30. 30. POSSIBLE FUTURE USES Studies are under way around the world to explore new ways of using cord blood ; Cerebral palsy and autism Hydrocephalus Treatment for adults  Animal studies 7/29/2014 30
  31. 31. PARENTS NEED TO KNOW The fields of medical research with stem cells is exploding . The most important thing for parents to understand about the stem cells in cord blood , by Frances Verter (founder and executive director of the nonprofit parent’s guide to Cord Blood Foundation ); 1. Donate the baby’s cord blood to help patients seeking transplants now or 7/29/2014 31
  32. 32. Contd…… 2. Save the baby’s cord blood for the family in case the need it later , most likely for a therapy that’s still being studied . 7/29/2014 32
  33. 33. STORAGE  After the collection (entire placenta and cord’s blood collection should be done) , lab process start through cryopreserved.  There are many ways to process a cord blood until , and there are differing opinions on what is the best ways .  Some processing methods separate out the red blood cells and remove them , while others keeps the red blood cells . 7/29/2014 33
  34. 34. Cont.……  However the unit is processed , a cryopreservant is added to the cord blood to allow the cells to survive the cryogenic process.  After the unit is slowly cooled to -90oC , it can then be added to a liquid nitrogen tank which will keep the cord blood unit frozen at -196oC .  The slow freezing process is important to keep the cells alive during the freezing process. 7/29/2014 34
  35. 35. Contd……  More than 1 million units of cord blood are stored in family banks in the United States .  And the national Be the match Registry provides nearly 1,85,000 donated cord blood units in the United States , with additional access to more than 4,25,000 cord blood units through partnerships with international registries . 7/29/2014 35
  36. 36. Contd……  Verter estimates that about 5% of parents now bank their bank’s cord blood . 90% of that cord blood goes to family and 10% goes to public banks . 7/29/2014 36
  37. 37. ADVANTAGES  Cord blood stem cells are currently used o several life-threatening diseases o blood and immune system related genetic diseases , cancer and blood disorder .  Cord blood stem cells can also be used for siblings and other members of the family who have a matching tissue type .  Siblings (75% )chance of compatibility , and the cord blood may even be a match for parents (50%) and grandfather . 7/29/2014 37
  38. 38. • PUBLIC BANKS A primary concern with public banking is how to ensure the safety of the cord blood . Because of privacy concerns , it is agreed by most ethical reviews boards that blood donated to a public bank cannot be permanently linked to the donor. 7/29/2014 38
  39. 39. PRIVATE BANKS Private banking is costly to insures and private parties , averaging .  The ability to use the cord blood may also depend on long-term commerical viability of the enterprise . 7/29/2014 39
  40. 40. Contd……  It is important to ensure the credentials of any potential private bank .  In the United States , the Food and Drugs Administration regulates cord blood under the category of “Human Cells , Tissues , and Cellular and Tissue Based –Products . 7/29/2014 40
  41. 41. Contd…… The odds that two siblings will have the 6/6 match required for a bone marrow transplant are 25% . The odds that two siblings will have the 4/6 match required for a cord blood transplant are 39 % . 7/29/2014 41
  42. 42. • SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS oUsing one’s own cord blood cells might not wise or effective , especially in cases of childhood cancers and leukemia . o Children who develop an immunological disorder often are unable to use their own cord blood for transplant because the blood also contains the same genetic defect . 7/29/2014 42
  43. 43. • USABILITY OF ONE’S OWN SAMPLE UNKNOWN oMost cord blood samples up to 75% may be too small to be used for transplantation because they don’t contain enough stem cell . o While a private bank will store a sample , the sample may be too small to be usable , even by a child . 7/29/2014 43
  44. 44. cord blood banking cost There are usually two fees involved in cord blood banking;.  The first is the initial fee which covers enrollment, collection and storage for at least the first year. The second is an annual storage fee. Some facilities vary the initial fee based upon the length of a predetermined period of storage. 7/29/2014 44
  45. 45. Contd……  Depending on the predetermined period of storage, the initial fee can range from $900 to $2100. Annual storage fees after the initial storage fee are approximately $100 . 7/29/2014 45
  46. 46. Contd……  It is common for storage facilities to offer prepaid plans at a discount and payment plans to help make the initial storage a more attractive option for baby and the family . 7/29/2014 46
  47. 47. AVAILABLE SERVICE IN NEPAL  Cord blood banking established in Nepal at 2008 A.D .  Cord blood immediately courier at store/lab in INDIA within 48 hours .  Interested parents should inform the specialist during 5-7 months of pregnancy , need to pay Rs.20,000 then at the time of delivery need to pay Rs.58,000 ( TOTAL AMOUNT IN NEPAL FOR CORD BLOOD BANKING IS Rs.78,000 ) . 7/29/2014 47
  48. 48. AVAILABLE CORD BLOOD BANKS COUNTRIES NAME ESTABHLISHED DATE FLORIDA 1983 A.D GENEVA 1989 A.D INDIA 2006 A.D BANGKOK 2008 A.D KENYA 2011 A.D SINGAPORE 2013 A.D 7/29/2014 48
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  50. 50. 7/29/2014 50 BABY PARENTS GRAND PARENTS PARENTS SIBILING BABY SIBILING MATERNAL PATERNAL
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  52. 52. REFERENCES  http/www.wikipedia.com/cord blood banking  CRYOBANKS premier cord blood bank , Cryobanks International India Pvt.Ltd.  Mrs . Subedi Durga , Midwifery part I , Wanmaya Publication And Research Center , 1st 2010 March , page no – 95 – 98  Mr. Pankaj Chawla Professor of cord blood banking ,Gyaneshwor , phone no. : 9802031233 7/29/2014 52
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