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Protien synthesis

Protien synthesis

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Protien synthesis

  1. 1. ‫بسم ا الرحمن الرحيم‬ PROTIENSYNTHESIS Dr. Nadia Hasan Dr. Ahmed Kassem
  2. 2. PROTIENSDefinition:Are chains of amino acids bound together by peptide bonds.
  3. 3. General structure of Amino acid R O=C C NH OH H H
  4. 4. General structure of Amino acidand Peptide bond R COO NH C H 2 NH 2 C COOH R
  5. 5. General structure of Amino acidand Peptide bond R COO NH C H 2 NH 2 C COOH R
  6. 6. General structure of Amino acidand Peptide bond R H 2O CONH C NH 2 C COOH R
  7. 7. The Main Principle Of Protein Synthesis (Central Dogma of genetics)Replication Transcription Translation DNA RNA Protein
  8. 8. DNA Structure Watson-Crick model of DNA. It is double-stranded polymer of nucleotides.
  9. 9. DNA StructureEach nucleotideconsists of:  Phosphate group deoxyribose sugar Nitrogenous bases.
  10. 10. DNA ReplicationThe main :requirements areDNA Helicase •DNA Polymerase •Free nucleotides •such as: dTTP,.dATP, dCTP, dGTPUnwinding proteins •
  11. 11. Structure of RNARNA is a single-stranded polymers ofnucleotides, the pentose sugar is alwaysribose , and the bases are Adenine, Guanine,.Cytosine, and Uracil:Types of RNA).a) Precursor RNA ( pre-RNA).b) Messenger RNA ( m-RNA).c) Transfer RNA ( t-RNA).d) Ribosomal RNA ( r- RNA
  12. 12. Protein synthesis Starts at nucleus by formation of mRNA through a process called transcription
  13. 13. RNA processing mRNA is processed in the nucleus Intron are removed Exons are joined
  14. 14. t-RNA = Single strand = Bend on itself to form three loop regions. = one loop contains the anticodon. = it carries aa at one end.
  15. 15. T-RNA
  16. 16. Amino acid activation
  17. 17. Protein synthesis•Requires 3 steps:•Initiation•Elongation•Termination
  18. 18. Translation Then go to the ribosomes in cytoplasm where it’s genetic code is translated into amino acids by a process called translation.
  19. 19. The Genetic CodeUUU UCU UAU UGU Phe Tyr CysUUC UCC UAC UGC SerUUA UCA UAA UGA Stop Leu StopUUG UCG UAG UGG TrpCUU CCU CAU CGU HisCUC CCC CAC CGC Leu Pro ArgCUA CCA CAA CGA GlnCUG CCG CAG CGGAUU ACU AAU AGU Asn SerAUC ACC AAC AGC ThrAUA Ile ACA AAA AGA Lys ArgAUG ACG AAG AGG MetGUU GCU GAU GGU AspGUC GCC GAC GGC Val Ala GlyGUA GCA GAA GGA GluGUG GCG GAG GGG

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