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Social Science and Contingency Approach

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Social Science and Contingency Approach

  1. 1. RUTH B. ASCUNA Practicum in Educational Administration
  2. 2. SOCIAL SCIENCE APPROACH AND CONTINGENCY APPROACH
  3. 3. SOCIAL SCIENCE APPROACH  Used both perspective and added propositions drawn from psychology, sociology, political science, and economics.
  4. 4.  The approach differs from other social sciences only in subject matter: work behavior in formal organization (Simon, 1968)  Herbert Simon (1947), in his Administrative Behavior used the concept of organizational equilibrium as a focal point for a formal theory of work motivation.
  5. 5.  The organization was seen as an exchange system in which inducements are exchanged for work. Employees remain in the organization as long as they perceive the inducements as larger than their work contributions.  By integrating economics, psychology, and sociology, the inducements- contributions schema illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the theory.
  6. 6.  Simon saw administration as a process of rational decision making that influenced the behavior of members of the organization. Scientifically describe that each person in the organization what decisions that person makes and the influence to which he is subject in making each of these decisions.
  7. 7.  According to Chester I. Barnard (1938) one of the first to apply a social science approach with his analysis of organizational life in Functions of the Executive.  Barnard provided the original definitions of formal and informal organizations and cogently demonstrated the inevitable interaction between them.
  8. 8.  Social Science is the study of intercultural communication, based on the assumption that : (1) there is a describable, external reality (2) human behaviors are predictable (3) culture is a variable that can be measured.
  9. 9.  This approach aims to identify and explain cultural variations in communication and to predict future communication.
  10. 10. Advantages of Social Science Approach 1. Increased challenges from practitioners, professors, and the public who demand relevance and utility in theory and research.
  11. 11. 2. Balances recognition of both formal and informal organizations. 3. A synthesis of the preceding two, using modern social science methods in its analyses.
  12. 12. Disadvantage of Social Science Approach 1. One danger of applying theoretical knowledge from social science is the tendency to over generalize it to all situations.
  13. 13. CONTINGENCY APPROACH  Also known as Situational Approach  Is a concept in management starting that there is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations, organizations are individually different, face different situations and require different ways of managing.  Stresses that the correctness of a managerial practice is contingent on how it fits the particular situation.
  14. 14.  Fiedler identified three dimensions of the situation in leader’s effectiveness: ◦ 1. Leader-Member Relations  - refer to the degree of the followers’ trust and respect for the leader.
  15. 15. 2. Task Structure - is the extent to which the followers’ tasks are structured-that is, routine and repetitive work versus unstructured work. 3. Position power - refers to the power and influence of the leader.
  16. 16. Characteristics of Contingency Approach  The contingency approach is based on three characteristics they are: (1) An open system perspective (2) A research orientation (3) A multivariable approach
  17. 17.  (1) An open system perspective Organizations are not stable and easily defined, but are shaped and are porous to their environments. Environments shape, support, and infiltrate organizations. Participants do not necessarily hold common goals or even routinely seek the survival of the organization.
  18. 18.  (2) A research orientation Searching for more systematic ways, information, ideas, strategies and skills in dealing with members of an organization and establishing an effective at stable organization.
  19. 19.  (3) A multivariable approach There are three variables involved in multivariable approach these are the contingency variables, response variables and performance variables.
  20. 20. 1. Contingency variables - represent situational characteristics usually exogenous to the focal organization or manager. In most instances, the opportunity to control or manipulate these variables is, at best, limited and indirect.
  21. 21. 2. Response variables - are the organizational or managerial actions taken in response to current or anticipated contingency factors. 3. Performance variables - are the dependent measures and represent specific aspects of effectiveness that are appropriate to evaluate the fit between contingency variables and response variables for the situation under consideration.
  22. 22. Advantages of Contingency Approach  Contingency approach is pragmatic and open minded. It discounts preconceived notions, and universal validity of principles.  It provides freedom/choice to manage to judge the external environment and use the most suitable management techniques.
  23. 23.  Here, importance is given to the judgment of the situation and not the use of specific principles.  The contingency approach has a wide-ranging applicability and practical utility in, organization and management.
  24. 24.  It advocates comparative analysis of organizations to bring suitable adjustment between organization structure and situational peculiarities.  The contingency approach enables management to change employee roles to meet the individual needs of a given project quickly.
  25. 25. Disadvantage of Contingency Approach  It is argued that the contingency approach lacks a theoretical base.  Under contingency approach, a manager is supposed to think through all possible alternatives as he has no dried principles to act upon.
  26. 26.  The responsibility of a manager increases as he has to analyze the situation, examine the validity of different principles and techniques to the situation at hand, make right choice by matching the technique to the situation and finally execute his choice.  The contingency approach is also a reactive model of business management.
  27. 27. Conclusion The basic theme of contingency approach is that organizations have to deal with different situations in different ways. There is no single best way of managing applicable to all situations.
  28. 28. The convention definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work. Agha Hasan Abedi

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