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Biohydrogen production

  2. Harnessing of Agricultural Crop Residues for Hydrogen energy production: An overview Presented By- Rupal Jain Ph.D Scholar at department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Raj.) "Innovative Approaches in Agriculture, Horticulture & Allied Sciences (IAAHAS-2023)" 3rd International Conference On At SGT UNIVERSITY, GURUGRAM, HARYANA Organized by
  3. Introduction  Due to its agrarian economy, India has a very high potential for agricultural waste biomass (about 700 metric tonnes annually).  Farmers often burn agricultural wastes in open fields to clear the ground for sowing rather than utilizing them for energy recovery.  As a result of the emission of particulate matter and the buildup of inorganic salts in soils, respectively, the quality of the air and soil deteriorates, having a negative impact on human health.  Biomass has huge potential for energy production, and it can be converted to more suitable other energy forms through various technologies, i.e., gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, etc.
  4. Conti…  Nowadays, bio-hydrogen production is getting increased attention due to its clean burning feature and eco-friendly production process.  Any kind of organic feedstock can be employed for the production of hydrogen energy.  Bio-hydrogen can be produced either through a thermochemical or biochemical route.  Along with the harnessing of solid organic waste, biochemical methodologies can also be employed with organic effluent streams.  Along with the production of energy, efficient disposal of organic waste can be achieved through these conversion technologies.
  5. Routes of bio-hydrogen production Bio-hydrogen Thermochemical Process Gasification Pyrolysis Hydrothermal liquefaction Biochemical Process Photofermen -tation Dark fermentation
  6. Thermochemical Methods 1. Gassification  Thermochemical conversion of solid biomass into a gaseous fuel  Partial combustion  Producer gas produced  A mixture of various gases  Calorific value 950-1200 kcal/m3  Temperature required- 900-1200 °C Composition percentage N2 45-55 % CO2 9-12 % H2 13-19 % CO 18-22 % CH4 1-5 % Water vapour 4 %
  7. 2. Pyrolysis  Thermochemical decomposition of biomass  Absence of air  Resultant product-  Solid- Char  Liquid-Biofuel  Non-condensable gases  Temperature required – 400-600 °C  Peak temperature can be up to 1000 °C if production of gas is of primary interest
  8. 3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction  Supercritical or subcritical water media  Critical pressure (Pc) 22.1 MPa  Temperature (Tc) 374 °C  Avoids the need for dry feedstock  Suitable for numerous biomass feedstock with large amounts of moisture  Good gasification efficacy and H2 selectivity are obtained
  9. Biochemical Methods 1. Photo Fermentation  Anaerobic digestion  Absence of air  Presence of sunlight  Photosynthetic microbes- purple non-sulfur bacteria  Required large surface area  Process failure due to absence of sunlight
  10. 2. Dark Fermentation  Anaerobic digestion  Absence of air  Absence of sunlight  Carbohydrate rich substrate  Effluent rich in VFAs  Utilization of organic liquid stream  COD removal efficiency  Clostridium sp., E. aerogenes, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum