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Theory of Beauty

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Theory of Beauty Presentation

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Theory of Beauty

  1. History of the Science of Beauty<br />Tan Kok Hong . Lim Kia Mian . Wong RuiXiong<br />
  2. 1<br />Defining Beauty<br />what is beauty? what are the theories of beauty?<br />
  3. DEFINITION OF BEAUTY<br />WHAT IS THE <br />DEFINITION <br />OF BEAUTY?<br />“No particular <br />definition”<br />
  4. DEFINITION OF BEAUTY<br />Definitions for reference<br />Beauty (according to Oxford Dictionary)Excelling in grace of form, charm of colouring, and other qualities, which delight the eye and call forth admiration: a) of the human face and figureb) of other objects<br />Beauty is a basic pleasure<br />Beauty can be something intrinsic to object (color, form, and other qualities )or simply the pleasure an object evokes<br />
  6. FROM ANCIENT TIMES<br /> < < <<br />
  7. FROM ANCIENT TO CONTEMPORARY<br />“Propertiesof beauty are the same, whether we are seeing a beautiful woman, flower, landscape or circle.”<br />
  8. 2<br />Golden Ratio<br />what is the golden proportion? why is it significant?<br />
  9. GOLDEN RATIO<br />Ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one<br />Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied it because of its frequent appearance in geometry<br />Irrational mathematical constant, <br /><ul><li>approximately 1.6180</li></ul>“Extreme and mean ratio" was the principal term used from the 3rd century BC until about the 18th century.<br />Denoted by the Greek lowercase letter phi<br />
  11. GOLDEN RATIO<br />Golden rectangle: side lengths are in golden ratio<br />When a square section is removed, we find another golden rectangle. This pattern can be repeated infinitely.<br />Corresponding corners of the squares form an infinite sequence of points on the golden spiral, the unique logarithmic spiral with this property.<br />34<br />5<br />8<br />3<br />21<br />13<br />
  12. GOLDEN RATIO: A History<br />
  13. GOLDEN RATIO: A History<br />
  14. GOLDEN RATIO: Architecture<br />
  15. GOLDEN RATIO: Art and Nature<br />
  16. Middle Ages and Renaissance <br />GOLDEN RATIO: Analysis<br />Fits in with the idea of perfection and harmony<br />overabundance of mystical thinking, speculation and fiction<br />Food for Thought:<br />Why did ancient philosophers and so many others support this idea? Is the Golden perfection real?<br />
  17. GOLDEN RATIO: Analysis<br />
  18. GOLDEN RATIO: Analysis<br />
  19. GOLDEN RATIO: Analysis & Summary<br />Idea that the Golden Ratio was used in designing ancient architecture dubious<br />Interesting mathematical concepts<br />Influence from the ancient Greeks and Renaissance period<br />Unique aesthetic properties<br />Lack of academic sources<br />
  20. 3<br />Symmetry<br />symmetry as beauty? why is symmetry beautiful?<br />
  21. SYMMETRY BY GREEKS AND ROMANS<br />Symmetry is the foundation for numerous Greek and Roman architecture, continuing into the Renaissance <br />Victorian-style pillars<br />Trevi Fountain (Renaissance)<br />Pantheon of Rome (Roman Empire)<br />Parthenon of Acropolis (Ancient Greece)<br />
  22. SYMMETRY: FACIAL SYMMETRY<br />96%<br />
  23. SIR FRANCIS GALTON<br />Sir Francis Galton (1811-1911)<br />half-cousin of Charles’ Darwin<br />Polymath, numerous contributions to many scientific fields such asmeteorology, psychology, criminology<br />1876 - 1900: Composite Photography <br />projecting face photographs of many different individuals onto a single piece of photographic film<br />Galton’s colleagues noted that composites tended to be more attractive than the individual faces<br />
  24. COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY<br />Case for Eugenics<br /><ul><li>Eugenics: Nature NOT Nurture determines a person’s eventual character and personality
  25. Identification of “typical criminal faces”</li></ul>Led to further studies of facial averageness!<br />
  26. FACIAL AVERAGENESS<br />Study of Facial Averageness<br />Numerous studies were conducted throughout the century BUT with advent of technology, greatly improved the studies<br />1886: Stoddard<br />1990: Psychologists Langlois and Roggman<br />2005: Imaging Researcher Pierre Tourigny<br />Computer algorithms revealed that symmetry plays a big role in human faces<br />
  27. FACIAL AVERAGENESS<br />Female celebrities<br />Caucasian males<br />Caucasian females<br />Caucasian females<br />
  28. FACIAL AVERAGENESS<br />Composite of 60 faces<br />consistently over 90%<br />
  29. DIFFERING INTEPRETATIONS<br />(1) symmetric individuals are attractive because they are particularly healthy<br />(2)averageness reflects optimal design of physical traits by nature<br />human visual system favours processing symmetric than asymmetric stimuli<br />
  30. Biological advances and knowledge<br />Symmetry: Analysis<br />Greek, Roman and Renaissance developments in architecture<br />Technological innovations (photography, computer algorithms)<br />study of non-scientific fields (eugenics)<br />
  31. LIMITATIONS OF EXPLANATION<br />still beautiful?<br />
  32. 4<br />Proportions<br />proportion as beauty? what proportions are significant?<br />
  33. PROPORTIONALITY<br />92%<br />
  34. PROPORTIONALITY<br />“What do we identify visuallyas human?”<br />Studying of proportions really took off during the Renaissance<br />Renaissance: the focus is back on HUMANS, THE HUMAN BODY<br />Focus on aesthetics brought about numerous developments in the study of proportions that define humans <br />
  36. MICHELANGELO<br />
  38. FACIAL PROPORTIONALITY<br />Renaissance Period<br />Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo did extensive studies concerning the proportions of human face<br />Formed the basis of aesthetic knowledge on human faces<br />
  39. BODY PROPORTIONALITY<br />Renaissance period<br />Ideal height as having a head to body ratio of 1:8<br />V-shaped torso<br />Recent research<br />Men: a waist-to-shoulder ratio of 0.75 or lower are viewed as considerably more attractive<br />
  40. Proportionality<br />
  41. BEAUTIFICATION<br />Marquardt Beauty Mask<br />Dr. Stephen R. Marquardt<br />Retired oral and maxillofacial surgeon<br />Based on decagon structures<br />Female Mask<br />Male Mask<br />Side Profile<br />
  42. BEAUTY MASK<br />David Beckham<br />Megan Fox<br />Angelina Jolie<br />Marilyn Monroe<br />
  43. Artistic developments of Renaissance Man <br />Proportion: Analysis<br />Renaissance focus on Humans as SPECIAL CREATION of God<br />Architecture and Aestheticspropelling Humanistic studies<br />New Anatomical studies<br />
  44. 5<br />Evolutionary Beauty<br />what is the impact of evolution on beauty?<br />
  45. Darwinian Theory of Beauty<br />For nearly 2000 years, philosophers, artists and scientists have tried to explain beauty using mathematics. <br />WHY?<br /><ul><li>Mathematical idea fits in a general way with platonic or religious ideas about origin of the world
  46. BUT, Measurement systems have failed to turn up a beauty formula!
  47. Another example how ideas of ancient philosophers have misguided later generations
  48. Darwin’s evolution theory led toparadigm shift from an emphasis on mathematics to biology</li></li></ul><li>EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE<br />Darwin: Evolution of Beauty <br />Natural Selection <br />Evolution or co-evolution of peculiar features give advantage to an organism, increasing chance of survival and reproduction<br />2) Sexual Selection<br />Some physical qualities lure the other sex<br /> e.g. Peacock’s tail that not only doesn’t helpwith but impedes survivability<br />Beauty is important in arousing and sustaining interest or even obsession to allow people to make decisions to enhance survival or reproduction<br />
  49. DARWINIAN APPROACH TO BEAUTY<br />Beauty is nature’s way of acting at a distance<br />Evolution’s trick is to make things beautiful, to make them exert a magnetism, and give one pleasuresimply by looking at them<br />The experience of beauty is a component of a series of Darwinian adaptations<br />Universality of our artistic and aesthetic taste can be explained by Darwinian theory of beauty<br />
  50. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />Is beauty a universal concept?<br />“Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder?”<br />How about culture and media influences?<br />
  51. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />ACROSS AGE<br />Even 3 month old infants prefer to gaze at faces that adults find beautiful, including faces from races they have not seen before<br />7 year olds, 12 year olds, 17 year olds and adults do not differ significantly in their ratings of attractiveness of faces of children and adults<br />
  52. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />ACROSS CULTURE<br />Jones and Hill asked people from 5 cultures to rate a multiracial, multicultural set of faces<br />2 isolated tribes, Hiwi and Ache Indians<br />Russian<br />Brazil<br />United States<br />
  53. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />People tend to agree which faces are beautiful and find similar features attractive across ethnically diverse faces<br />All attracted to similar geometric proportions in the face<br /> Female faces with small lower faces (delicate jaws and relatively small chins) and eyes that were large in relation to the length of the face are preferred<br />
  54. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />“Is beauty a universal concept?”<br />Underlying universal mechanisms are responsible for beauty<br />Beauty is an engineered manifestation <br />Perception of beauty features may be governed by circuits shaped by natural selection in the human brain<br />
  55. UNIVERSALITY OF BEAUTY<br />But people still seem to be largely agreeable and consistent in ratings of beauty<br />People quote culture as being important BUT it still requires a basic premise that coheres with human intrinsic preferences of beauty and instinct<br />“Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder?”<br />“How about culture and media influences?”<br />
  56. 6<br />Conclusion<br />thoughts on the history and theories of beauty <br />
  57. CONCLUSION<br />For thousands of years, philosophers, mathematicians and artists have tried to explain beauty using the language of mathematicsbut focus has been on details and intricacies<br />Darwin’s evolution theory provides a big picture: Experience of beauty, with its emotional intensity and pleasure, belongs to our evolved human psychology<br />Darwinian approach can be used to explain the universality and functionality of beauty <br />The answer to questions pertaining to beauty may lie in cognitive neuroscience and biology<br />
  58. History of the Science of Beauty<br />Tan Kok Hong . Lim Kia Mian . Wong RuiXiong<br />