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  1. 1. Biology S.Rucker
  2. 2.  Scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name
  3. 3.  To organize similar organisms  So all scientists are discussing the same organisms (species)  Species  population of organisms that share similar characteristics and can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring  Identified 1.5 million species so far  Estimate 2-100 million have yet to be discovered
  4. 4. What tools can we use to show similarities in organisms?  Cladistic analysis  identifies and considers only those characteristics of organisms that are evolutionary innovations – new characteristics that arise as lineages evolve over time  Cladogram – diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
  5. 5. Modern Evolutionary Classification Darwin’s ideas about descent gave rise to the study of phylogeny – evolutionary relationships among organisms Evolutionary Classification – Grouping of organisms based on evolutionary history
  6. 6. Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Barnacle Limpet Crab Barnacle Limpet Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE CLADOGRAM SIMILARITIES
  7. 7.  Genes of many organisms show important similarities at a molecular level. Similarities in DNA can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships
  8. 8.  Swedish botanist that developed a two-word naming system called BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE  Gives the Genus and species name, written in italics or underlined  Language is usually Latin  Example:  House cat – Felis domesticus  Dog – Canis familaris  Human – Homo sapien
  9. 9.  Domain (most inclusive, less in common)  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species (less inclusive, more in common)  Each level is called a TAXON; taxa (plural)
  10. 10. Black bear Giant Abert Coral Grizzly bear Red fox panda squirrel snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos
  11. 11.  Currently, all organisms are grouped into 1 of 3 domains which reflect evolutionary relationships  1) Bacteria  2) Archaea  3) Eukarya EUKARYA ARCHAEA Kingdoms BACTERIA Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia LUCA – last universal common ancestor
  12. 12.  Contains only one kingdom – Eubacteria Cell type: Prokaryote Cell structures: Cells with peptidoglycan # of cells: Unicellular Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Examples: Streptococcus, Escherichia coli These are your ORDINARY, every-day bacteria.
  13. 13. E. coli This bacterium (brown) is being attacked by dozens of bacteriophages (viruses that attack bacteria)
  14. 14.  Contains only one kingdom – Archaebacteria Cell type: Prokaryote Cell structure: Cell walls without peptidoglycan # of cells: Unicellular Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Examples: Methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles These are your EXTREME ENVIRONMENT organisms. Although they are unicellular, they are probably more closely related to humans than they are to Eubacteria.
  15. 15.  Contains 4 kingdoms  1) Protista  2) Fungi  3) Plantae  4) Animalia
  16. 16.  Cell type: Eukaryote  Cell structures: Cell walls of cellulose in some (but not all), some have chloroplasts  # of cells: Most unicellular; some colonial; some multicellular  Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph  Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp, algae
  17. 17. Bundles of cilia Two protozoans… This one is about to be eaten!
  18. 18.  Cell type: Eukaryote  Cell structures: Cell walls of chitin  # of cells: Most multicellular; some unicellular  Nutrition: Heterotroph  Examples: Mushrooms, yeast, mold
  19. 19. Extreme close-up of the underside of a mushroom, showing the reproductive spores (brown dots).
  20. 20. ExtrEEEEEEEEme closeup of mushroom spores!
  21. 21.  Cell type: Eukaryote  Cell structures: Cell walls of cellulose; chloroplasts  # of cells: Multicellular  Nutrition: Autotroph  Examples: Mosses, ferns, flowering plants
  22. 22.  Cell type: Eukaryote  Cell structures: No cell walls or chloroplasts  # of cells: Multicellular  Nutrition: Heterotroph  Examples: Sponges, jellyfish, sea anemones, worms, insects, fishes, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians
  23. 23.  Kingdom Animalia  Phylum Chordate  Class Mammal  Order Primates  Family Hominidae  Genus Homo  Species Sapiens
  24. 24.  Kingdom Animalia  Phylum Chordate  Class Mammalia  Order Carnivora  Family Felidae  Genus Felis  Species Domestica
  25. 25. Living Things are characterized by Eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells cells Important and differing which place them in characteristics Cell wall Domain such as Eukarya structures which place them in which is subdivided into Kingdom Kingdom Domain Domain Plantae Protista Bacteria Archaea which coincides with which coincides with Kingdom Kingdom Fungi Animalia Kingdom Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebacteria
  26. 26.  Unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus)  May be autotrophic or heterotrophic  Equally small, and appear the same  Lack membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, ER, Golgi, Lysosomes,etc.  Have cell walls, cell membrane & ribosomes  DNA is in the cytoplasm in a circular shape (called nucleoid)
  27. 27. EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA  More diverse  Cell wall lacks  Live almost everywhere peptidoglycan (other organisms, soil,  Different membrane fresh & salt water) lipids  DNA more similar to  Cell wall contains the eukaryotes than to carbohydrate eubacteria, suggesting peptidoglycan eukaryotes descended from archaebacteria  Live in harsh conditions
  28. 28. Ribosome Cell Cell Peptidoglycan wall membrane Flagellum DNA Pili
  29. 29.  Prokaryotes are identified based on:  1) Shape  2) Cell wall composition  3) Method of movement
  30. 30.  Rod shaped (bacilli)  Spherical (cocci)  Spirilla (spiral & corkscrew-shaped)
  31. 31. GRAM-POSITIVE GRAM-NEGATIVE  After “Gram staining”  After “Gram staining” they appear purpleish they appear pinkish  Has thick layer of  Has thin layer of peptidoglycan peptidoglycan  Eg) B. anthracis  Eg) E. coli (Anthrax!)  Less often pathogenic  Usually associated with most pathogenic bacteria
  32. 32. Gram-positive cocci Gram-negative bacillus
  33. 33.  Some don‟t move on their own  Others move by:  1) flagella  2) lash, snake or spiral forward  3) glide slowly along a layer of slime-like material they secrete
  34. 34.  Obligate aerobes – must have oxygen to survive  (Obligate means that the organisms are obliged, or required, by their life processes to live only in that particular way)  Eg) Mycobacterium tuberculosis which causes TB  Obligate anaerobes – killed by oxygen  Eg) Clostridium botulinum can grow in canned food that hasn‟t been sterilized properly  Facultative anaerobes – survive with or without oxygen  Metabolic pathways can alternate between using oxygen or not using it.  Eg) E. coli is a facultative anaerobe that lives anaerobically in the large intestine and aerobically in sewage or contaminated water.
  35. 35.  Asexual using binary fission  DNA is replicated, cell splits in two. Similar to mitosis.  Can happen as quickly as 20 minutes.
  36. 36.  Mutations – mistakes during DNA replication  Conjugation – the exchange of plasmid DNA between two bacteria  Can form a pili (tube-like structure) that serves as a transfer tunnel for the plasmid  Transformation - engulf “naked” DNA from the environment and incorporate it into their genome  Scientists “transform” bacteria to produce insulin
  37. 37. Pili
  38. 38.  Can form endospores  A thick-walled internal structure that protects the DNA and some cytoplasm during periods of environmental stress (drought, temp, lack of nutrients)  Lay “dormant” (inactive) as an endospore until environmental conditions improve
  39. 39. Disease Pathogen Prevention Tooth decay Streptococcus mutans Regular dental hygiene Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi Protection from tick bites Tetanus Clostridium tetani Current tetanus vaccination Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccination Salmonella food poisoning Salmonella enteritidis Proper food-handling practices Pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Maintaining good health Cholera Vibrio cholerae Clean water supplies
  40. 40.  Antibiotics – chemicals used to treat bacterial infection (kill bacteria)  Antibiotic resistance – when populations of bacteria are no longer killed by a particular antibiotic  Results from OVERUSE of antibiotics  Happens quickly because bacteria reproduce so quickly, and “resistant” strains develop rapidly  This is evolution in action!
  41. 41.  some species live in the roots of plants and help plants absorb nitrogen from the soil  some decay organic material allowing it to be recycled  Used in sewage treatment  used to make cheeses, sauerkraut, pickles  used in pharmaceutical industry to make drugs  Some cause disease such as tuberculosis, syphilis, scarlet fever, food poisoning, Lyme disease
  42. 42. The good… …the bad… …and the ugly.
  43. 43.  Multicellular except for yeast  Eukaryotic heterotrophs  Extracellular digestion - Fungi secrete enzymes into the environment, break down organic matter, then absorb the small nutrient particles  Major decomposers  Most are saprobes – digest nonliving organic matter  Some are parasites, feeding off other living organisms
  44. 44. Star stinkhorn fungi
  45. 45.  Body consists of cells joined to create filaments  Each microscopic filament of a fungus is called a hypha  Hyphae may form a huge tangled interwoven network called mycelium which can become visible  bread mold  Cell walls are made of a polysaccharide called chitin
  46. 46. Nuclei Cell wall Cytoplasm Cross wall Nuclei Cytoplasm Cell wall Hyphae With Cross Walls Hyphae Without Cross Walls
  47. 47. Fruiting body Hyphae Mycelium
  48. 48.  Most often is asexual  Filaments break from the main mycelium and grow into new, identical individuals  Fungus may produce spores  Spores disperse, germinate, divide, and produce genetically identical fungi  Spores can withstand extreme dryness and cold  Sexual reproduction occurs  No males or females, only (+) and (-) types  Can happen when wandering hyphae meet
  49. 49.  Lichens are associations between fungi and cyanobacteria or algae  Cyanobacteria or algae are the photosynthetic elements  Example of mutualism – a symbiotic relationship where both parties benefit  The bacteria or algae provide nutrients for themselves and the fungus  The fungus provides water and minerals for their metabolism  Lichens exists in harsh habitats  Can be found on mountaintops, rock faces in the desert, and tree bark  Often first to enter barren environments, breaking down rocks – help in early stages of soil formation
  50. 50. General structure of lichens Densely packed hyphae Layer of algae/ cyanobacteria Loosely packed hyphae Densely packed hyphae
  51. 51.  Heterotrophic Eukaryotes  Mostly multicelluar  Cell walls made of CHITIN  Mostly DECOMPOSERS and SAPROBES  Use EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION  Mold, mildew, yeast, mushroom, shelf fungi, ringworm
  52. 52. Fungus Among Us
  53. 53.  Includes everything except plants, animals, fungi & bacteria.  In other words, they are the “everything else” kingdom.  Very diverse group (over 200,000 species)  All are eukaryotes (have a nucleus).  Most unicellular, but some multicellular  Believed to be the first eukaryotic organisms on Earth.  “Protista” is Greek for “the very first”  Biologists don‟t all agree on how to classify protists.  Usually based on how they obtain nutrition – this is the system you will learn.
  54. 54.  Animal-like Protists – aka. “Protozoans”  Zooflagellates, Sarcodines, Ciliates, Sporozoans  Plant-like Protists – aka. “Algae”  Unicellular Algae  Euglenophytes, Chrysophytes, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates  Multicellular Algae  Red, Brown and Green Algae  Fungus-like Protists  Slime molds, water mold
  55. 55.  Commonly called protozoans  All are heterotrophic  Grouped into four major phyla  Distinguished by their method of movement  All are unicellular
  56. 56.  Phylum: Zoomastigina  Characteristics:  Swim using 1, 2, or many flagella  Absorb food through cell membrane  Live in lakes, streams, and inside larger organisms  Reproduction: usually asexual, but sometimes sexual  Example:  Trichomonas vaginalis – species that causes Trichomonias, an STD affecting ~180 million people worldwide each year.  Trypanosoma – causes African sleeping sickness  Giardia – one more reason you don‟t drink stream water w/out boil
  57. 57.  Phylum: Sarcodina  Characteristics:  Move and feed with pseudopods (“false feet”)  The cytoplasm of the cell streams into the pseudopod, and the rest of the cell follows. This is called amoeboid movement.  Food is surrounded by a pseudopod and taken into the cell.  Some form tough outer shells and extend their pseudopods through openings in the shell.  Reproduction: asexual  Example:  Amoebas  Entamoeba causes amebic dysentery. Pseudopods
  58. 58.  Phylum: Ciliophora  Characteristics:  Use cilia for feeding and movement  Found in fresh & salt water  Complex internal structure  Important feature: Contractile vacuole  Specialized to collect excess water and pump it out – maintains stable internal environment (homeostasis)  Reproduction: usually asexual  Example:  Parameciumb
  59. 59.  Phylum: Sporozoa  Characteristics:  Do not move on their own  Parasitic – affect worms, fish, birds & humans  Reproduction: sexual and asexual  Example:  Plasmodium causes malaria. Plasmodium reproduces sexually inside the female Anopheles mosquito without harming the mosquito. Mosquito bites transfer sporozoites into human blood – sporozoites reproduce asexually inside humans and destroy liver and blood cells.
  60. 60.  Play essential roles in the living world  Recycle nutrients  Many organisms depend on them for food  Cause enormous amounts of disease  Fun example: Termites  Termites eat wood, but do not have the necessary enzymes to break down the cellulose in wood. The zooflagellate Trichonympha lives inside the termites gut and produces cellulase, an enzyme that breaks down the cellulose so termites can absorb the nutrients.
  61. 61.  Commonly called Algae  Grouped into four major phyla  All unicellular  Autotrophic  Absorb light with pigments (chlorophyll mainly)  Some have accessory pigments, which absorb wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot – increases efficiency.
  62. 62.  Phlyum: Euglenophyta  Characteristics:  Two flagella, no cell wall, chloroplasts  In low light, can become heterotrophic  Very similar to zooflagellates  Reproduction: asexual – binary fission  Example:  Euglena
  63. 63.  Phylum: Chrysophyta  Characteristics:  Chloroplasts contain bright yellow pigments, making chloroplast appear golden.  Store food as oil instead of starch  Reproduction: asexual and sexual  Examples:  Yellow-green algae  Golden-brown algae
  64. 64.  Phylum: Bacillariophyta  Characteristics:  Produce thin, delicate cell walls rich in silicon – the main component of glass.  Amazing array of shapes
  65. 65.  Phlyum: Pyrrophyta  Characteristics:  Half are photosynthetic, half are heterotrophic  Two flagella  Thick, external plates made of cellulose for protection  Many are luminescent (give off light) when agitated  Pyrrophyta means “fire plants”  Reproduction: asexual – binary fission  Example:  Gonyaulax – causes “red tides”  (read on for more info)
  66. 66.  Common in fresh & salt water  Important part of aquatic ecosystems  Produce about half of the oxygen in the atmosphere  Can cause serious problems  Algal “blooms”  Rapid population growth caused by increase in available nutrients (sewage, fertilizer runoff from fields)  Can have drastic effects on the fish and insects nearby  Example – Dinoflagellates Gonyaulax and Karenia  Blooms of these produce the “red tide” because they are red in color  Also produce a potentially dangerous toxin – filter-feeding clams eat the dinoflagellates, and the toxins accumulate in the clam. Eating clams and other shellfish with these toxins can cause serious illness, paralysis, and even death in humans and fish.
  67. 67. Red Tide – La Jolla, California
  68. 68.  Multicellular  Very similar to plants  Live in water  Grouped into three major phyla  Sorted by their photosynthetic pigments
  69. 69.  Phylum: Rhodophyta  Characteristics:  Live almost entirely in salt-water  Contain chlorophyll a and phycobilin (a red pigment)  Can live at great depths  Play role in formation of coral reefs
  70. 70.  Phlyum: Phaeophyta  Characteristics:  Live almost entirely in salt water  Contain chlorophyll a and c as well as fucoxanthin (a brown pigment)  Examples:  Giant Kelp  Rockweed (Fucus) – found on rocky coast of eastern US
  71. 71. Kelp
  72. 72.  Phlyum: Chlorophyta  Characteristics:  Live in fresh water and salt water  Unicellular or multicellular  Food stored as starch  Chlorophylls and accessory pigments similar to land plants  Reproduction:  Some sexual, some asexual  Some have a diploid and haploid stage – called alternation of generations  Examples:  Ulva (sea lettuce)  Volvox
  73. 73.  Major food source for life in the oceans  Major source of oxygen on Earth  Algae offers many valuable chemicals  Treat stomach ulcers, high blood pressure, arthritis; make plastics, waxes, transistors, deodorants, toothpaste, paint, lubricants, artificial wood  Often eaten!  Used in sushi, ice cream, salad dressing, pudding & candy bars  Can cause economic & health problems  Toxins produced by “Red Tide” dinoflagellates
  74. 74.  Heterotrophic – absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter  Lack chitin in their cell walls (fungi has chitin)  Live on land and water  Complex life cycles
  75. 75.  Phylum: Acrasiomycota & Myxomycota  Characteristics:  Spend most life as free-living cells similar to amoebas  When food supply is limited, go through a complex reproduction process:  1) individuals send chemical signals that attract other cells of same species  2) Thousands of cells aggregate into a large slug-like colony that begins to function as a single organism  3) The colony migrates for several centimeters then stops to produce a fruiting body which produces spores  4) Spores are scattered and develop into the single amoeba- like cells we started with.  5) The cycle continues
  76. 76.  Phylum: Oomycota  Characteristics:  Thrive on dead or decaying organic matter in water (and sometimes land)  Not true fungi  Often grows in a manner similar to fungus  Reproduction:  Complex lifecycle involving sexual and asexual reproduction
  77. 77.  Important as recyclers of organic material  Produce rich topsoil  Cause plant diseases  Mildew, blights of grapes and tomatoes  Responsible for potato famine of 1846 in Ireland  Destroyed potato crop – 1 million people died of starvation, and another 1 million or so emigrated to the US and other countries.
  78. 78.  All plants share the common ancestor of green algae  Plants have adapted to live on land  Characteristics:  The same photosynthetic pigments in similar chloroplasts  Cell walls with cellulose  Food stored as starch  Multicellular eukaryotes
  79. 79.  Four major groups based on differences in:  Water-conducting tissues  Seeds  Flowers
  80. 80. Cladogram of the major plant types Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Flowers; Seeds Mosses and Enclosed in Fruit their relatives Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue Green algae ancestor (a protist)
  81. 81.  Non-Vascular  lack vascular tissue for long-distance transportation of water and solutes; lack true roots, leaves or stems  Vascular  Have tissue specialized for the long-distance transport of water and solutes through a plant; have true roots, leaves and stems  Much like a circulatory system
  82. 82.  Called Bryophytes  Includes: Mosses & Liverworts  Cannot retain water or deliver it to other parts of the plant body  Water must be absorbed directly from the surrounding air or another nearby source  Small, short, require water for sperm/egg union
  83. 83. Life cycle of Mosses Protonema Haploid (N) (young gametophyte) Diploid (2N) Spores (N) MEIOSIS Male (N) gametophyte Female gametophyte Mature sporophyte (2N) Capsule (sporangium) Antheridia Sperm Archegonia Gametophyte Young (N) (N) sporophyte (2N) Zygote (2N) Sperm Gametophyte (N) (N) Egg (N) FERTILIZATION
  84. 84. Liverwort video portal
  85. 85.  90% of all modern plants have vascular tissue & have true roots, leaves, & stems  Characterized by the presence of a vascular system composed of two types of specialized tissue  Xylem – tissue that carries the water and dissolved minerals upward in a plant  made of dead cells  Phloem – tissue conducts sugars and some water upward and downward in a plant (sap)  made of living cells  Both xylem & phloem are distributed throughout the roots, leaves & stem
  86. 86.  Roots  Underground organs that absorb water and minerals; anchor plant  Leaves  Photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue gathered into veins made of xylem and phloem; contain pores (stomata) for exchange of CO2 and O2  Stems  Supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them.
  87. 87.  Seedless  Seeded  Ferns produce spores  Plants produce male (not seeds) by meiosis and female gametes and store them in cases (pollen/egg) which join on the underside of the to form an embryo. A leaf (frond) protective seed coat surrounds the embryo  Once spores are and provides released, they nourishment during germinate into small early stages of plants if they reach development. moist ground  Other examples  Club mosses & horsetails
  88. 88. Undersides of fern fronds, showing the bundles (sori) that contain spores. Ferns do not produce flowers or seeds!
  89. 89. Life cycle of a fern MEIOSIS Sporangium (2N) Haploid gametophyte (N) Diploid sporophyte (2N) Frond Young gametophyte Spores (N) Mature (N) sporophyte (2N) Developing sporophyte Mature (2N) Antheridium gametophyte (N) Sperm Gametophyte (N) Egg Sporophyte embryo (2N) Archegonium FERTILIZATION
  90. 90.  Gymnosperms  vascular plants that  Angiosperms produce seeds  vascular plants that lacking a protective produce seeds fruit enclosed and  gymnosperm means protected by a fruit “naked seed”  Are flowering plants  Eg) conifers – firs,  Oak, tulip, spruce, pines, cedar grass, corn, tomatoes
  91. 91. #1 #2
  92. 92.  Flowers– used in sexual reproduction of angiosperms Stamen Pistil  Pistil (female part) Anther Stigma Style  Ovary (produce eggs) Filament Ovary  Style (stalk that holds stigma)  Stigma (sticky pollen collector)  Stamen (male part)  Anther (produce pollen)  Filament (stalk that holds anther)  Petals – attract pollinators  Sepals – protect young flower as it develops Petal Sepal
  93. 93.  Cuticle – layer of waxes on outer surface that helps prevent loss of water  Epidermis – one cell thick layer that secretes the cuticle  Stomata – openings for diffusion  Guard cells – two cells on either side of stomata that allow diffusion of CO2, oxygen and water vapor into and out of plant for photosynthesis
  94. 94. Guard cells Guard cells Inner cell wall Inner cell wall Stoma Stoma Open Stoma Closed
  95. 95. Cuticle Veins Epidermis Xylem Vein Phloem Epidermis Stoma Guard cells
  96. 96. Relative numbers of plant species Cone-bearing plants 760 species (gymnosperms) Ferns and Flowering their relatives plants 11,000 species 235,000 species (seedless (angiosperms) vascular) Mosses and their relatives 15,600 species (nonvascular)
  97. 97.  Multicellular (more than 1 cell)  Eukaryotic (cells have nucleus)  Heterotrophic (can‟t make own food)  No cell walls (only a membrane)
  98. 98.  Most animals have tissues  Tissue - Group of cells that perform a similar function  Eg. muscular, connective, nervous  All tissues arise from 3 embryonic (“primitive”) layers  Ectoderm (outer layer)  Mesoderm (middle layer)  Endoderm (inner layer)  More primitive layers = more specialization can occur during development
  99. 99.  With the exception of sponges, every animal is symmetrical  Two types of symmetry:  Radial – any number of imaginary planes can be drawn through the center, each dividing the body into equal halves  Eg) bike tire, cantaloupe, beach ball  Bilateral – only a single imaginary plane can divide the body into two equal halves  Have a left/right, usually have front/back and upper/lower
  100. 100. Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry Posterior end Anterior end Plane of symmetry Planes of symmetry
  101. 101.  Animals with bilateral symmetry usually show cephalization.  Cephalization – the concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front end of the body  Cephal- Latin for “head”  Cephalization allows animals to respond to the environment more quickly and in more complex ways than simpler creatures
  102. 102.  Invertebrates (95% of animal species)  No backbone  insects, sea stars, jellyfish, sponges, worms  Vertebrates (5% of animal species)  Have a backbone  Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  103. 103. Arthropod Brain Ganglia Ganglia Brain Nerve Cells Flatworm Cnidarian Mollusk
  104. 104.  Kingdom  Phlyum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species  In order of simple  complex
  105. 105.  The most simple animals  These are the sponges  No tissues, organs, mouth or gut  Have a few specialized cells  Have thousands of pores all over body
  106. 106. Water flow Central cavity Choanocyte Pores Spicule Pore cell Pore Epidermal cell Archaeocyte  The movement of water through the sponge provides a simple mechanism for feeding, respiration, circulation, and excretion.
  107. 107.  Radial symmetry  Have stinging tentacles arranged in circles around mouth  Specialized cells with barbs & poison  Simplest animals with symmetry & specialized tissues  Hydras, jellyfishes, sea anemones & corals
  108. 108. Epidermis Mesoglea Gastroderm Tentacles Mesoglea Gastrovascular cavity Mouth/anus Mouth/anus Gastrovascular Tentacles cavity Medusa Polyp  Life cycle of cnidarians includes the polyp and medusa form  Polyp – mouth points upward, usually sessile (attached to bottom)  Medusa – mobile, bell-shaped body with the mouth on bottom
  109. 109. Structure of nematocyst – “Stinging cell” – for which Cnidarians get their name.
  110. 110.  Simple worms  Includes: tapeworms and flukes  Soft, worms with simple tissues and organ systems  Cephalization & bilateral symmetry  Some are free-living, some are parasites
  111. 111. Eyespot Ganglia Freshwater flatworms have simple ganglia and nerve cords Head Nerve that run the length of the body. Gastrovascular cords The excretory system consists cavity of a network of tubules connected to flame cells that Flatworms use a pharynx to suck remove excess water and cell food into the gastrovascular cavity. Excretory wastes. Digested food diffuses from the system cavity into other cells of the body. Eyespots in some Ovary species detect light. Testes Mouth Pharynx Most flatworms are hermaphrodites, having male reproductive organs (testes) and female reproductive organs (ovaries) in the same organism. Flame cell Excretory tubule
  112. 112.  Earthworms, leeches & more  Have segmented bodies  Complex organ systems
  113. 113. Anus Setae Body segments Gizzard Crop Dorsal blood vessel Clitellum Mouth Brain Ganglion Circular muscle Ventral blood vessel Longitudinal Nephridia Ganglia Ring Reproductive muscle vessels organs
  114. 114. Annelid or human?
  115. 115.  Mollusks – snails, slugs, clams, squid, octopi  Soft-bodied animals  Usually have internal or external shell  All have a body plan with 4 major parts:  Foot, mantle, shell, internal organs
  116. 116. Squid Snail Shell Mantle cavity Foot Clam Gills Early Digestive tract mollusk
  117. 117. Nudibranchs -see latest issue of National Geographic for amazing pictures
  118. 118.  Insects, crustaceans, spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, lobsters  Segmented body, tough exoskeleton, jointed appendages (legs & antennae)  Complex tissues & organ systems Famous ancient sea-dwelling arthropod: Trilobites!
  119. 119. Arthropod or human?
  120. 120.  Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea lilies, sand dollars, brittle stars  Spiny skin, internal skeleton, suction-cuplike tube feet  Usually 5-part radial symmetry
  121. 121.  Vertebrates (backbone)  (exception: tunicates and lancelets)  Backbone consisting of individual segments called vertebrae  We will look at the major classes
  122. 122.  Sharks, rays, skates  Skeletons made of cartilage, not bone  Teeth are made of bone!
  123. 123.  Bony fishes  Skeletons made of bone
  124. 124. 1) Agnatha Jawless fish Ex. Lamprey, hagfish
  125. 125.  Amphibians! (salamanders, frogs, toads)  Water & Land life stages  Breathes with lungs as adult  A lungless frog has been found (April „08)  Moist skin with mucous glands  Lacks scales & claws
  126. 126.  Snakes, turtles, lizards  Dry, scaly skin  Lungs  Terrestrial (land) eggs  Ecotherms
  127. 127.  Birds!  Endotherms (regulate own body temp)  Feathers  2 legs covered with scales  Front limbs modified into wings
  128. 128.  Mammals!  HAIR  MAMMARY GLANDS (produce milk)  Breathe air
  129. 129. Chinese Pangolin Nine-Banded Armadillo Common Echidna Giant Anteater Aardvark