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  3. ACKOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my Biology teacher “Mrs. Geeta Sahi Ma`am” for their able guidance and support in completing my project. I would like to extend my gratitude to my parents and friends for helping me and providing me all the facilities needed for this. RUCHIKA SINGH , 10TH `B` Army Public School.AGRA
  4. INTRODUCT ION Mucormycosis, a serious fungal infection but otherwise rare, has been observed in a number of Covid-19 patients recently. While there is no major outbreak, the national Covid task force has issued an advisory. A rare but serious fungal infection, known as mucormycosis and colloquially as “black fungus”, is being detected relatively frequently among Covid-19 patients in some states. The disease often manifests in the skin and also affects the lungs and the brain. With a number of mucormycosis cases detected in Delhi, Maharashtra and Gujarat,
  5. WHAT IS MUCORMYCOSIS? Although rare, it is a serious infection. It is caused by a group of moulds known as mucormycetes present naturally in the environment. It mainly affects people who are on medication for health problems that reduces their ability to fight environmental pathogens, say experts from the Covid-19 task force task force. Sinuses or lungs of such individuals get affected after they inhale fungal spores from the air. Doctors in some states have noted a rise in cases of mucormycosis among people hospitalized or recovering from Covid 19, with some requiring urgent surgery. Usually, mucormycetes does not pose a major threat to those with a healthy immune system.
  6. CAUSES Mucormycetes are a type of mould that causes fungal infections. These moulds can be found everywhere in the environment, including soil, air, and food. They enter the body via the nose, mouth, or eyes and can have an impact on the brain if it is not treated on time. According to medical experts, the main cause of black fungus (mucormycosis) is steroid misuse during COVID treatment. Black fungus (mucormycosis) primarily affects people who have health problems or who take medications that reduce the body's ability to fight germs and illness. The person's immunity is low after covid treatment, which makes them vulnerable to black fungus infection. People with diabetes and COVID-19 patients are at greater risk of developing an infection.
  7. SYMPTO MS Fever,headache Swelling on one side of the face Pain and redness around the eyes and nose Coughing Shortness of breathe Bloody vomits Altered mental status Discolouration around the bridge of the nose
  8. CAUTION If your skin is infected, the affected area may appear blistered, red, or swollen. It may turn black, feel warm, or be painful. Through your blood, the infection can also spread to other parts of your body. This is referred to as disseminated black fungus (mucormycosis). When this occurs, the fungus can attack organs such as your spleen and heart. In severe cases, you may experience mental changes or fall into a coma. It can even be fatal.
  9. TREATMENT Mucormycosis treatment must be fast and aggressive. The concern is due to the fact that by the time even a presumptive diagnosis is made, the patient has often suffered significant tissue damage which cannot be reversed. Most patients will need surgical and medical treatment. Most infectious disease experts say that without aggressive surgical debridement of the infected area, the patient is likely to die. Medicines play an important role. Two main aims are sought simultaneously: antifungal drugs to slow or stop the fungal spread and drugs to treat debilitating underlying diseases. Amphotericin B (initially intravenous) is the usual drug of choice for antifungal therapy. .
  10. MEDICINA L TREATME NT Posaconazole or isavuconazole can treat mucormycosis. Patients may even require an intravenous antifungal procedure lasting 4 -6 weeks. Patients with underlying diseases like diabetes need to be in optimal control of their diabetes. Patients normally on steroids or taking deferoxamine (Desferal; used to remove excess iron from the body) are likely to have these drugs stopped because they can increase the survival of fungi in the body. Patients may need additional surgeries and usually need antifungal treatment for an extended period (weeks to months) depending on the severity of the disease
  11. CASES IN INDIA Black Fungus, a potentially fatal condition that is increasingly seen in recovering Covid patients, with 31,216 cases and 2,109 deaths in the country has grown over 150 per cent over the last three weeks, putting additional stress on an already embattled healthcare system fighting off the deadly second surge of Covid wave. The increase in numbers is driven, in part, by severe shortage of the key drug - Amphotericin-B - to treat affected patients.
  12. CASES IN UTTAR PRADESH Over 100 people have died of mucormycosis or black fungus disease in Uttar Pradesh till date, according to the state government. The number of the fungal infection has also crossed 1,500. However, the state government on Monday said that with a sharp decline in Covid cases in the last few days, the black fungus cases have also started to decline. Most of the mucormycosis cases are being reported in those above 40 years old who have diabetes. The UP government categorised mucormycosis as a “notified disease” in the third week of May as cases rose.