Agile Development Vs Waterfall Model
Agile Software Development Methodologies
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Agile software development is collection of software development
It is based on iterative and incremental software development methods.
team can be more efficient in responding to change
if it can reduce the cost of moving information between people and
decrease the time elapsed between making a decision to seeing the
consequences of that decision.
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Goldman in 1995 said:
“Agility is dynamic, context-specific, aggressively change-embracing, and
It is not about improving efficiency, cutting costs, or battening down the
business hatches to ride out fearsome competitive storms.
It is about succeeding and about winning: about succeeding in emerging
competitive arenas, and about winning profits, market share, and customers in
the very center of the competitive storms many companies now fear.”
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5. AGILE MANIFESTO
In February 2001, a group of 17 software expert comprised
Creator of XP(Extreme Programming), Scrum, DSDM(Dynamic
System Development Method),and others,
got together to talk about lightweight methods.
They come to a decision to use the term agile to explain new class of agile
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6. AGILE VALUES
Individual and their interactions over processes and tools
Delivering working software over comprehensive documentations
Customer Collaboration over contract negotiations
Responding to change over a following plan.
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7. AGILE PRINCIPLES
1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous
delivery of valuable software.
2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile
processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of
months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the
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8. AGILE PRINCIPLES
5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment
and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and
within a development team is face-to- face conversation.
7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors,
developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely
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9. AGILE PRINCIPLES
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances
10. Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential.
11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-
12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective,
then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
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10. AGILE DEVELOPMENT VS
70 percent of software projects using this methodology fail to meet their
Water fall model features
distinct phases with checkpoints and at each phase are deliverable
have iterations rather than phases.
Each iteration output is running code that can be used to estimate and
answer to changing and evolving user requirements.
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In waterfall model, one phase makes difficult to create last minute changes in
requirements or design,
13. EXTREME PROGRAMMING(XP)
developed by Programmer Kent Beck
XP guarantee that—to work on the things that actually matter every day.
alone wont face scary situations.
Everything will be in their power to make system successful, and make decision
that can make best.
For customer and managers
XP guarantees—to get the most possible value out of every programming week.
In few weeks –able to see concrete progress on their require set of objectives.
able to alter the track of the project in the middle of development without incurring
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14. XP FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
1. Rapid Feedback
to obtain feedback, understand it, and place as soon as possible what is learned back
into the system
2. Assume Simplicity
Treat every problem with ridiculous simplicity—saves time on the 98 percent of
problems for which it is true
3. Incremental Change
problem can be solved in series of smallest changes that actually make difference.
4. Embracing Change
preserves the most choices while in reality solving most fundamental problem.
5. Quality Work
four project development variables scope, cost, time and quality
possible values to perform good job are “excellent” and “insanely excellent
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15. EXTREME PROGRAMMING
1. Planning Game
Quickly determine the scope of the next release by combining business priorities
and technical estimates.
2. Small Release
Each release should be as small as possible, and include the most valuable business
Guide all development with a simple shared story of how the whole system works.
4. Simple Design
The correct design for the software at any specified time is one that runs:
Run all test, no duplicate logic, has fewest possible classes and methods
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16. EXTREME PROGRAMMING
Programmers write unit tests and customer writes functional test
improvement in communication, simplify or add flexibility by reforming
the system without altering its performance to eliminate duplication
7. Pair Programming
all production code is written with two programmers at one machine
8. Collective Ownership
anyone can change any code anywhere in the system at any time
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17. EXTREME PROGRAMMING
9. Continuous Integration
Integrate and build the system after a completion of every task.
10. 40 Hours Week
Never work overtime a second week in a row.
11. On-site Customer
Include a real, live user on the team, available full-time to answer questions
12. Coding Standards
Programmers write all code in accordance with rules emphasizing
communication through the code.
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The term Scrum was coined by Takeuchi, DeGrace, Schwaber, in the late
drastic simplification of project management
based on iterative development
comprises of three roles, three documents, and three meetings
19. ROLES OF SCRUM
1. Product Owner
make sure that he/she is representing the interest of all stakeholders
providing the requirements funds the project as well as signs off on any
writes customer-centric items (typically user stories),
prioritizes them, and appends them to the product backlog
role cannot be combined with that of Scrum Master.
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20. ROLES OF SCRUM
2. Scrum Master
Represents management to the project
make sure that the team is delivering high quality and is not cutting quality
to get the job done
check the team, verify that the test cases and code reviews are done,
Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive
Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions
Shield the team from external interferences
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21. ROLES OF SCRUM
Typically 3-9 people
Analyzers, programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc.
Members should be full-time
May be exceptions (e.g., database administrator)
Teams are self-organizing
Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility
Membership should change only between sprints
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22. DOCUMENTS OF SCRUM
1. Product Backlog
All requirements are collected and prioritized in single list
It is the master list of all functionality desired in the product
each item in the product backlog has a description, a priority and an
estimate of the effort needed to complete it.
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23. DOCUMENTS OF SCRUM
2. Sprint Backlog
In Scrum project development is done in small iterations, and termed as
Each sprint is small and manageable iteration.
It comprised design, development, testing and documentation.
duration of sprint is usually about 2-4 weeks.
At the start of a sprint, the team picks most important use cases that can
be delivered in that current iteration.
The list of those use case is called “Sprint Backlog ”.
Sprint backlog is the subset of product backlog.
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24. DOCUMENTS OF SCRUM
3. Sprint Result
The use cases that are completed during that sprint are documented as
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25. MEETINGS OF SCRUM
1. Sprint Planning Meeting
Held in the beginning of every new sprint planning
In this meeting, the product owner and the scrum master
decide on the sprint backlog, on the basis of requirements which are
prioritized by the product owner,
therefore on what the team can commit to deliver in one sprint.
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26. MEETINGS OF SCRUM
2. Scrum Meeting/ Daily Scrum Meetings
Held every day
moderates by scrum master
short 15 minutes project meeting throughout the project
Exchange information what was achieved in the last 24 hrs, and
what was the problems faced that need to be discussed.
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27. MEETINGS OF SCRUM
3. Sprint Review
In the end of each daily sprint meeting
scrum master, team and product owner along with the stakeholders meet
again to review the result achieved during the iteration.
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to explore the Agile Software Development methodologies
(such as Extreme Programming, SCRUM).
observed that agile software methodology is growing
software development methodology.
Most companies and most people are adopting agile
software development methodologies
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C. Martin, S. Mellor, K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland, and D. Thomas, “Manifesto
for agile software development,” 2001.[Online]. Available:
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 W. W. Royce, “Managing the development of large software systems:
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 K. Beck, Extreme programming explained: embrace change. Boston, MA,
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