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Semantic Technologies for Copyright Management

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Introduction to the semantic technologies for copyright management put into practice in the context of the MediaMixer project. Presentation at the 1st Winter School on Multimedia Processing and Applications (WMPA'14) organised by the MediaMixer project and colocated with the MultiMedia Modelling Conference (MMM'14) in Dublin, Ireland.

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie

Semantic Technologies for Copyright Management

  1. 1. Semantic Technologies for Copyright Management Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain 1st Winter School on Multimedia Processing and Applications (WMPA‘14) January 6th, 2014, Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions Slide 2 of 58 2
  3. 3. Motivation • Why copyright management on the Web is more important than ever? • And why Digital Rights Management isn’t enough? • Why semantic technologies seem a good choice for Web-scale copyright management? Slide 3 of 58
  4. 4. Motivation - Use Case • Web media business models go beyond digital version of “copy/distribute” vinyls, cassettes, CDs, DVDs,… • Growing Streaming (Spotify, Pandora, Netflix, Hulu…) • Promising big scale remixing (make money if others reuse your content): User Generated Content (UGC) Slide 4 of 58
  5. 5. Motivation - Use Case • UGC from reused media © © Slide 5 of 58
  6. 6. Motivation - Use Case match AudioID © match match VideoID © Slide 6 of 58
  7. 7. Motivation - Use Case match © Choices: Block Track Monetize “Gangnam Style”, +33,000 videos using it, more than $870,000 ad revenue - New York Times, Dec 7th 2012 Slide 7 of 58
  8. 8. Motivation - Use Case • What if more than one ownership claim? © match match © • If disputed, no one can monetize Slide 8 of 58
  9. 9. Motivation - Use Case Are we sure we can claim? Do we own that particular copy? In that territory? Also streaming on YouTube? Does the artist authorise YouTube? • … DRM  Copyright Management • • • • • Slide 9 of 58
  10. 10. Motivation - Use Case …1000s of pieces of registered content… …1000s of videos on YouTube… •Decision Support System (DSS): – Disputes with Media.com on A and B, can we claim? t A an im C a l C B o nn im Ca la C – Trade A for B with Media.com (both win, start to get revenue) Slide 10 of 58
  11. 11. Motivation - Use Case • Rights DSS requirements: – Fine grained – Scalable (largely automatized) – Takes into account: • Contracts “…all rights on the live version but studio version just in the US.” • Policies “…artist does not want his music together with violent images”. • Rights Expression Languages DDEX metadata: <UseType>OnDemandStream</UseType> <TerritoryCode>Worldwide</TerritoryCode> Slide 11 of 58
  12. 12. Media Fragment Monetize “Bullet in a Bible” in YouTube.com? Green Day’s Contract: Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid “Avoid making available making available our work our work together with together with war images” war images” “Bullet In A Bible” – Green Day Digital Operations says YES but we should check Green Day’s contract… Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15</StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>OnDemandStream </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet</DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US</TerritoryCode>... Slide 12 of 58
  13. 13. Seeing Syria's War Through the Lens topic dbpedia:Category:Syrian_civil_war by SOPHIA JONES - October 09, 2012 http://www.npr.org Semantic Semantic Media Media Annotation Annotation broader dbpedia:Category:War dbpedia:Green_Day part of topic schema:CreativeWork author part of author “Bullet In A Bible” – Green Day schema:CreativeWork Green Day’s Contract: Green Day’s Contract: “Avoid “Avoid making available making available our work our work together with together with war content” war content” Rights Builder Rights Builder User Interface User Interface Isrc:USREV0500293 theme theme subClassOf cro:MakeAvailable ee gr sa Di sameAs ddex:AdSupported Streaming RDF Store & RDF Store & Reasoner Reasoner A g e re medium ddex:Internet is a Isrc:USREV0500293 theme ddex:AdSupporte dStreaming medium http://youtube.com ? Rights Language Rights Language Mapping Mapping Digital Operations (DDEX) <isrc>USREV0500293</isrc> <DealTerms> <ValidityPeriod> <StartDate>2005-11-15 </StartDate> </ValidityPeriod> <Usage> <UseType>AdSupportedStreaming </UseType> <DistributionChannelType> Internet <DistributionChannelType> </Usage> <TerritoryCode>US </TerritoryCode>... Slide 13 of 58
  14. 14. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic DRM Slide 14 of 58 14
  15. 15. Introduction • Digital media: easy production and copy • Digital Rights Management (DRM) DRM copy play … • Windows Media DRM, iTunes FairPlay, RealNetworks Helix, Sony MagicGate… Slide 15 of 58
  16. 16. Introduction • Internet: easy distribution • DRM interoperability DRM DRM DRM REL Slide 16 of 58
  17. 17. Introduction • Need for a standard REL (Rights Expression Language) • Some efforts: – XML-based RELs • Formal syntax XML Schema for standard grammar • Informal semantics Rights Data Dictionaries – Creative Commons simple predefined licenses …but copyright management Slide 17 of 58
  18. 18. Introduction • XML-based RELs: – Limited expressivity – No interoperability mechanisms – Informal semantics, re-implement for each tool • Creative Commons: – Predefined set of licenses • Extension mechanism CC+ but unstructured – Non-commercial purposes …but semantic metadata Slide 18 of 58
  19. 19. Introduction • DRM Watch: “2005 Year in Review: DRM Standards”1 – “…consumer complaints have moved beyond overly restrictive DRMs to lack of interoperability among them…” – “…we see no production implementations …” • Electronic Frontier Foundation2 – “…fail to accommodate… copyright regimes.” • Some years after… 1 http://www.drmwatch.com 2 http://www.eff.org Slide 19 of 58
  20. 20. Introduction • DRM Officially Dead: Last Major Label Sony BMG Plans to Finally Drop DRM Gizmodo.com, January 2008 http://gizmodo.com/340598/drm-officially-dead-last-major-label-sony-bmg-plans-to-finally-dropdrm • DRM Was a Bad Move: Sales Found to Increase 10% After Dropping the Chains (Study) Billboard.com, December 2013 http://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/digital-and-mobile/5812288/drm-was-a-bad-move-sales-found-toincrease-10-after • And industry moving to copyright management initiatives: Slide 20 of –PLUS Coalition, Linked Content Coalition, CopyrightHub,…58
  21. 21. Introduction • Post-DRM standardisation difficulties – – – – Web open and heterogeneous Business models beyond copy and distribute Copyright a complex domain High level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) • Concentrate on the roots, formalise SEMANTICS Copyright MPEG-21 “Adapt” Reproduction Right ODRL “Duplicate” Copy CC “Reproduction” Slide 21 of 58
  22. 22. From Controlled Vocabularies… to Ontologies Features Controlled Vocabularies Control Ambiguity X Control Synonym Hierarchical Relations Synonyms Thesaurus Ontologies X X X X X X X X X X X Taxonomies X Associative Relations Custom Relations X INCREASE EXPRESSIVENESS INCREASE EXPRESSIVENESS Slide 22 of 58
  23. 23. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Slide 23 of 58 23
  24. 24. Approach • Semantic Web approach to DRM: – Knowledge Representation tools – Web Wide applicability – Build Copyright Ontology • Potential benefits: – – – – Formalise semantics Facilitate interoperability and implementation Include copyright Support full value chain and remix-based business models Slide 24 of 58
  25. 25. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions distribute Abstractions derive Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Work manifest improvise Objects Processes retransmit Manifestation perform copy Fixation copy Performance record communicate Communication Instance Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Slide 25 of 58 25
  26. 26. Conceptualisation • • Copyright domain analysis Generic Ontology – Based on WIPO1 worldwide harmonisation • • Literary, artistic and scientific works (not ideas) Maybe derived, but always original Intellectual Property Rights Author Rights or WIPO Copyright Economic Rights or Exploitation Rights or Copyright 1 Industrial Property Moral Rights World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty, 1996 Slide 26 of 58
  27. 27. Conceptualisation Slide 27 of 58
  28. 28. Conceptualisation • How rights apply to to the “Peer-to-Peer asset sharing scenario” Sc rio na e Reproduction Right Peer B asset Peer A asset asset asset asset Make Available Right Slide 28 of 58
  29. 29. Conceptualisation • Complex domain, build model in three steps: Creation Model Rights Model Action Model Slide 29 of 58
  30. 30. Conceptualisation Creation Model Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Slide 30 of 58
  31. 31. Conceptualisation Creation Model • Work hasDerivation┙ – “Mozart's The Magic Flute”. ISWC • Manifestation hasManifestation┙ – “The printed scores”. ISBN • Performance hasPerformance┙ – “A scenic play”. • Fixation hasFixation┙ – “A sound recording”. ISRC • Communication hasCommunication┙ – “An Internet stream”. • Instance hasInstance┙ – “A CD”. UPC Slide 31 of 58
  32. 32. Conceptualisation Rights Model RentalRight DistributionRight ImportationRight FixationRight ReproductionRight MotionPictureRight PublicPerformanceRight BroadcastingRight CommunicationRight MakingAvailableRight TransformationRight EconomicRights SoundRecordRight AdaptationRight AttributionRight Copyright MoralRights TranslationRight IntegrityRight DisclosureRight WithdrawalRight PermorfersRights RelatedRights ProducersRights BroadcastersRights Slide 32 of 58
  33. 33. Conceptualisation Rights Model • End-users do not hold rights – Get licenses to use (play, view…) – Special permissions: • • • • • • • Quotation Education Information Official Act Private Copy Parody Temporary Reproduction Slide 33 of 58
  34. 34. Conceptualisation Action Model • Actions, the building blocks Abstractions derive Victor Hugo’s Work manifest distribute Les Misérables improvise Objects Processes retransmit Manifestation perform copy Fixation copy Performance record communicate Communication Instance Slide 34 of 58
  35. 35. Conceptualisation Action Model • Actions governed by Economic Rights: – Reproduction Right : copy – Distribution Right : distribute; sell, rent, lend – Public Performance Right : perform – Fixation Right: record – Communication Right : communicate; retransmit, broadcast, make available – Transformation Right : derive; adapt, translate Slide 35 of 58
  36. 36. Conceptualisation Action Model • End-user actions, to use a… – – – – manifestation: buy instance: buy performance: attend communication: access • broadcast: tune • something made available: access picture, sculpture book, CD, DVD projection, recital, exhibition TV channel, radio station web page, stream Slide 36 of 58
  37. 37. Conceptualisation Action Model • Altogether: model copyright value chains – E.g. “serials adapted from literary works” Slide 37 of 58
  38. 38. Conceptualisation Action Model • Case roles (linguistics): relate actions to involved entities Facet Main role Other roles Who? agent participant (indirect co-agent), recipient When? pointInTime start, completion, duration Where? location origin, destination, path What? object patient (changed), theme (unchanged) With? instrument medium Why? aim reason How? manner If? condition Then? consequence Slide 38 of 58
  39. 39. Conceptualisation Action Model • License building primitives: – Action Patterns: to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibited • Built from actions and case roles Sc rio a en destination All copy events performed by agent “granted” who copies “content01” from “PeerA” to two peers from the set “PeerB, PeerC, PeerD” at any time point six months after “200706-01” Slide 39 of 58
  40. 40. Conceptualisation Action Model • License building primitives: – Agree: model permissions • theme points to the permitted event pattern Sc rio a en destination Slide 40 of 58
  41. 41. Conceptualisation Action Model • License building primitives: – consequence: model obligations • Points to the obliged event pattern Sc rio a en destination Slide 41 of 58
  42. 42. Conceptualisation Action Model • License building primitives: – condition: model a priori conditions • Points to the condition event pattern – Disagree: model prohibitions • theme points to the prohibited event pattern – Other concepts: • • • • Additional actions: Transfer, Attribute,… Time, Location Logical operators (UNION, INTERSECTION, NOT) … Slide 42 of 58
  43. 43. Conceptualisation Exercise • Model this license using the previous primitives: Slide 43 of 58
  44. 44. Facet Main role Other roles Who? agent participant (indirect co-agent), recipient When? pointInTime start, completion, duration Where? location origin, destination, path What? object With? instrument patient (changed), theme (unchanged), result (new) medium Why? aim reason How? manner If? condition Then? consequence http://mediamixer.eu http://rhizomik.net/mediamixer http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyrightonto Other Actions: Agree, Disagree, Transfer, Attribute,… Abstractions derive Work hasDerivation (isDerivationOf) ┙ “Mozart's The Magic Flute”. ISWC ManifestationhasManifestation (isM…Of) ┙ “The printed scores”. ISBN PerformancehasPerformance (isPer…Of) ┙ “A scenic play”. Fixation hasFixation (isFixationOf) ┙ “A sound recording”. ISRC CommunicationhasCommunication (is…) ┙ Victor Hugo’s Work manifest distribute Les Misérables improvise Objects Processes retransmit Manifestation perform copy Fixation copy Performance record communicate Communication Instance “An Internet stream”. Instance “A CD”. UPC hasInstance (isInstanceOf) ┙ Slide 44 of 58
  45. 45. Conceptualisation Exercise - Solution Slide 45 of 58
  46. 46. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Slide 46 of 58 46
  47. 47. Implementation • One conceptual model, many implementations • Semantic Web implementation with Copyright Web Ontology Language (OWL) • Rights and License Patterns implemented as Classes Reproduction Right – Copyright, Reproduction Right, Copy, CopyPattern,... • Uses implemented as Instances – U • if u is a Copy Pattern then license pattern authorises/prohibits u Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Copy Copy Pattern ? u Slide 47 of 58 47
  48. 48. Implementation • License Pattern (Class) built from constraints on kind of actions, agents, time points, locations, etc. • OWL Building Blocks – Classes for actions (e.g. Copy) – Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) – OWL Restrictions , constraints on case roles (e.g. agent all values from PublisherSubscribers) Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Slide 48 of 58
  49. 49. Implementation • Copy pattern restricted to: – digital object (theme ) – group of users (agent ) • or Sc rio a en – non-commercial (aim ) • depending on – time range (pointInTime ) Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Slide 49 of 58
  50. 50. Implementation • Patterns allowed by Agrees and prohibited by Disagrees: – If not agreed  not allowed – If agreed and not disagreed  allowed – If disagreed  not allowed Agree Copy Agree Disagree all copy actions Pattern 2 Pattern 1 Pattern 2’ u Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic Allowed Slide 50 of 58
  51. 51. Contents • • • • • • Motivation Introduction Approach Conceptualisation Implementation Conclusions A e gr Enabling interoperable and rightsaware DRM using the Semantic e e re ag s Di Slide 51 of 58 51
  52. 52. Generic Semantic Framework RentalRight DistributionRight ImportationRight FixationRight ReproductionRight MotionPictureRight PublicPerformanceRight BroadcastingRight CommunicationRight MakingAvailableRight TransformationRight EconomicRights SoundRecordRight AdaptationRight AttributionRight Copyright MoralRights TranslationRight IntegrityRight DisclosureRight Abstractions transform PermorfersRights Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables Work manifest distribute WithdrawalRight ProducersRights BroadcastersRights Literary Work improvise Objects Processes Manifestation perform copy RelatedRights Performance retransmit transform Adaptation Creator manifest Script Fixation copy Instance fix communicate perform Communication Actor Performance record Producer Motion Picture broadcast Broadcaster Communication tune User Slide 52 of 58
  53. 53. Aligned with other Schemas schema.org Action subclass of Use Place TVEpisode MakeAvailable location range subclass of Copyright Ontology CreationObject subclass of subclass of is a OnDemandStream SA ISO 3166 Country Codes VideoScreenCapture DDEX Ontology Slide 53 of 58
  54. 54. Applied to Facilitate Implementation using Reasoning • Ontology provides building blocks to model and reason about contracts, policies, rights expression languages… No, because it is matched to pattern Can we stream asset X A e gr e ag is D e re which prohibits it: “Artists does not want her music with violent images” Slide 54 of 58
  55. 55. MediaMixer Demo http://rhizomik.net/mediamixer/ Slide 55 of 58
  56. 56. MediaMixer Demo http://rhizomik.net/mediamixer/rightsbuilderui/ Slide 56 of 58
  57. 57. MediaMixer Demo Policy 1: The licensor disagrees the licensee adaptsmedia fragments containing… <xml> <right> <play/> </right> <content id=“frg1”/> </xml> Rights Language Rights Language Mapping Mapping Semantic Semantic Media Media Annotation Annotation Rights Builder Rights Builder User Interface User Interface MediaMixer MediaMixer Semantic Techs Semantic Techs RDF Store & RDF Store & Reasoner Reasoner media fragments, semantic data, annotation, ontologies, reasoning,… Slide 57 of 58
  58. 58. Thank you for your attention More details: http://community.mediamixer.eu http://rhizomik.net/mediamixer http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyright onto Contact: Roberto García (@rogargon) http://rhizomik.net/~roberto 1st Winter School on Multimedia Processing and Applications (WMPA‘14) January 6th, 2014, Dublin, Ireland

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